Electronic Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458
  © 2006 by Universidad Católica de Valparaíso -- Chile
Vol. 9 No. 4, Issue of July 15, 2006
 

Table 2. Overview of lactic acid bacteria with controlled or uncontrolled genetic alterations.

Host strain

Donor strain

Gene involved

Intended effect

Modification technique

Reference

Lb. bulgaricus

Not applicable

lacZ

limited lactose fermentation

IS mediated deletion

Mollet and Delley, 1990

L. lactis

Not applicable

ldh and others

increased carbon dioxide production

spontaneous and induced random mutagenesis

El Attar et al. 2000

L. lactis

Not applicable

ldh and others

increased acetoin and diacetyl production

NNG induced random mutagenesis

Boumerdassi et al. 1997

L. lactis

Not applicable

aldB

increased diacetyl production

NNG induced random mutagenesis,

Monnet et al. 2000

L. lactis

Not applicable

aldB

increased diacetyl production

Spontaneous random mutagenesis

Goupil et al. 1996

L. lactis

Not applicable

ribC

increased riboflavin production

induced random mutagenesis

Burgess et al. 2003

S. thermophilus

Not applicable

gal operon

fermentation of galactose

spontaneous random mutagenesis

Vaughan et al. 2001

L. lactis

Not applicable

glk, eIIman/glc

no glucose fermenting capacity

spontaneous random mutagenesis

Thompson et al. 1985.

L. lactis

L. lactis

aldB

increased diacetyl production

double crossover homologous recombination

Swindell et al. 1996

L. lactis

Lb. helveticus

pepN, pepX, pepC,  pepI

modulation of proteolytic system for enhancement cheese ripening

food grade vector cloning

Joutsjoki et al. 2002

L. lactis

L. delbrueckii

pepI, pepL, pepW, pepG

modulation of proteolytic system for enhancement cheese ripening

NICE System

Wegmann et al. 1999

L. lactis

Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus

Gdh

increased production of alpha-ketoglutarate

Vector cloning

Rijnen et al. 2000

L. lactis

lytic phage phi31

phage inducible promoter

expression of lethal three-gene restriction cassette LlaIR+,

Vector cloning

Djordjevic et al.1997

L. lactis

lytic phage phi31

anti sense phage RNA

silencing of phage genes

Vector cloning

Walker and Klaenhammer, 1998

L. lactis

lytic phage

anti sense phage RNA

silencing of phage genes encoding structural genes

Vector cloning

Kim et al. 1992

L. lactis

Not applicable

pip

inactivation of phage infection protein

double crossover homologous recombination

Monteville et al. 1994

L. lactis strains

L. lactis strains

lacticin encoding genes

lacticin production

Conjugation

O'Sullivan et al. 2003

L. lactis strains

L. lactis strains

lacticin encoding gene

lacticin production

conjugation (plasmid stacking)

Mills et al. 2002

L. lactis

S. thermophilus

abiA, abiG

abortion of cells upon phage induction

Vector cloning

Tangney and Fitzgerald, 2002

L. lactis and others

Pediococcus acidilactici and others

lcnC, lcnD

lantibiotic production

Vector cloning

Horn et al. 1999

L. lactis

phage

lytA, lytH

production of lysin and holin

NICE

de Ruyter et al. 1997

L. lactis

S. thermophilus Sfi6

EPS gene cluster

altered EPS production

Vector cloning

Stingele et al. 1999

L. lactis

S. thermophilus Sfi39

EPS gene cluster

altered EPS production

Vector cloning

Germond et al. 2001

Lb. gasseri

L. lactis

folate gene cluster

introduction folate biosynthesis pathway

Vector cloning

Wegkamp et al. 2004

S. thermophilus

Not applicable

pgmA, gal U

inactivation of phosphoglucomutase

double crossover homologous recombination and vector cloning

Levander et al. 2002

L. lactis

B. sphaericus

ldh, alaD, alr

rerouting of pyruvate to L-alanine

double crossover homologous recombination, vector cloning

Hols et al. 1999

L. lactis

L. lactis

riboflavin gene cluster

overexpression riboflavin biosynthesis pathway

Vector cloning

Burgess et al. 2003

L. lactis

L. lactis

folate gene cluster

overexpression folate biosynthesis pathway

Vector cloning

Sybesma et al. 2003b

L. lactis

L. lactis

glk, pfnABCD, pfcBA, genes lactose-PTS and tagatose-6P

inactivation of glucose fermenting system and introduction of lactose fermentation

double crossover homologous recombination, vector cloning

Pool et al. 2003

L. lactis

L. lactis

galA, aga

introduction a-galactosidase activity

food grade vector cloning

Boucher et al. 2002

Lb. plantarum

B. subtilis

phyC

introduction phytase activity

Vector cloning

Kerovuo and Tynkkynen, 2000

Lb. plantarum

L. amylovorus

amyA

introduction a-amylase activity

chromosomal integration

Fitzsimons et al. 1994

Lb. plantarum

B. stearothermophilus, C. thermocellum

α-amylase gene, celA

introduction a-amylase and cellulase activity

single homologous recombination

Scheirlinck et al. 1989

S. thermophilus

S. thermophilus

glyA

increased acetaldehyde production

Vector cloning

Chaves et al. 2002

Lb. fermentum

Not applicable

ldhD, ldhL

increased mannitol production

double crossover homologous recombination

Aarnikunnas et al. 2003

Lb. helveticus

Not applicable

ldhD

production of pure L-(+) lactic acid

double crossover homologous recombination

Kyla-Nikkila et al. 2000

Lb. delbrueckii

Not applicable

EPS genes

altered EPS production

Chemically induced random mutagenesis

Welman et al. 2003

S. thermophilus

S. thermophilus bacteriophage

anti sense phage RNA, helicase gene

silencing of phage genes

Vector cloning

Sturino and Klaenhammer, 2002

Streptococcus mutans

Zymomonas mobilis

ldh, adh

prevention of dental caries

double crossover homologous recombination, gene replacement

Hillman, 2002

Lb. delbrueckii

Not applicable

β-galactosidase gene

Increased b-galactosidase activity

EMS or NNG induced random mutagenesis

Ibrahim and O'Sullivan, 2000

L. lactis

Eimeria tenella, L. plantarum

M1Pase gene, MtlD

increased mannitol production

NICE

Wisselink et al. 2005

L. casei ATCC 334

L. casei LC202

dhic

increased alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase activity

Vector cloning

Broadbent et al. 2004

L. plantarum

Lactobacillus sake

promotors and regulatory genes

increased gene expression

Vector cloning

Mathiesen et al. 2004

L. lactis

L. lactis

Prt+- and Lac+-derivatives of L. lactis MG1363

increased proteolytic and acidifying activity

conjugation

Picon et al. 2005

L. lactis

S. simulans

Lss

production of lysostaphin

NICE

Mierau et al. 2005

L. lactis

P. stipitis

XYL1

production of xylitol

Vector cloning

Nyyssölä et al. 2005

L. lactis

Not applicable

unknown

increased oxidative-stress tolerance

spontaneous mutations (natural selection)

Rochat et al. 2005

L. lactis

L. lactis

nisRK, nisFEG

increased nisn Z production

Vector cloning

Cheigh et al. 2005

L. lactis

Z. mobilis, L. lactis

pdc, nox

increased acetaldehyde production

NICE

Bongers et al. 2005

L. lactis

G. stearothermophilus, L. Brevis, L. lactis

sgsE, slpA, usp

production of excreted S-layer protein

NICE

Novotny et al.2005

L. lactis

E. coli

gshA, gshB

increased glutathion production

NICE

Li et al.2005

L. lactis, L. paracasei

L. paracasei

groEL

increased stress tolerance

NICE

Desmond et al. 2004

L. lactis

Not applicable

unknown

increased L(+)-actate production

random mutagenesis

Bai et al. 2004

S. thermophilus

Not applicable

deoB, gst, rggC, and unknown

increased oxidative-stress tolerance

random insertional mutagenesis

Fernandez et al. 2004

EMS: ethyl methanesulfonate; NNG: N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

 

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