Table 2

Qualitative and quantitative morphological characters used to distinguish the subspecies of C. fragile

Caracteres morfológicos cualitativos y cuantitativos utilizados para distinguir las subspecies de C. fragile


C. fragile
tasmanicum
(J. Agardh)
Silva

C. fragile
Northern Chile

C. fragile
tomentosoides
(Van Goor)
Silva

C. fragile
scandinavicum Silva

C. fragile
atlanticum
(Cotton) Silva

C. fragile
capense Silva

C. fragile
novae-zelandiae
(J. Agardh) Silva

C. fragile
fragile Silva


Thallus length (cm)

10 - 30

Up to 40

90

Up to 30

Up to 50

10 - 30

10 - 30

Up to 40

Diameter at base of
Branches (cm)

0.7 - 0.8

0.2 - 0.8

No information

0.2 - 0.4

10

0.5 - 0.8

0.7 - 0.8

0.3 - 0.8 (1)

Diameter at tip of
Branches (cm)

0.3

0.2 - 0.3

No information

No information

0.24 - 0.4

0.3

0.3

No information

Branching pattern

Dichotomous

Dichotomous up to 6 orders

Dichotomous

Closely dichotomous up 7 orders; often with proliferous lateral branching superimposed

Dichotomous up 9 orders, dichotomies at times telescoped to give fastigiate appearence

Dichotomous

Dichotomous

Dichotomo- fastigiate

Holdfast

Broad, spongy

Broad, spongy

No information

No information

No information

Broad, spongy

Broad, spongy

Broad, spongy

                 

Utricle

Shape

Slender, cylindrical, clavate

Cylindrical-clavate, frequently with broad constriction at or just below middle

Irregularly cylindrical or more often clavate, frequently with broad constriction at or just below middle

Irregularly cylindrical, or clavate, pyriform or quadrate

Irregularly cylindrical or clavate

clavate

Slender, cylindrical, clavate

Narrowly to broadly clavate

Length (m)

700 - 1750

500 - 1200

550 - 1050

480 - 1200

780 - 1200

730 - 1100

710 - 1750

600 - 1500

Diameter (m)

70 - 390

180 - 450

105 - 400

190 - 670

139 - 330

80 - 355

70 - 390

150 - 630

Long as broad

3 - 10

2 - 3

2.5 - 5.5

1.5 - 3

3 - 5

3 - 6

3 - 10

1 - 10

Tip

Pointed into sharp mucron

Rounded apiculate, terminating in a sharp mucron

Rounded apiculate

Rounded or truncate, often with broad blunt point

Slightly rounded, often terminating in blunt point or umbo

Mucron chambered, lamellate, sometimes with concentric striations

Rounded and bluntly mucronate apice

Acuminate terminating in a mucron

Apical wall (m)

2

10 - 20

12

Thickened

12

1.5 - 2

2

2 - 3

Prolonging point (m)

77

70 - 190

68

20

10 - 14

60

No information

120

Hairs Stout, gradually expanding upward, abundant densely tomentose with long hyaline hairs Rare observed in one specimen only Common 1 - 5 Common, one or three per utricle Common, one or two per utricle Stout, gradually expanding upward, 1-3 per utricle No information Abundant, densely tomentose with long hyaline hairs

Insertion of hairs
(distance below
apex of utricle,
m)

185 - 450 170 160 - 260 130 - 195 130 - 200 160 - 235 No information No information
Medullary filaments diameter (m) 26 - 46 85 - 250 26 - 68 34 - 68 28 - 64 26 - 46 26 - 46 26 - 112
Gametangia                
Shape Lanceolate-ovoid, narrowly ellipsoidal or cylindrical Ovoid, or fusiform Ovoid, oblong or fusiform Ampulliform, ovoid or oblong Ovoid, oblong or fusiform Lanceolate-ovoid, ellipsoidal or cylindrical Lanceolate-ovoid, narrowly ellipsoidal or cylindrical Ovate, fusiform or clavate
Number per utricle One to four One One or two One to three One or two One to three One to four One to three
Insertion (distance below apex of utricle, m) 460 - 850 300 - 700 In the middle of utricle In the middle of utricle In the middle of utricle 430 - 630 460 - 850 350 - 650
Length (m) 260 - 450 200 - 425 260 - 330 185 - 395 260 - 400 275 - 460 260 - 450 220 - 450
Diameter (m) 90 - 130 120 - 240 72 - 92 78 - 140 80 - 130 70 - 130 90 - 130 75 - 170
References 4

This study

2 2 2 3 4 1

Silva (1951), (2) Silva (1957), (3) Silva (1959), (4) Silva & Womersley (1956)