Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720190007&lang=es vol. 147 num. 7 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[Cuantificación de esteatosis hepática no alcohólica por resonancia magnética]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700821&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: A simple and inexpensive method is required to assess fatty infiltration of the liver non-invasively. Aim: To develop and compare different methods to quantify liver fat by magnetic resonance and compare it against ultrasound. Material and Methods: Three algorithms were implemented: region growing (RG), graph cuts (GC) and hierarchical (HR), all based on the IDEAL method to obtain water and fat images. Using these images, the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) was calculated. The three methods were tested in phantoms with known fat percentages and later on we acquired images from 20 volunteers with an ultrasound diagnosis of fatty liver disease in different stages. For everyone, the PDFF of the nine liver segments was determined. Results: In phantoms, the mean error between the real fat percentage and the value obtained through the three methods was −1,26, −1 and −0,8 for RG, GC and HR, respectively. The hierarchical method was more precise and efficient to obtain PDFF. The results in volunteers revealed that ultrasound showed errors categorizing the severity of hepatic steatosis in more than 50% of volunteers. Conclusions: We developed a tool for magnetic resonance, which allows to quantify fat in the liver. This method is less operator dependent than ultrasound and describes the heterogeneity in the fat distribution along the nine hepatic segments. <![CDATA[Cáncer sincrónico detectado con PET/ CT-Tomografía Computada contrastada (PET/CTc) en 210 pacientes con cáncer colorrectal recientemente diagnosticado]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700828&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer in the world and is the second cause of cancer death. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using 18F-FDG is used for its staging and follow up. Aim: To assess the occurrence of synchronous colonic and extracolonic tumors detected with contrast-enhanced F18-FDG PET/CT (PET/CTc) in patients with a recently diagnosed CRC. Material and Methods: PET/CTc of 210patients aged 16-91, years (63% men) with a recently diagnosed CRC were reviewed. PET/CTc with incidental findings, not expected to be due to CRC, were followed (laboratory, imaging and pathology) searching for synchronous tumors. Results: Ten patients (4,7%) had a second synchronous CRC. Only 70% of synchronous CRC were accessible to colonoscopy, due mainly to incomplete procedures for stenotic tumors. Extracolonic synchronous neoplasms were detected in 12 patients (5,7%), namely lung cancer in three, renal cell carcinoma in two, non-Hodgkin lymphoma in two, pancreatic cancer in one, breast cancer in one, hepatocellular carcinoma in one, bladder cancer in one and thyroid cancer in one. Conclusions: Ten percent of patients with a recently diagnosed CRC had a synchronic neoplasm detected at staging using PET/CTc. <![CDATA[Anemia hemolítica autoinmune en Chile: un análisis retrospectivo de 43 pacientes]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700836&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an uncommon disease. In its presentation, it can be severe and even lethal. There is only one clinical report concerning this pathology in Chile. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and evolution of adult AIHA inpatients. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of clinical records of adult AIHA inpatients between January 2010 and June 2018 was done. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic information was analyzed. A descriptive, analytical and survival analysis was performed. Results: Forty-three adult patients diagnosed with AHIA were hospitalized in a period of 8 years. Median age was 63 years (range 22-86 years), mostly women (72%). Warm antibodies were detected in 36 cases (84%) and cold antibodies in seven. Seventy two percent of the patients had an underlying cause, and 58% were secondary to lymphoproliferative neoplasms. All patients except two, received steroids as initial treatment, with response in 37 (90%) of them. Three refractory patients received rituximab, with response in all of them, and relapse in one. Median follow-up was 38 months (range 2-98 months). Five year overall survival was 72%. Conclusion: AHIA in adults inpatients is a heterogeneous disease, mainly due to warm antibodies, and to secondary etiology. <![CDATA[Características del huésped predicen el desenlace en adultos hospitalizados por infección respiratoria aguda grave]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700842&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Except for influenza pandemics, different observational studies have failed to demonstrate differences in mortality between various etiologies in adult patients hospitalized for respiratory infections. Aim: To compare clinical and mortality differences between different viral pathogens associated with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in hospitalized adults. Material and Methods: One-year prospective study in a sentinel center. We included 132 patients with SARI hospitalized for any of the nine viruses under study by PCR. Clinical variables were compared, excluding cases of coinfection. Results: A viral coinfection was identified in 12% and influenza infection in 56% of cases. Eighty percent of patients were aged ≥ 65 years, with a high frequency of comorbidities, 27% were bedridden. Twenty four percent were admitted to critical care units, 20% required ventilatory assistance and 16% died. Cases occurred throughout the year, with an expected seasonal peak between autumn and spring and a predominance of infections not associated with influenza during summer months. In the multivariate analysis, only being bedridden was significantly associated with mortality at discharge (Odds ratio 23.46; 95% confidence intervals 3.33-165.12, p &lt; 0.01), without association with age, comorbidity, viral pathogen involved, laboratory parameters, clinical presentation or CURB65 score. No major clinical dissimilarities were found between different viral pathogens. Conclusions: In our series of patients, mostly elderly, only bedridden status was significantly associated with mortality at discharge in patients hospitalized for SARI. Viral pathogens were not relevant.<hr/>Los factores del huésped son más importantes que el tipo viral para predecir el desenlace en pacientes hospitalizados por infecciones respiratoria aguda grave. Exceptuando las pandemias de influenza, diferentes estudios observacionales no han logrado demostrar diferencias en mortalidad entre diferentes patógenos en pacientes adultos hospitalizados por infecciones respiratorias. Objetivo: Comparar diferencias clínicas y en mortalidad entre diferentes patógenos virales asociados a infección respiratoria aguda grave (IRAG) en adultos hospitalizados. Método: Estudio prospectivo durante un año en un centro centinela. Se incluyeron casos de IRAG hospitalizados por alguno de los 9 virus bajo estudio por RCP. Se compararon variables clínicas y desenlace. Resultados: Ingresaron 132 pacientes con IRAG. Se identificó coinfección viral en 12,1% e infección por influenza en 56,1%. La mayor parte era de la tercera edad (80,3%) con una alta frecuencia de comorbilidad y 27,3% estaba postrado. Veintitres coma cinco por ciento ingresó a unidad de cuidados críticos, 19,7% requirió asistencia ventilatoria y 15,9% fallecieron. Los casos ocurrieron todo el año, con un aumento estacional esperado entre otoño y primavera y predominio de infecciones no asociadas a influenza en verano. En el análisis multivariado, sólo la postración se asoció significativamente a mortalidad al egreso (ORa 23,46 IC95 3,33-165,12, p = 0,002), sin asociación con la edad, comorbilidad, patógeno viral involucrado, parámetros de laboratorio, presentación clínica o puntuación CURB65. No se encontraron discordancias clínicas mayores entre diferentes agentes virales. Conclusiones: En nuestra serie de pacientes, mayoritariamente de la tercera edad, sólo la postración se asoció significativamente a mortalidad al egreso en pacientes hospitalizados por IRAG. El patógeno viral no resultó ser relevante. <![CDATA[Caracterización de tumores secretores de hormona de crecimiento de acuerdo al patrón granular y su rol en el pronóstico]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700852&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Classification of growth hormone (GH) - secreting tumors by the granular pattern might predict their clinical behavior in acromegalic patients. There are several other prognostic factors. Aim: To compare the features at presentation and cure rates of patients with GH secreting tumors according to the granular pattern, and to define independent prognostic factors for surgical treatment in these patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective, observational study of 85 active acromegalic patients surgically treated in two medical centers. Results: Seventy-four patients (87%) were classified as having densely granulated (DG) and 11 (13%) as sparsely granulated (SG) tumors. The latter were less active biochemically, had a higher rate of macroadenoma and cavernous sinus invasion and had a lower rate of biochemical cure than the DG group. Several characteristics were associated with disease persistence but only age (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.93) and cavernous sinus invasion (OR = 21.7) were independently associated in the logistic regression model. Conclusions: The sparsely granulated pattern is associated with a more aggressive behavior, but the main determinants of prognosis are age and cavernous sinus invasion. <![CDATA[Mortalidad por cáncer de vesícula y egresos hospitalarios por patología biliar en Chile 2002-2014, en relación a la garantía GES colecistectomía preventiva]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700860&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Gallbladder cancer is a relevant public health problem in Chile. Aim: To analyze the mortality trend due to gallbladder cancer and hospital discharges due to biliary disease between 2002 and 2014. To analyze the effect on these parameters of the new health system called explicit guaranties in health whose acronym in Spanish is GES. Material and Methods: Mortality and hospital discharge databases available at the website of the Ministry of Health were analyzed. Changes in crude and adjusted rates were evaluated, analyzing data by geographical regions, sex and age. The standardization was carried out using the direct method and using as reference the Chilean population in 2002. The trends were evaluated through the Poisson regression method. Results: There is a 4.5% trend towards a decreasing mortality at a national level, as compared with the figures before GES came into force. Mortality among people aged 35 to 49 decreased by 4% before GES, and by 8% after GES. The trend of hospital discharges varied from −1% before GES, to a 2% increase after GES. Discharges among people aged 35-49 years increased from 0.1% to 2.9%. Conclusions: The discharge rate increase after GES, does not yet show a break in the reduction of mortality at the national level, although it does benefit the group of 35 to 49 years. <![CDATA[Fragilidad y su correlación con calidad de vida y utilización de los servicios de salud en personas mayores que viven en la comunidad]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700870&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Frailty has a great impact in the wellbeing of older people. Aim: To evaluate the quality of life of older people with and without frailty. Material and Methods: We assessed sociodemographic variables, health, integral geriatric assessment, quality of life using the WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire and the level of fragility using the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) in 538 participants. Results: Three hundred and five participants aged 73 ± 7 years (229 women) were classified as fragile and 233 aged 72 ± 6 years (125 women) as not having frailty. Compared with their non-fragile counterparts, frail participants had a lower number of years attending school (5.9 and 7.4 respectively), a lower Barther index (93.6 and 98.3 respectively), a lower mini mental score (21.9 and 22.8 respectively) and a higher Yessavage depression score (2.0 and 0.8 respectively). Also, frail participants had a significantly lower total quality of life score and significantly lower scores in the physical and psychological domains. No differences were observed for the social and environmental domains. Older frail participants used health services more frequently than their non-fragile counterparts. Conclusions: In this sample, frailty was associated with a lower quality of life and worse scores in several geriatric assessment tools. <![CDATA[Factores asociados a caídas en adultos mayores chilenos: evidencia de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700877&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: A decrease in functional capacity due to ageing is one of the main risk factors for falls in older people. Aim: To investigate factors associated with falls in Chilean older adults. Material and Methods: We analyzed the self-reports of falls of 1,334 people aged ≥ 60 years who answered the National Health Survey 2009-2010. Falls during the last 12 months were recorded. Lifestyle, socio-demographic and health status were analyzed. A Poisson regression with robust variance estimates was performed to identify factors associated with falls. Results: Falls during the preceding year were reported by 37% of respondents (95% confidence intervals (CI): 32-42]. Fall frequency was higher in women (Prevalence ratio (PR):1.30 [95% CI:1.11; 1.53], p &lt; 0.01) and those aged ≥ 75 years (PR:1.29 [95% CI:1.04; 1.61], p = 0.02). Hearing impairment (PR: 1.31 [95% CI: 1.07; 1.61], p &lt; 0.01), impaired vision (PR:1.46 [95% CI:1.20; 1.77], p &lt; 0.01), low self-reported wellbeing (PR: 1.41 [95% CI: 1.03; 1.94], p = 0.03) and disability (PR: 1.54 [95% CI:1.32; 1.79], p &lt; 0.01) were associated with falls. However, multimorbidity (having ≥ 3 diseases) was negatively associated with falls (PR: 0.79 [95% CI: 0.63; 0.99], p = 0.04). Conclusions: Among older people, female sex, being aged &gt; 75 years and having disability, hearing or vision impairment are risk factors for falls. <![CDATA[Mortalidad a 30 días posterior a la administración de quimioterapia sistémica en una unidad oncológica regional]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700887&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The use of systemic chemotherapy has survival and palliation benefits in oncological patients. Mortality at 30 days after the administration of systemic chemotherapy is considered as a quality and safety indicator of oncological patient care. The international mortality threshold is 5%, which is the figure used to compare institutions. Aim: To assess mortality at 30 days after the administration of ambulatory systemic chemotherapy in a regional referral center in adult cancer patients. Material and Methods: Retrospective observational study of patients receiving ambulatory systemic chemotherapy in the oncology service of a regional public hospital during 2018. The 30-day mortality rate was calculated. Demographic characteristics, baseline disease and the treatment received were recorded. Results: During the study period, 690 patients received ambulatory systemic chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was palliative in 76% of patients and 53% received a first line treatment. Seventeen (2.5%) died within 30 days of treatment administration. Nine deaths (52.9%) were definitely related to treatment and sepsis was the most frequent cause. Conclusions: Our mortality rates are similar to international data. This type of audit reviews local outcomes and identifies factors contributing to mortality aiming to improve standards of care. <![CDATA[Etiología del infarto renal. Revisión sistemática de 1.582 casos de la literatura]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700891&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Renal infarction is a rare and usually underdiagnosed entity. Aim: To study the etiology of renal infarction in published series. Material and Methods: A systematic review was carried out selecting 28 series that included 1582 patients. Results: The proposed cause was cardiac or aortic embolism in 718 cases (45%), an arterial injury in 253 (16%), prothrombotic factors in 146 (9%) and other causes in 79 (5%). 291 cases were classified as idiopathic (18.4%). Atrial fibrillation was present in 542 of the 718 patients with cardiac or aortic embolism. Conclusions: The main cause of renal infarction is cardiac or aortic embolism and among this group, most cases are due to atrial fibrillation. One out of five cases is labeled as idiopathic. <![CDATA[Una red de biobancos para Chile: investigar hoy, para curar mañana]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700901&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The concept “Biobank” is relatively new in the scientific literature, and is not yet consensually defined, even for the World Health Organization (WHO). However, the use of human samples in biomedical research is a very old activity. The organized development of Biobanks in different places has grown in the last decade. The experience in different countries and continents has been diverse. In this special article we intend to summarize, organize and communicate to the national medical and scientific community, (i) the concept of Biobank, (ii) the international experience and a map of the Research Biobanks working in Chile, (iii) the basic biomedical and essential operational aspects to manage a Biobank for Research and (iv) the impact of a National Network of Biobanks implementation in the Chilean Health System. Ethical and regulatory aspects will not be included, given their intrinsic complexity, which should be discussed elsewhere. <![CDATA[Autoeficacia académica en estudiantes de carreras de la salud de una universidad tradicional chilena]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700914&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Self-efficacy refers to people’s expectations about personal resources available for goal achievement. Higher self-efficacy expectations are correlated with higher academic performance. Aim: To analyze the psychometric properties of the Academic Behavior Self-Efficacy Scale (ABSES) and to describe Self-efficacy expectations of students from health-related careers. Material and Methods: A non-probabilistic sample of 479 first- and second-year students from Nursing, Physiotherapy, Medicine, Nutrition and Medical Technology in a public university in Chile, answered the ABSES. Results were analyzed by Exploratory Factor Analysis and its reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha. Also a descriptive analysis and a non-parametric relational analysis were performed. Results: Two factors were identified: Attention and Participation. Attention obtained significantly higher scores than Participation (p &lt; 0.001). Compared to their second-year counterparts, first year students had higher scores in Attention (p &lt; 0.001) and Participation (p &lt; 0.01). Medicine students had higher scores in Participation than students from other careers. Conclusions: A two factor solution was identified for ABSES. Surveyed students had a predominantly passive Self-efficacy, focused in attention. Also, a reduction in self efficacy was noted among second year students. <![CDATA[Encefalitis por virus influenza B en un paciente adulto. Reporte de caso]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700922&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Neurological manifestations associated with influenza virus infection include encephalitis, encephalopathy, acute necrotizing encephalitis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, mild encephalitis with reversible splenial syndrome (MERS), and Guillaín Barré syndrome. We report a 16-year-old female who was admitted at our emergency department with seizures, confusion, nystagmus and motor clumsiness five days after an upper a respiratory tract infection. Influenza type B virus infection was confirmed by chain polymerase reaction analysis. The initial electroencephalogram demonstrated a pattern of global slowness without epileptic discharges. One week later, it showed a progression to slow-wave focal bilateral discharges at both temporal and occipital lobes. The patient had a favorable evolution and was discharged 19 days after admission with phenytoin to prevent seizures. <![CDATA[Complicaciones de la radioterapia: fenómeno de Lhermitte gatillado por calor. Caso clínico]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700928&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Lhermitte phenomenon is a neurological symptom described as a sensation of electric shock that radiates from the back towards the extremities, which appears when a patient flexes the neck. A transient myelopathy as a late complication of radiotherapy is associated with this symptom. It appears two to four months after treatment and disappears spontaneously. We report a 45 years old female with a neck malignant melanoma treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. She experienced the Lhermitte phenomenon that was triggered by heat. This phenomenon must be differentiated from the Uhthoff phenomenon. <![CDATA[Trombolisis endovenosa post reversión de acenocumarol con complejo de protrombina. Caso clínico]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700932&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report an 89-year-old male under oral anticoagulant therapy with a therapeutic international normalized ratio, presenting at the emergency room with right side hemiparesis and aphasia. Neuroimaging was compatible with an acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. Anticoagulation was reverted with the use of four factor prothrombin complex, followed by thrombolysis with alteplase, with a favorable evolution, returning to his basal functional status. <![CDATA[Hiponatremia grave secundaria a la exposición a veneno de <em>Phyllomedusa Bicolor (Rana Kambó).</em> Caso clínico]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700935&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Phyllomedusa bicolor or Kambo is a frog that lives in the Amazon rainforest. It can release through its skin a substance used in healing rituals that are common among South-American tribes, as well as in urban people of America and Europe. We report a 41-year-old female patient who, during a healing ritual consumed ayahuasca (a drink obtained from the mixture of Banisteriopsis caapi, Psychotria viridis and Mimosa hostilis) and 12 hours later received the poison of Kambo Frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) on superficial right shoulder skin burns. The ritual included a minimum of six-liter water intake over a few hours period. She evolved with clouding of sensorium, motor agitation, frequent vomiting, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. She presented lethargic to the emergency room, with a weak pupillary light reflex, generalized stiffness, moving all four limbs. Laboratory showed severe hyponatremia (120 mEq/L) and a creatine kinase level of 8,479 UI/L, that increased 107,216 IU/L within few days. An admission CT Brain scan was normal. The toxicological screening did not identify the presence of other substances. During hospitalization the patient developed severe psychomotor agitation controlled by a dexmedetomidine infusion, hyponatremia, low plasma osmolality (248 mOsm/kg), and disproportionately high urinary osmolality (448 mOsm/kg), suggestive of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH). With correction of hyponatremia, the patient gradually recovered consciousness. Rhabdomyolysis was assumed to be secondary to seizure and managed by volume and bicarbonate infusions with a positive response. <![CDATA[Hematología: Diagnóstico y terapéutica (4<sup>a</sup> Edición)]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700940&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Phyllomedusa bicolor or Kambo is a frog that lives in the Amazon rainforest. It can release through its skin a substance used in healing rituals that are common among South-American tribes, as well as in urban people of America and Europe. We report a 41-year-old female patient who, during a healing ritual consumed ayahuasca (a drink obtained from the mixture of Banisteriopsis caapi, Psychotria viridis and Mimosa hostilis) and 12 hours later received the poison of Kambo Frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) on superficial right shoulder skin burns. The ritual included a minimum of six-liter water intake over a few hours period. She evolved with clouding of sensorium, motor agitation, frequent vomiting, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. She presented lethargic to the emergency room, with a weak pupillary light reflex, generalized stiffness, moving all four limbs. Laboratory showed severe hyponatremia (120 mEq/L) and a creatine kinase level of 8,479 UI/L, that increased 107,216 IU/L within few days. An admission CT Brain scan was normal. The toxicological screening did not identify the presence of other substances. During hospitalization the patient developed severe psychomotor agitation controlled by a dexmedetomidine infusion, hyponatremia, low plasma osmolality (248 mOsm/kg), and disproportionately high urinary osmolality (448 mOsm/kg), suggestive of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH). With correction of hyponatremia, the patient gradually recovered consciousness. Rhabdomyolysis was assumed to be secondary to seizure and managed by volume and bicarbonate infusions with a positive response. <![CDATA[In memoriam Profesor Dr. Victorino Farga Cuesta 1927-2019]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700941&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Phyllomedusa bicolor or Kambo is a frog that lives in the Amazon rainforest. It can release through its skin a substance used in healing rituals that are common among South-American tribes, as well as in urban people of America and Europe. We report a 41-year-old female patient who, during a healing ritual consumed ayahuasca (a drink obtained from the mixture of Banisteriopsis caapi, Psychotria viridis and Mimosa hostilis) and 12 hours later received the poison of Kambo Frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) on superficial right shoulder skin burns. The ritual included a minimum of six-liter water intake over a few hours period. She evolved with clouding of sensorium, motor agitation, frequent vomiting, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. She presented lethargic to the emergency room, with a weak pupillary light reflex, generalized stiffness, moving all four limbs. Laboratory showed severe hyponatremia (120 mEq/L) and a creatine kinase level of 8,479 UI/L, that increased 107,216 IU/L within few days. An admission CT Brain scan was normal. The toxicological screening did not identify the presence of other substances. During hospitalization the patient developed severe psychomotor agitation controlled by a dexmedetomidine infusion, hyponatremia, low plasma osmolality (248 mOsm/kg), and disproportionately high urinary osmolality (448 mOsm/kg), suggestive of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH). With correction of hyponatremia, the patient gradually recovered consciousness. Rhabdomyolysis was assumed to be secondary to seizure and managed by volume and bicarbonate infusions with a positive response. <![CDATA[Discurso del Presidente de la Sociedad Médica de Santiago en responso por Dr. Victorino Farga C.]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700942&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Phyllomedusa bicolor or Kambo is a frog that lives in the Amazon rainforest. It can release through its skin a substance used in healing rituals that are common among South-American tribes, as well as in urban people of America and Europe. We report a 41-year-old female patient who, during a healing ritual consumed ayahuasca (a drink obtained from the mixture of Banisteriopsis caapi, Psychotria viridis and Mimosa hostilis) and 12 hours later received the poison of Kambo Frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) on superficial right shoulder skin burns. The ritual included a minimum of six-liter water intake over a few hours period. She evolved with clouding of sensorium, motor agitation, frequent vomiting, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. She presented lethargic to the emergency room, with a weak pupillary light reflex, generalized stiffness, moving all four limbs. Laboratory showed severe hyponatremia (120 mEq/L) and a creatine kinase level of 8,479 UI/L, that increased 107,216 IU/L within few days. An admission CT Brain scan was normal. The toxicological screening did not identify the presence of other substances. During hospitalization the patient developed severe psychomotor agitation controlled by a dexmedetomidine infusion, hyponatremia, low plasma osmolality (248 mOsm/kg), and disproportionately high urinary osmolality (448 mOsm/kg), suggestive of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH). With correction of hyponatremia, the patient gradually recovered consciousness. Rhabdomyolysis was assumed to be secondary to seizure and managed by volume and bicarbonate infusions with a positive response. <![CDATA[In memoriam. Dr. Victorino Farga]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700943&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Phyllomedusa bicolor or Kambo is a frog that lives in the Amazon rainforest. It can release through its skin a substance used in healing rituals that are common among South-American tribes, as well as in urban people of America and Europe. We report a 41-year-old female patient who, during a healing ritual consumed ayahuasca (a drink obtained from the mixture of Banisteriopsis caapi, Psychotria viridis and Mimosa hostilis) and 12 hours later received the poison of Kambo Frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) on superficial right shoulder skin burns. The ritual included a minimum of six-liter water intake over a few hours period. She evolved with clouding of sensorium, motor agitation, frequent vomiting, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. She presented lethargic to the emergency room, with a weak pupillary light reflex, generalized stiffness, moving all four limbs. Laboratory showed severe hyponatremia (120 mEq/L) and a creatine kinase level of 8,479 UI/L, that increased 107,216 IU/L within few days. An admission CT Brain scan was normal. The toxicological screening did not identify the presence of other substances. During hospitalization the patient developed severe psychomotor agitation controlled by a dexmedetomidine infusion, hyponatremia, low plasma osmolality (248 mOsm/kg), and disproportionately high urinary osmolality (448 mOsm/kg), suggestive of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH). With correction of hyponatremia, the patient gradually recovered consciousness. Rhabdomyolysis was assumed to be secondary to seizure and managed by volume and bicarbonate infusions with a positive response. <![CDATA[Sífilis congénita después de la terapia materna con macrólidos en paciente presuntamente alérgica a la penicilina. Hora de cambiar la normativa gubernamental chilena]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872019000700944&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Phyllomedusa bicolor or Kambo is a frog that lives in the Amazon rainforest. It can release through its skin a substance used in healing rituals that are common among South-American tribes, as well as in urban people of America and Europe. We report a 41-year-old female patient who, during a healing ritual consumed ayahuasca (a drink obtained from the mixture of Banisteriopsis caapi, Psychotria viridis and Mimosa hostilis) and 12 hours later received the poison of Kambo Frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) on superficial right shoulder skin burns. The ritual included a minimum of six-liter water intake over a few hours period. She evolved with clouding of sensorium, motor agitation, frequent vomiting, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. She presented lethargic to the emergency room, with a weak pupillary light reflex, generalized stiffness, moving all four limbs. Laboratory showed severe hyponatremia (120 mEq/L) and a creatine kinase level of 8,479 UI/L, that increased 107,216 IU/L within few days. An admission CT Brain scan was normal. The toxicological screening did not identify the presence of other substances. During hospitalization the patient developed severe psychomotor agitation controlled by a dexmedetomidine infusion, hyponatremia, low plasma osmolality (248 mOsm/kg), and disproportionately high urinary osmolality (448 mOsm/kg), suggestive of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH). With correction of hyponatremia, the patient gradually recovered consciousness. Rhabdomyolysis was assumed to be secondary to seizure and managed by volume and bicarbonate infusions with a positive response.