Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720040001&lang= vol. 132 num. 1 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<B><I>The editorial handling of manuscripts submitted to Revista Médica de Chile</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100001&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= <![CDATA[<B><I>Mechanical ventilation in patients with acute neurological disease</B></I>: <B><I>Survival and functional outcome</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100002&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: The need of mechanical ventilation among patients with acute neurological diseases is considered a poor prognostic sign. Aim: To determine the mortality and functional recovery of neurological patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Patients and methods: Prospective study of 77 patients (42 men, age 54±19 years, with 11±4 points of Glasgow coma scale (GCS), 61% with cerebrovascular disease), that were admitted to the intensive care unit with neurological disease and that required mechanical ventilation. Functional recovery was assessed at 18 months with Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) and Barthel index. Results: Thirty percent of patients died during follow up. Among surviving patients, 47% had a good recovery or moderate disability, and 74% had a Barthel index equal to or over 70. Arterial hypertension, age over 70 and mechanical ventilation longer than 6 days were associated with bad functional prognosis. Conclusions: Neurological patients requiring mechanical ventilation had a lower mortality than previously reported, and half of the survivors have an independent life. This study supports intensive care management in this group of patients (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 11-8). <![CDATA[<B><I>Relationship between gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and 24 h esophageal pH measurement in patients with normal or minimally abnormal upper endoscopies</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100003&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Heartburn and regurgitation are considered highly specific symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. A considerable number of patients with these symptoms do not have endoscopic signs of esophagitis. Aim: To study the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and 24 h esophageal pH mesurement in patients with normal or near normal endoscopic findings. Patients and methods: One hundred eighty six patients with persistent reflux symptoms and absence of severe endoscopic esophagitis were studied. Pathological studies of esophageal biopsies, manometry and 24 h esophageal pH measurements were performed in all. Results: Abnormal acid reflux was found in 131 patients (70%). No differences in the frequency of symptoms, gender or pathologic findings were observed between patients with or without abnormal acid reflux. However, a higher frequency of esophageal erosions and a lower resting pressure of the inferior sphincter of the esophagus was observed in patients with abnormal acid reflux. Conclusions: Thirty percent of patients with heartburn and regurgitation did not have abnormal acid reflux. Therefore, these symptoms are not specific for gastroesophageal reflux (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 19-25). <![CDATA[<B><I>Clinical findings and immunologic variability in 9 patients with DiGeorge syndrome</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100004&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= DiGeorge syndrome is characterized by developmental defects of the heart, parathyroid glands and thymus. Aim: To describe the clinical variability of DiGeorge syndrome and its relation with immunodeficiency. Patients and methods: A three years retrospective chart review from three hospitals of Santiago, Chile was conducted. We included patients with neonatal diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome. Clinical and immuno-logic data were collected from their initial evaluation. Results: We found 9 patients with DiGeorge syndrome. All had dysmorphic facies, hypocalcemia and congenital heart disease. Three patients had hypoparathyroidism, 4 had interrupted aortic arch type B, 4 had tetralogy of Fallot and 1 had coarctation of aorta. Six patients had other malformations and associated diseases. FISH studies, performed in 8 patients, found the 22q11.2 microdeletion in all. Most patients had low CD3, CD4 and CD8 T cell counts, that ranged for CD3 T cells, between 256/mm3 and 3,664/mm³, for CD4 T cells, between 224/mm3 and 2,649/mm3, for CD8 T cells, between 26/mm³ and 942/mm³. Three patients had CD4 T cells counts <400/mm3 and one had a phytohemagglutinin stimulation index <10. Airway malformations and primary hypoparathyroidism were present in 3 out of 4 patients that died before 18 months compared with the surviving patients (p=0.048). Conclusions: We found variable clinical manifestations as well as CD3, CD4 and CD8 T cell counts in patients with DiGeorge syndrome. Airway malformations were associated with a higher mortality (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 26-32) <![CDATA[<B><I>A comparative study of institutionalized nonagenarian and younger elderly women</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100005&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The number of nonagenarians is rapidly growing in Chile. This age group is mainly female, with higher frailty markers and in higher risk of being placed at nursing homes. Aim: To describe features of nonagenarian women and compare them with a group of women between 60-89 years, both living in nursing homes, in terms of disability and resource use at the institution. Subjects and methods: A total of 230 nonagenarian women and 460 women, aged 60-89 years, were evaluated in the nursing home Fundación Las Rosas de Ayuda Fraterna (only for poor elderly) in Santiago, Chile. The assessment instruments were the Geriatric Assessment instrument FEGAUC, functional and mental evaluation scales of Spanish Red Cross and the Resource Utilization System, RUG T18, an independent diagnostic classification system that allows the determination of resource use in terms of cost and personnel needs. Results: Nonagenarian women had significantly (p <0.05) more disability (falls, urinary incontinence, memory problems and mobility difficulties), and were classified in RUG categories of higher resource utilization and dependency than younger women. Nevertheless, nonagenarians were a very heterogeneous group, almost half of them were able of moving by themselves or required little assistance and had minimal memory problems. Conclusions: Nonagenarian women assessed in this institution are an heterogeneous group, some with minimal disability and other more frail and dependent than the younger elderly women, being classified in higher categories of resource utilization RUG T18 (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 33-9) <![CDATA[<B><I>Immune response of suckling mouse brain (CRL) rabies vaccine and tissue culture rabies vaccine (Verorab<SUP>®</SUP>) in pre-exposure prophylaxis in humans</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100006&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= A WHO experts committee recommended the substitution of antirabic vaccines produced in nervous tissue, by vaccines produced in tissue cultures. Aim: To compare the immunogenic capacity of antirabic vaccines CRL (produced in nervous tissue) and Verorab® (produced in tissue culture), used for pre-exposure prophylaxis in humans. Patients and methods: Fifty four volunteers were immunized for this study. The first group, vaccinated with CLR was treated with a scheme of 4 subcutaneous peri umbilical doses in days 0, 3, 7 and 28. The second group, vaccinated with Verorab® vaccine was treated with a scheme of 3 intramuscular doses in deltoid zone at days 0, 7 and 28. Blood samples were obtained at days 0, 7, 42 and 365 to measure neutralizing antibodies using the Inhibition of Fluorescent Focus Technique (RFFIT). Results: At day seven, a primary non protective immunologic response was observed in both groups, with titers significantly higher in the group vaccinated with Verorab®. At day 42, no differences were observed. At day 365, all subjects vaccinated with Verorab® and 50% of individuals vaccinated with CRL had protective antibody titers (p <0,05). Conclusions: The vaccine produced in cell breeds (Verorab®) produces a better an faster immunologic response compared to the CRL vaccine (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 41-6). <![CDATA[<B><I>HLA genetic markers and auto-antibody profile in a Mapuche family with a case affected of type 1 diabetes</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100007&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Type 1 diabetes (DM1) is caused by an autoimmune process that destroys beta cells of pancreas. Not all carriers of susceptible HLA genes and positive for autoantibodies develop the disease. Environmental factors play a role in triggering the autoimmune process. Aim: To analyze an exceptional case of DM1 in a Mapuche family in the context of genetic, immunological and environmental factors. Subjects and methods: A study of a family with an affected female child was carried out in a Mapuche community in Southern Chile (VIII region). This is an unique and sporadic DM1 case with Mapuche heritage. Nutritional and viral infections data were collected by interview and clinical records. A genetic analysis by PCR was done to detect class I and II HLA genes by reverse dot blot. Results: The proband, her mother and sister had positive islet cell antibodies (ICA). Her father and brother were negative. All the family was positive for anti glutamic decarboxylase antibodies (GAD65). All subjects had HLA-DRB1 0407/0407 and HLA-DQB1 0302/0302 alleles. The index case and her father were homozygotes for the HLA-A1:A*68012/A*68012 allele. Mean breast feeding lapse was 18 months in all children. No evidences for viral infections such as rubella, mumps or measles were found in this family. Conclusions: There was an altered profile of autoantibodies in the family of the index case. All genotypes were comparable with the European population where the diabetogenic combination DR4/DQB1*0302 is the most prevalent. No environmental factors could be incriminated as triggers of the disease (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 47-50) <![CDATA[<B><I>Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in gallbladder cancer</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100008&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Gallbladder cancer is generally associated with a poor prognosis, being local recurrence the main pattern of failure. Aim: To evaluate neoadjuvant chemoradiation as a means to improve the prognosis in gallbladder cancer. Patients and methods: Twenty three gallbladder cancer patients were prospectively treated between June 1993 and September 1999 in the Temuco Regional Hospital. Eighteen (82%) patients had subserosal infiltration, while three (13%) had serosal and two (9%) adipose tissue infiltration. Chemotherapy was done with 5-fluorouracil in continuous infusion during 5 days at day 1 and 28 of treatment. Radiotherapy consisted in a total dose of 4500 cGy, divided in 25 sessions. Patients' survival was compared with a series of 19 patients not subjected to chemoradiation, formerly treated at the institution. Results: Twenty patients had hematological problems secondary to the therapy. Leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were the most common toxic effects and eight had leucopenia under 2.0 x 10³ during the treatment course. Chemoradiation delayed surgical treatment in eight patients. After the chemoradiation protocol, seven patients were excluded from surgical treatment and 14 patients underwent resection. Three of the latter (11%) had liver involvement and four (14%) had lymph node involvement. Among the patients who underwent resection, five are still alive with a follow up of 43.8 months. Treated patients had a worst actuarial survival than subjects not treated with chemoradiation. Conclusions: In this series of patients chemoradiation had no positive effect and a potentially detrimental effect in patients with gallbladder cancer (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 51-7). <![CDATA[<B><I>Tc 99M DMSA scintigraphy in children with a first episode of pyelonephritis</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100009&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Tc99m DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) scintigraphy has a high sensitivity for the detection of cortical kidney damage. Aim: To evaluate the Tc99m DMSA renal scintigraphy in children with a first episode of acute pyelonephritis and its association with laboratory parameters, kidney ultrasound and vesicoureteral reflux. Patients and methods: We studied 143 children (age range 8 days, 12 years, 66% female) hospitalized with the clinical diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (first episode) with a positive urine culture and a renal scintigraphy performed within seven days of diagnosis. DMSA was considered the gold standard for the detection of cortical lesions. Its results were related to the presence of fever, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (VHS), white blood count (WBC), ultrasound examination and vesicoureteral reflux. Results: Seventy nine percent of the population had an abnormal DMSA scan. There were no differences between sex, age and laboratory parameters in children with normal or abnormal DMSA scans, except for CRP (p <0.005). Ultrasound was coincident with the scan in 32% of patients. Eighteen percent had vesicoureteral reflux. Conclusions: There is a high proportion of abnormal DMSA scans in children with a first episode of acute pyelonephritis (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 58-64). <![CDATA[<B><I>The relationship between teenage pregnancy and school desertion</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100010&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= In Chile, the prevalence of teenage pregnancy is 17%. Aim: To assess relationship between adolescent pregnancy and school desertion. Patients and methods: At the Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente's Departament of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in Concepción, Chile, 2001 a comparative, cross sectional and correlational study was conducted. The study group were pregnant adolescents who deserted from school system, divided in two subgroups: 86 adolescents who deserted before pregnancy and 130 who deserted during pregnancy. Results: Twenty percent of teenagers that deserted from school before pregnancy belonged to a sublevel of poverty, compared with 5% of those who deserted during pregnancy. Flunk was frequent in both but higher in girls that deserted before pregnancy (46.5 and 36.9% respectively, (p <0.001). Economic problems were the main cause of desertion before pregnancy (27.6%). Shame (41.6%) and obstetric complications (31.7%) were the main reasons for deserting during pregnancy. Seventy percent of adolescents who deserted before pregnancy had no educational, working or recreational activities. The parental educational level of both groups was low. Conclusions: There is a relationship between teenage pregnancy and school desertion. Adolescents who deserted from school before pregnancy are more vulnerable (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 65-70). <![CDATA[<B><I>Selective intra arterial calcium stimulation for the localization of insulinomas</B></I>: <B><I>Report of two cases</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100011&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Insulinoma is the most common neuroendocrine tumor. Its clinical manifestations are frequently confounded with neuropsychiatric symptoms, and definitive diagnosis can be delayed for a long time. These tumors are usually small, of less than 2 cm. Thus, their preoperative localization is difficult. We report two patients with a clinical diagnosis of insulinoma, in whom the preoperative imaging study was negative. Both fulfilled diagnostic criteria, with high serum insulin levels in the presence of a blood glucose of less than 45 mg/dl. The imaging study, including abdominal computed tomography and pancreatic endoscopic ultrasonography did not disclose the location of the tumor. A pancreatic angiography with selective stimulation with intra arterial calcium and venous sampling for insulin measurements, was performed in both patients. This test allowed the exact localization of the tumors and their successful excision. A review of other localization diagnostic tests is done (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 71-5). <![CDATA[<B><I>Cushing's disease treatment with transsphenoidal surgery during pregnancy</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100012&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= We report a 26 years old female with Cushing's disease who became pregnant during the course of her disease. She was treated by transsphenoidal surgery during the second trimester of pregnancy, achieving resolution of hypercortisolism. She had a normal delivery at term, her offspring was healthy, and she had a normal lactation. Currently, five years after surgery, she is asymptomatic. According to our literature review, this patient is the fifth reported case of pituitary adenomectomy during gestation (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 75-80) <![CDATA[<B><I>Global respiratory failure as the presentation form of hypothyroidism</B></I>: <B><I>Report of one case</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100013&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= We report a 36 years male, admitted to the hospital for progressive respiratory failure. Chest X ray and CT scan were normal. On admission, a severe bradycardia and slow intellectual activity were noted. Serum thyroid function tests showed a TSH over 150 µU/ml and T3 of 75 ng/ml. Thyroid substitution therapy was associated with a progressive improvement of respiratory function. Diaphragmatic dysfunction, central hypoventilation, airway obstruction, sleep apnea and pleural effusion have been previously reported in patients with hypothyroidism. Therefore, we recommend to measure TSH in patients with unexplained respiratory failure (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 81-4). <![CDATA[<B><I>Cytochrome P450 activity and its alteration in different diseases</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100014&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes participate in the metabolism of a variety of naturally occurring and foreign compounds by reactions requiring NADPH and O2. The diversity of reactions catalyzed and its extensive substrate specificity render CYP enzymes as one of the most versatile known catalysts. Individual members of the CYP superfamily are expressed in almost every cell type in the body. As compared to hepatic enzymes, the regulation of human extrahepatic CYPs has not been so well studied. In general, the levels of some hepatic CYP enzymes are depressed by diseases, causing potential and documented impairment of drug clearence and clinical drug toxicity. However, modulation of CYPs is enzyme selective and this selectivity differs in different diseases. This article reviews some basic concepts about CYP and its regulation in some disease states such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and hepatic, infectious and inflammatory diseases (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 85-94). <![CDATA[<B><I>The diagnosis of death</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100015&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= This paper undertakes an analysis of the scientific criteria used in the diagnosis of death and underscores the importance of intellectual rigor in the definition of medical concepts, particularly regarding such a critical issue as the diagnosis of death. Under the cardiorespiratory criterion, death is defined as «the irreversible cessation of the functioning of an organism as a whole» and the tests used to confirm this criterion (negative life-signs) are sensitive and specific. In this case, cadaverous phenomena appear immediately following the diagnosis of death. On the other hand, doubts have arisen concerning the theoretical and the inner consistency of the criterion of brain death, since it does not satisfy the definition of «the irreversible cessation of the functioning of an organism as a whole», nor the requirement of «total and irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem». There is evidence to the effect that the tests used to confirm this criterion are not specific enough. It is clear that brain death marks the beginning of a process that eventually ends in death, though death does not occur at that moment. From an ethical point of view, the conflict arises between the need to provide an unequivocal diagnosis of death and the possibility of saving a life through organ transplantation. The sensitive issue of brain death calls for a more thorough and in-depth discussion among physicians and the community at large (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 95-107). <![CDATA[<B><I>Brain death, bioethics and organ transplantation</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100016&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The concept of death has evolved medically, legally and culturally since the introduction of life support technologies in the middle of the 20th century. The traditional cardiopulmonary and the new neurologically based brain death criterions of death are examined. We conclude that brain death, defined as total and irreversible loss of function of the whole brain, fulfills better "the permanent cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole² definition of death. Brain death diagnosis, based on standard neurologic clinical examination performed accurately, is unequivocal. Transplantation medicine, mostly based on organ donation of brain dead people, has become a routine and universally accepted therapeutic intervention nowadays, which benefits many people. Ethics foundations of organ transplantation are reviewed. Even though brain death and organ donation are widely accepted in medical, legal, religious and public opinion today, the whole society and medical community need to be further educated about these matters, so that unavoidable changes of traditional concepts might be better understood. Permanent education should be the best way to dissipate social fears and distrust towards organ donation and brain death (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 109-18). <![CDATA[<B><I>Reflections on the Reform of Medical Education</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100017&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The concept of death has evolved medically, legally and culturally since the introduction of life support technologies in the middle of the 20th century. The traditional cardiopulmonary and the new neurologically based brain death criterions of death are examined. We conclude that brain death, defined as total and irreversible loss of function of the whole brain, fulfills better "the permanent cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole² definition of death. Brain death diagnosis, based on standard neurologic clinical examination performed accurately, is unequivocal. Transplantation medicine, mostly based on organ donation of brain dead people, has become a routine and universally accepted therapeutic intervention nowadays, which benefits many people. Ethics foundations of organ transplantation are reviewed. Even though brain death and organ donation are widely accepted in medical, legal, religious and public opinion today, the whole society and medical community need to be further educated about these matters, so that unavoidable changes of traditional concepts might be better understood. Permanent education should be the best way to dissipate social fears and distrust towards organ donation and brain death (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 109-18). <![CDATA[<B><I>Clinical diagnosis and treatment of loxocelism</B></I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100018&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The concept of death has evolved medically, legally and culturally since the introduction of life support technologies in the middle of the 20th century. The traditional cardiopulmonary and the new neurologically based brain death criterions of death are examined. We conclude that brain death, defined as total and irreversible loss of function of the whole brain, fulfills better "the permanent cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole² definition of death. Brain death diagnosis, based on standard neurologic clinical examination performed accurately, is unequivocal. Transplantation medicine, mostly based on organ donation of brain dead people, has become a routine and universally accepted therapeutic intervention nowadays, which benefits many people. Ethics foundations of organ transplantation are reviewed. Even though brain death and organ donation are widely accepted in medical, legal, religious and public opinion today, the whole society and medical community need to be further educated about these matters, so that unavoidable changes of traditional concepts might be better understood. Permanent education should be the best way to dissipate social fears and distrust towards organ donation and brain death (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 109-18). <![CDATA[Crónica]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000100019&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The concept of death has evolved medically, legally and culturally since the introduction of life support technologies in the middle of the 20th century. The traditional cardiopulmonary and the new neurologically based brain death criterions of death are examined. We conclude that brain death, defined as total and irreversible loss of function of the whole brain, fulfills better "the permanent cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole² definition of death. Brain death diagnosis, based on standard neurologic clinical examination performed accurately, is unequivocal. Transplantation medicine, mostly based on organ donation of brain dead people, has become a routine and universally accepted therapeutic intervention nowadays, which benefits many people. Ethics foundations of organ transplantation are reviewed. Even though brain death and organ donation are widely accepted in medical, legal, religious and public opinion today, the whole society and medical community need to be further educated about these matters, so that unavoidable changes of traditional concepts might be better understood. Permanent education should be the best way to dissipate social fears and distrust towards organ donation and brain death (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 109-18).