Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720040002&lang= vol. 132 num. 2 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<I>Results of the first Chilean registry of unstable angina</I>: <I>Clinical features, risk profile and treatment</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200001&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: From January 2000 to June 2002, the first Chilean registry of unstable angina was carried out, with the participation of 15 hospitals. Aim: To report the clinical and demographic features of 600 patients with unstable angina, their risk profile and prognosis. Material and methods: The inclusion criteria for this prospective registry were a history of recent onset of chest pain (<48 hours) or a change in the character of previous angina, associated to ischemic electrocardiographic changes and/or positive markers of myocardial damage. Results: Mean age of the patients was 65 years and 37% were women. Among coronary risk factors, 63% had hypertension, 27% had diabetes, 52% had dyslipidemia, 31% smoked and 21% had a family history of atherosclerosis. On admission 94% of patients had chest pain, associated to ST segment depression in 44%, negative T waves in 28% and positive markers of myocardial damage in 30%. Fifty seven percent received intravenous nitroglycerin, 47% received oral nitrates, 69% beta blockers and 15%, calcium antagonists. Antithrombotic therapy included aspirin in 96%, heparin in 74%, ticlodipine or clopidogrel in 19% and IIb/IIIa inhibitors in 12%. A coronary angiogram was performed in 52%, angioplasty in 25% and coronary bypass surgery in 13%. Hospital mortality was 2.6%. The incidence of new ischemic events was: myocardial infarction in 2.8% recurrent ischemia in 9.5% and refractory ischemia in 2%. The incidence of adverse events increased according to a higher risk profile. Conclusions: The demographic and clinical features, treatment and mortality of these patients are similar to those reported in international registries, with a low mortality rate (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 135-43) <![CDATA[<I>Effects of acute octreotide infusion on renal function in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200002&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Octreotide is used in the treatment of acute variceal bleeding, based on its inhibitory effects of post-prandial splanchnic hyperemia and splanchnic venoconstriction. The consequences of these haemodynamic changes on renal circulation are not well known in cirrhotic patients. Aim: To evaluate the effects of acute octreotide administration on several parameters of renal function, including free water clearance, in patients with cirrhosis with or without ascites. Patients and Methods: Twenty cirrhotic patients, Child-Pugh A or B, with or without ascites, with esophageal varices, normal renal function and free of medications (vasoactive drugs or diuretics) were assigned to 2 different protocols. Protocol 1: 10 patients were randomized to receive octreotide or placebo, as a bolus followed by a continuous infusion. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (PRF) were measured, in basal conditions and during the drug or placebo administration. Protocol 2: 10 additional patients were randomized in the same way and free water clearance and urinary sodium excretion were again measured in the basal period and during the drug or placebo infusion. Results: After octreotide or placebo administration no significant changes were observed neither in GFR nor in PRF. The free water clearance decreased significantly during octreotide administration (3.12 ml/min±1.04 SE vs 0.88±0.39, p <.03). In both protocols no changes in mean arterial pressure were observed. Conclusions: Acute administration of octreotide to cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension, with or without ascites, did not produce any change in glomerular filtration rate or in estimated renal plasma blood flow. However the free water clearance decreased significantly. This effect, under chronic administration, could be clinically important and deserves further studies (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 144-50) <![CDATA[<I>Antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolated from aquatic environments in Southern Chile</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200003&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: The easy access and inappropriate use of antimicrobials led to selection and spread of resistant microorganisms strains. It is imperative to search for new and more effective antimicrobials. One strategy is the screening of metabolites produced by microorganisms found in the environment. Actinomycetes are a potential source of new drugs. Aim: To isolate actinomycetes from sediments of Chilean rivers and lakes and to screen them for antimicrobial activity against reference bacterial strains and pathogenic fungi. Material and Methods: Actinomycetes were isolated from sediment samples, using casein-starch agar. The antimicrobial activity against 3 bacterial species and 7 fungal species was tested using the disc diffusion method. For the extraction of active metabolites, culture broths of antagonistic actinomycetes were extracted with organic solvents followed by testing the antibiotic activity. Results: A total of 62 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, mainly Streptomyces sp (83.9%). Thirty six strains (58.1%) showed antimicrobial activity, mainly against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. Some isolates inhibited a wide spectrum of indicator strains, like LRI 4A strain (Streptomyces sp) that inhibited Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and 4 filamentous fungi. Conclusions: Lakes and rivers of Southern Chile are an important reservoir of antagonistic actinomycetes, a potential source of new drugs (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 151-9) <![CDATA[<I>Nutcracker esophagus</I>: <I>Analysis of 80 patients</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200004&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: The nutcracker esophagus, a primary motor disorder, is frequently associated with noncardic chest pain. Aim: To study the clinical, endoscopic, manometric, and pathological features and 24 h acid reflux in patients with nutcracker esophagus. Patients and methods: Eighty patients (63 females, aged 26 to 70 years) with nutcracker esophagus, defined as the presence of contraction waves of more than 180 mmHg in the esophageal manometry, were studied. All were subjected to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 24 h esophageal pH monitoring and a new manometric study. Results: Eighty percent of patients had symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux, 31% had retrosternal pain and 25% had dysphagia. Upper endoscopy was normal in 41% and showed erosive esophagitis or Barrett esophagus in 27%. Fifty percent of patients had an abnormal acid reflux. There were no significant differences in manometric parameters between patients with and without acid reflux. Conclusions: Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux not necessarily mean that a pathological reflux is present. Primary motor disorders of the esophagus may cause similar symptoms (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 160-4) <![CDATA[<I>Clinical features of 32 patients with cutaneous small vessel vasculitis</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200005&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: The skin is a common target of small vessel vasculitis, with a wide assortment of pathological changes. This condition is usually associated to systemic diseases. Aim: To report the clinical and pathological features of patients with cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. Material and methods: A retrospective review of 32 patients with a pathological diagnosis of cutaneous vasculitis. Results: Seventy two percent of patients were women. Cutaneous lesions were mainly located in the lower limbs (94%). The most common lesion was palpable purpura (62%). Connective tissue diseases and systemic vasculitis were the most commonly associated systemic diseases. Conclusions: Palpable purpura is the most common manifestation of cutaneous small vessel vasculitis, that is usually associated to connective tissue diseases or systemic vasculitis (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 165-70) <![CDATA[<I>Smoking habit in school age children, in Chile</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200006&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: In Chile, there is no information about the prevalence of smoking among basic and high school students. Aim: To study the prevalence of smoking among school age population. Material and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted during 2001, assessing tobacco use and smoking habit in a representative sample of 15.119 randomly selected students. Results: Sixty four percent of students had smoked at least once in their lifetime. Eighteen percent of students smoked daily and 15%, occasionally. The figures for women were higher (19 and 18% respectively). The mean age for the first contact with smoking was 12.3 years and, for starting the smoking habit, 13.2 years. Smokers increased the amount of cigarettes during weekends. Higher prevalence rates of smoking were observed in students from the Southern region of the country and of lower socioeconomic levels. From the 3rd grade on, there is an increased risk of having contact with tobacco and smoking for the first time and from 6th grade on, this risk becomes permanent. The adjusted Odds Ratio to be a smoker is significantly higher when the mother is a current or irregular smoker (OR 1.9 95 CI; 1.7-2.0). Conclusions: High smoking prevalence rates were detected in this survey, mainly in women. The risk for smoking starts early during school life. Therefore, health promotion programs must include elementary and high school students (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 171-82) <![CDATA[<I>Management of gallbladder cancer with invasion of the muscular layer</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200007&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Gallbladder cancer is the leading cause of death of cancer among women in Chile. Detection of early forms of the disease during the pathological study of the cholecystectomy specimen is common. The management of these cases, specially those with invasion of the muscular layer is under discussion. Aim: To analyze the clinical features of patients with gallbladder cancer and muscular layer invasion and their prognosis after a simple cholecystectomy. Patients and methods: We studied a series of 46 patients with gallbladder cancer and invasion of the muscular layer. In the majority of cases diagnosis was performed at the moment of specimen study. Eleven patients underwent reoperation. Of these, ten underwent lymphadenectomy and liver resection while one patient underwent resection of the cystic duct stump. Results: During follow up, five patients died as a consequence of gallbladder cancer. Overall survival was 78%, with no differences between patients subjected or not a new operation. Conclusions: Gallbladder cancer with muscular infiltration has a good prognosis, independent of the type of therapy (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 183-8) <![CDATA[<I>Laparoscopic splenectomy in hematological diseases</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200008&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most common indication for elective splenectomy. The laparoscopic approach has been used over the past ten years. Aim: To report our experience with laparoscopic splenectomy. Patients and methods: Retrospective review of 27 patients subjected to splenectomy due to hematological diseases. Among them, 17 patients (78% female, age range 17-70 years old) were subjected to a laparoscopic splenectomy. Eligibility criteria were the presence of benign disease, an informed consent by the patient, a spleen size of less than 20 cm by ultrasound and absence of previous surgery in the upper left quadrant. The rest of the patients were subjected to an open splenectomy. Results: Seventy one percent of patients subjected to laparoscopic splenectomy had an ITP. Mean operating time was 184 minutes. The mean spleen size was 11 cm and the mean weight was 186 g (70-450). No patient died or had complications. No patient required a conversion to an open surgery. Transfusions were not required. The median hospital stay was 3 days. Conclusions: Elective laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe and low risk surgical procedure (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 189-94) <![CDATA[<I>Methotrexate use in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200009&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: In the past ten years, methotrexate (MTX) has appeared as an alternative for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Aim: To evaluate the use of MTX and the results of treatment in a group of patients with SLE. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of 426 files of patients with SLE. Of these, all patients treated with MTX were selected. A review protocol was designed, stating sex, age, time of disease evolution, previous treatment, MTX prescription, doses, effectiveness and side effects. Results: Seven patients were selected. All were women, with an age range of 26 to 62 years old and with 5 to 34 years of disease evolution. Previous treatment with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, hydroxychloroquine and azathioprine ranged from 6 to 631 months (average=147.3). Persistent joint and/or skin manifestations were the main cause for the use of MTX. The dose ranged from 7.5 to 15 mg and the treatment lapse from 6 to 106 months. It was effective in all patients, allowing a reduction in prednisone doses. Two patients experienced a rise in serum transaminases and one had gastric intolerance, that required treatment discontinuation. Conclusions: MTX is rarely used in SLE. Its main prescription and effectiveness is in joint and skin manifestations, allowing to decrease steroid doses. However, side effects are frequent (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 195-201) <![CDATA[<I>Determination of a BRCA1 gene mutation in a family with hereditary breast cancer</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200010&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Breast cancer is the main cause of death among women between 40 and 55 years old, in whom the hereditary cases are common. Therefore, the molecular diagnosis of germ line mutations involved in breast cancer susceptibility is relevant. BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been described as the two major genes involved in familial breast/ovarian cancer. We are performing a screening of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, in a group of 50 high risk Chilean families for breast/ovarian cancer. We have detected a mutation, 3936 C>T, that leads to a truncated protein, in two affected women from one of the families in study. Aim: To report the results of the screening for 3936 C>T in healthy relatives of index women. Material and me-thods: The molecular diagnosis of this mutation was offered to the healthy members of this family, and 17 relatives accepted to be tested. The region of the BRCA1 gene that includes the 3936 C>T mutation, was analyzed through PCR amplification, digestion with restriction enzyme BstNI, and direct sequencing. Results: 3936 C>T DNA mutation was present in 8 relatives. Conclusions: Considering the high risk of having a mutation in the BRCA1 gene, specially in pre-menopausal women, the molecualr diagnosis, genetic and clinical counseling are highly relevant. In Chile the molecualr diagnosis is still not widely applied (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 203-8) <![CDATA[<I>Clinical, cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a new case of Nijmegen breakage syndrome in Chile</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200011&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with microcephaly, immunodeficiency, chromosome instability and cancer proneness. The mutated gene that results in NBS codes for nibrin (Nbs1/p95), a DNA repair protein that is functionally linked to ATM, the kinase protein product of the gene responsible of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). We report the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a second case of NBS in Chile detected by us. The patient is a 7 years old Chilean boy from a consanguineous marriage, with microcephaly, immunodeficiency and acute non lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). As NBS shares chromosomal and cellular features with A-T, the cytogenetic studies of this patient also included 3 A-T patients. Our results showed that the frequency of spontaneous and X rays induced chromosomal aberrations in NBS are higher than in A-T cells. DNA analysis revealed that the patient is homozygous for the Slavic mutation 657del5 in the NBS1 gene. This finding and the absence of nibrin in patient's cells, confirmed the clinical diagnosis of NBS in our patient (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 211-18) <![CDATA[<I>Acute suppurative thyroiditis</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200012&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST) is an uncommon condition because thyroid gland is remarkably resistant to infections. In children, anatomic defects such as a left pyriform sinus fistula or a thyroglossal duct remnant predispose to this infection. Once the diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasound or computed tomography, antimicrobial therapy based on the culture and Gram staining must be started. After two or three weeks of treatment, predisposing anatomic defects must be sought cautiously. We report a 13 years old girl presenting with cervical pain and fever. A cervical ultrasound showed an enlarged thyroid lobule with hypoecogenic zones that suggested a supurative collection. Cefotaxime and cloxacillin were started. A needle aspiration of the collection obtained a purulent material. The culture of this material yielded a Streptococcus Pneumoniae. The clinical condition of the patient improved and she was discharged in good conditions. Two months later a contrast esophagus X ray did not show predisposing anatomic defects. (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 219-22) <![CDATA[<I>A national survey on smoking habit among health care workers in Chile</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200013&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Worldwide, smoking is the main avoidable cause of death among adults. Aim: To study smoking habits among health care workers in Chile. Material and methods: A national survey about smoking among subjects working in the Chilean Ministry of Health. An anonymous and self administered enquiry was used. Results: The enquiry was answered by 20,848 employees, corresponding to 58% of the total universe of workers. There was an overall prevalence of smoking of 40.7%. Sixty four percent of smokers did it daily and their mean consumption was 7 cigarettes per day. Smoking was more common among men than women (43 and 39.6%, respectively). Also, nicotine addiction was also more common among men (16.5 and 11.7%, respectively). The prevalence of smoking decreased along with age. Journalists, guards, students and paramedics had the higher prevalence of smoking. Physicians, teachers and nutritionists had the lower prevalence. Although physicians had the lower frequency of smoking, they had the higher prevalence of nicotine addiction. Forty five percent of smokers were interested in therapies to quit, 69% did not allow smoking at home and 89% agreed with smoking restrictions in work places. Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among health care workers is similar to that of the general population in Chile (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 134: 223-32) <![CDATA[<I>Jellyfish sting</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200014&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Jellyfishes are aquatic organisms, whose number increases under certain conditions of water temperature. They can sting humans, which can be fatal. The liberation of structures known as nematocysts induces the extrusion of the poison, to attack their victims. The poison produces characteristic local and systemic reactions. Since an increased number of these organisms has been detected in our coastline, we review the epidemiology, symptoms and diagnosis of the syndrome produced by the bite, to improve its management (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 233-41) <![CDATA[<I>Bioethics and psychotherapy</I>: <I>Which moral assumptions sustain psychotherapeutical acts</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200015&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Since about 1970 biomedical ethics crystallized into a full-fledged discipline. The so called «ethical turn» is a fundamental conceptual challenge for the field of medicine and has generated heated controversy. Today, the ancient psychotherapeutic framework is under the severest strain in its long history. Aim: To review the relationship between psychotherapy and the conceptual shift in moral theory. Material and method: To forge a new model for the patient-physician relationship, speech acts and nature of man derived from a «pragmatic turn» of bioethics. Results: Research findings suggest that behavior, cognitive and psychodinamic psychotherapies are speech-acts constituted by a hierarchy of subordinate acts distributed on three levels: the level of the locutionary act, the act of saying; the level of the illocutionary act (or force), what we do in saying; and the level of the perlocutionary act, what we provoke by the fact that we speak. Conclusions: Advances in linguistic research have led to a more sophisticated understanding of how psychotherapy affect ethical issues. These developments point towards a new era of psychotherapeutical theory and practice in which specific modes of psychotherapy can be designed to target specific dilemmas of medical ethics (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 243-52) <![CDATA[<I>Search strategies in evidence-based medicine</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200016&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Since about 1970 biomedical ethics crystallized into a full-fledged discipline. The so called «ethical turn» is a fundamental conceptual challenge for the field of medicine and has generated heated controversy. Today, the ancient psychotherapeutic framework is under the severest strain in its long history. Aim: To review the relationship between psychotherapy and the conceptual shift in moral theory. Material and method: To forge a new model for the patient-physician relationship, speech acts and nature of man derived from a «pragmatic turn» of bioethics. Results: Research findings suggest that behavior, cognitive and psychodinamic psychotherapies are speech-acts constituted by a hierarchy of subordinate acts distributed on three levels: the level of the locutionary act, the act of saying; the level of the illocutionary act (or force), what we do in saying; and the level of the perlocutionary act, what we provoke by the fact that we speak. Conclusions: Advances in linguistic research have led to a more sophisticated understanding of how psychotherapy affect ethical issues. These developments point towards a new era of psychotherapeutical theory and practice in which specific modes of psychotherapy can be designed to target specific dilemmas of medical ethics (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 243-52) <![CDATA[<I>Vivekananthan DP, Penn MS, Sapp SK, Hsu A, Topol EJ. Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta- analysis of randomized trials. Lancet 2003 Jun 14; 361(9374): 2017-23</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200017&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Introduction: Oxidized LDL is thought to play an important part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Observational studies have associated alpha tocopherol (vitamin E), beta carotene, or both, with reductions in cardiovascular events, but not clinical trials. We did a meta-analysis to assess the effect of these compounds on long term cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Methods: We analyzed seven randomized trials of vitamin E treatment and, separately, eight of beta carotene treatment; all trials included 1000 or more patients. The dose range for vitamin E was 50-800 IU, and for beta carotene was 15-50 mg. Follow-up ranged from 1.4 to 12.0 years. Findings: The vitamin E trials involved a total of 81788 patients and the beta carotene trials 138113 in the all cause mortality analyses. Vitamin E did not provide benefit in mortality compared with control treatment (11.3 vs 11.1%, odds ratio 1.02 [95% CI 0.98-1.06] p=0.42) or significantly decrease risk of cardiovascular death (6.0 vs 6.0%, p=0.86) or cerebrovascular accident (3.6 vs 3.5%, p=0.31). Beta carotene led to a small but significant increase in all cause mortality (7.4 vs 7.0%, 1.07 [1.02-1.11] p=0.003) and with a slight increase in cardiovascular death (3.4 vs 3.1%, 1.1 [1.03-1.17] p=0.003). No significant heterogeneity was noted for any analysis. Interpretation: The lack of a salutary effect was seen consistently for various doses of vitamins in diverse populations. Our results, combined with the lack of mechanistic data for efficacy of vitamin E, do not support the routine use of vitamin E <![CDATA[<I>Einthoven</I>: <I>the man and his invention</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200018&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Einthoven, a Dutch physician, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram. He was born on May 21, 1860, in Semarang, on the island of Java. In 1878 entered the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands, as a medical student, where he also became a keen sportsman. In 1885, he was appointed Professor of Physiology at the University of Leiden, where he began to work using first a capillary electrometer. Later, Einthoven invented a new galvanometer to generate electrocardiograms using a fine quartz string coated in silver and published his findings in 1901 and 1903. Einthoven is remembered by most of his colleagues and clinical peers as a very modest person who was hospitable and honest. He died at the age of sixty seven (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 260-4) <![CDATA[<I>Physicians and the hospitality of pharmaceutical companies</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200019&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Einthoven, a Dutch physician, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram. He was born on May 21, 1860, in Semarang, on the island of Java. In 1878 entered the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands, as a medical student, where he also became a keen sportsman. In 1885, he was appointed Professor of Physiology at the University of Leiden, where he began to work using first a capillary electrometer. Later, Einthoven invented a new galvanometer to generate electrocardiograms using a fine quartz string coated in silver and published his findings in 1901 and 1903. Einthoven is remembered by most of his colleagues and clinical peers as a very modest person who was hospitable and honest. He died at the age of sixty seven (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 260-4) <![CDATA[<b>C</b><b>RÓNICA</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000200020&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Einthoven, a Dutch physician, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram. He was born on May 21, 1860, in Semarang, on the island of Java. In 1878 entered the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands, as a medical student, where he also became a keen sportsman. In 1885, he was appointed Professor of Physiology at the University of Leiden, where he began to work using first a capillary electrometer. Later, Einthoven invented a new galvanometer to generate electrocardiograms using a fine quartz string coated in silver and published his findings in 1901 and 1903. Einthoven is remembered by most of his colleagues and clinical peers as a very modest person who was hospitable and honest. He died at the age of sixty seven (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 260-4)