Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720040004&lang= vol. 132 num. 4 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<B>Clinical application of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) with modified incubation time for the diagnosis of lupus anticoagulant (LA)</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400001&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Although several tests are used to screen for the presence of LA, none detects all its types. The shortening of APTT observed when the pre-incubation period is prolonged, proved to be a sensitive test for the presence of LA. Material and methods: We determined the APTT, performed with a 4 or 15 min preincubation period (APTTs and APTT15 respectively), in 22 healthy subjects, 3 commercial positive controls for LA, 16 patients with a previous diagnosis of LA and 54 patients with recurrent fetal loss and/or infertility. Evidence of LA was established by a positive Staclot-LA test. Results: APTTs and APTT15 were 31.5±4.7 and 28.4±4.5 seconds respectively in samples from 22 normal subjects. The figures in samples with LA, were 71.5±20.3 s and 58.6±18 s respectively. The difference between the two APTTs performed on an individual sample was defined as the APTT 4-15 and was 2.6±2.0 in normal subjects 2.5±2.8 in 13 patients anticoagulated with warfarin, -10.0±6.5 in 13 patients receiving heparin, and 13.2±4.9 in 15 patients with LA. The test values for LA patients were significantly higher than those for normal subjects (p <0.0001). For values over 5, the APTT 4-15 had 93.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In one patient with recurrent fetal loss or infertility, who was LA positive, the APTT 4-15 was positive with a value of 14. Conclusions: This modified TTPA is easy to perform, and provides a reasonably discriminatory value for the presence of LA. Therefore, we recommend the TTPA 4-15 to screen for LA (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 407-12) <![CDATA[<B>Plasma levels of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetic children and their association with ß-pancreatic autoantibodies</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400002&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Type 1 diabetes is an organ specifc autoimmune disease whose incidence is increasing worldwide. A functional imbalance in cytokine production resulting in dominance of T helper (Th1) over Th2-type response has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Aim: To measure serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2 and IL-4 in children with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes and to evaluate the autoimmune response measuring glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and tyrosine phosphatase like (IA-2) autoantibodies. Patients and Methods: 120 diabetic children and 118 age and gender matched control children, were recruited for this study. Circulating levels of IL-1ß, IL-2 and IL-4 were measured by ELISA. GAD65 and IA-2 were measured by RIA. Results: Circulating levels of IL-1ß were elevated in type 1 diabetic children as compared to the control group (9.3±7.3 and 4.9±3.8 pg/ml respectively, p=0,01). Serum concentration of IL-2 was also higher in diabetic patients (19.8±13.1 and 11.3±9.1 pg/ml respectively, p=0,01). No differences in serum IL-4 were observed between diabetics and control. Diabetic children with one or two positive autoantibodies (IA-2 and/or GAD65) had significantly higher levels of IL-1ß and IL-2 and lower levels of IL-4 than diabetic children without positive autoantibodies. High concentrations of IL-1ß were associated with an early onset of the disease. Conclusions: High levels of IL-1ß and IL-2 were found in diabetic children with recent diagnosis of the disease. Diabetics with positive antibodies against GAD65 and IA-2 had higher levels of IL-1ß and IL-2 and lower levels of IL-4 than their counterparts without positive antibodies (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 413-20) <![CDATA[<B>Mechanisms of hypo and hyper alphalipoproteinemia in Chilean adults</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400003&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is inversely associated to atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk. Disturbances in HDL cholesterol plasma leves are frecuent in the Chilean population, however the pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. Aim: To evaluate the mechanisms involved in the hypo and hyper alfalipoproteinemias in Chilean subjects. Materials and Methods: Twenty three subjects with hyperalphalipoproteinemia and 12 with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, paired with control subjects (col-HDL between 35 and 55 mg/dl) were studied. We measured plasma lipids, subfractions and sizing of HDL particles and enzymatic activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (LH). Results: Subjects with hyperalphalipoproteinemia showed significantly higher levels of total HDL-cholesterol (70±2 vs 44±1 mg/dl), HDL 2 (30±3 vs 5±1 mg/dl), Apo A I (175±3 vs 146±4 mg/dl), lower HL activity (23,7±0,8 vs 32,4±1,8 mmol/h/l) and HDL particles of greater size, compared to their controls. Subjects with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, showed significantly lower levels of total HDL-cholesterol (26±1 vs 48±2 mg/dl), HDL 3 (21±1 vs 40±2 mg/dl), Apo A I (107±5 vs 145±7 mg/dl), lower LCAT activity (18,6±1,9 vs 26,2±1,6 nmol/h/ml) and smaller HDL particles, compared to their controls. Conclusion: Changes in hepatic lipase and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activities may explain the hyper and hypo alphalipoproteinemia respectively, in Chilean subjects (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 421-8) <![CDATA[<B>Outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy</B>: <B>Experience in 357 patients</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400004&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a widely used technique in the treatment of gallstone disease. Outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy (OLC) is a cost/effective and safe procedure in selected patients. Aim: A pilot program of OLC was conducted in a Chilean Public Hospital to evaluate the feasibility and results, including and patients' satisfaction using OLC. Patients and Methods: Patients were eligible for OLC if they were less than 60 years old, had low anesthestetic risk (ASA I-II), normal liver function tests and an abdominal ultrasound showing gallstones or gallbladder polyps with a normal common bile duct. Results: We performed OLC in 357 patients aged 36±10 years, 90% female. Intraoperative complications were observed in 4 (1.1%) patients (uncontrolled bleeding in two and minor biliary tree injuries in two, both requiring conversion to the open technique). Four other patients required conversion due to anatomic reasons (overall conversion rate: 2.2%). Ninety two percent of patients were discharged within 6 hours of the operation. Eight (2.2%) were readmitted because of a mild acute pancreatitis (n=1), biliary leakage (n=1), persistent pain (n=2), vomiting (n=2), and retained stones (n=2). Two (0.6%) patients were re-operated. There was no mortality. Ninety-four percent of 277 patients (77.6%), who answered a Satisfaction Survey, evaluated OLC procedure with a high degree of satisfaction. Conclusion: OLC is a safe and feasible procedure in selected gallstone patients. The procedure has good outcomes and a high degree of patient satisfaction. A wide use of OLC should reduce both direct and indirect costs of surgical treatment of gallstone disease (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 429-36) <![CDATA[<B>Ultrasound assessment of endothelial function in Chilean children and adults</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400005&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Endothelial dysfunction is an important pathogenetic mechanism in the development of atherosclerosis. Aim: To evaluate endothelial function in Chilean children and adult subjects and to provide normal values of flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in the Chilean population. Subjects and Methods: Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery was measured by high resolution ultrasonography in healthy children (n=32) and adults (n=69) of both gender, in a group of 8 healthy women during 4 periods of pregnancy and late postpartum, and in 22 men and women with a history of stroke or coronary heart disease. Results: FMD in boys and girls was 9.9±3.6 and 10.0±4.2% respectively (NS). The figures for young women and young men were 11.3±3.8 and 8.6±3.9, respectively (p=0.02); for postmenopausal women and older men, 5.5±6.6 and 7.6±6.7 respectively (NS). During normal pregnancy and postpartum there were no significant changes in FMD. Patients with cardiovascular disease had a FMD of 0.3±5.2%, (p <0.001, with other groups). Conclusions: The present study provides values of FMD in healthy Chilean subjects of different ages, and in patients with coronary heart disease (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 437-44) <![CDATA[<B>Self assessment about proficiency on palliative care in a cohort of residents</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400006&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Little is known about the status and level of medical education on palliative care, symptom control and aspects of end of life care provided by medical school programs in Chile. Aim: To determine if a cohort of residents had palliative care and end of life care education during pre graduate and post graduate training. Residents were also asked to self assess their proficiency in these areas. Material and Methods: In 2002, we contacted 200 of a total of 327 residents of the postgraduate programs of the Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. They were asked to anonymously answer a preformed questionnaire addressing different aspects related to palliative care, symptom control and end of life issues. Results: Less than 25% of residents received some degree of palliative care education during their studies, and approximately half of them considered that the level of proficiency reached was less than 25%. This contrasted with a good self assessment in the management of pain and gastrointestinal symptoms. For the treatment of the anorexia-cachexia syndrome and delirium, approximately 50% of the cohort had a mean self assessment score of 3 in a scale of 1 to 7. More than 80% of residents considered that palliative medicine education is important for their medical career. Conclusions: Chilean medical schools must improve palliative care and end of life training as part of their mandatory curriculum in both the pre and post graduate levels (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 445-52) <![CDATA[<B>Inequalities in health. Adult mortality in communities of Metropolitan Santiago</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400007&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: In the last decade, Chile achieved a significant reduction in poverty, however income distribution still shows inequalities. The richest 10% of the population perceived 46% of total income. Aim: To study the relationship between territorial socioeconomic segregation and adult mortality in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile. Material and methods: Data from the 34 districts of Metropolitan Santiago were analyzed. Adjusted community mortality rates, during 2000, among adults aged 20 years or more, including specific rates per sex and age group, were analyzed. Results: There was a negative correlation between income and mortality, specially among men (rS -0.42 p <0.005). The highest correlation coefficient was observed among subjects aged 45-64 years old (rS -0.42 p <0.005). There was a high degree of inequality in mortality among males aged 20-44 years old (Gini 0.54) and in the age group 45-64 years old in both sexes (Gini 0.50). Mortality rates decreased along with increasing incomes in both sexes. 20/20 ratio shows the higher values for mortality of men aged 20-44 years (20/20 ratio 1.7 95% CI 1.4-2.0), followed by mortality of men aged 45-64 years. Conclusions: There is a relationship between economic segregation (expressed by income) and mortality. The higher mortality rates are observed in districts of Metropolitan Santiago with the lower income (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 453-60) <![CDATA[<B>Inequalities in infant mortality in Santiago</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400008&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Social and economical inequalities have an adverse effect on infant mortality. Aim: To test if the poorest communities of Santiago have the highest rates of infant mortalilty. Material and methods: Variables were obtained from the year 2000 Vital Statistics yearbook and the National Socioeconomic Characterization inquiry. Infant mortality was correlated with the mean income of households, the population below the threshold of poverty and the unemployed population of the 32 municipalities of the Santiago Province. The ratio and the difference in mortality rates between the communities with the higher and lower incomes and the attributable population risk for infant mortality in the Province of Santiago was calculated. Results: Infant mortality was positively correlated with the population below the threshold of poverty (r=0.383; p=0.03) and the unemployed population (r=0.437; p=0.012) and inversely correlated with the mean household income (r=-0.522; p=0.002). Infant mortality in the poorest community was 2.2 times higher than in the richest one. The difference in rates was 6.6/1000 live births. The attributable population risk determined that it is possible to reduce infant death by 57.8%. Conclusions: In the Province of Santiago, the poorest communities have the highest infant mortality (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 461-6) <![CDATA[<B>Validation of a screening test for age associated cognitive impairment, in Chile </B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400009&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: The real prevalence of dementia in a given population must be determined through prevalence studies, using validated screening tests. Aim: To validate and determine cutoff points for a cognitive impairment screening test composed by the Folstein Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). Material and methods: Validation of the diagnostic test in a sample of 100 subjects over 65 years old (85 from the project «Age associated dementias» and 15 with a confirmed diagnosis of dementia). All were subjected to a complete neuropsychological test by a trained neurologist, that constituted the «gold standard» for the diagnosis of dementia. An independent interviewer applied the MMSE to the subjects and the PFAQ to a next of kin informer. Cutoff points were calculated using ROC curves. The points with the better equilibrium between sensitivity and specificity were selected, considering differences in results between groups with low and high educational level. Results: The cutoff point for MMSE was 21/22, with a sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI 70.6-99.7%) and a specificity of 46.1% (95% CI 34.7-57.8%). The figure for PFAQ was 5/6, with a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% CI 70.6-99.7%) and a specificity of 70.7% (95% CI 58.9-80.3%). The combination of both instruments gave a sensitivity of 94.4% (95% CI 58.9-80.3%) and a specificity of 83.3% (95% CI 72.3-90.7%). Conclusions: This screening test, using MMSE and PFAQ, has a good sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia in Chile. Being simple and of low cost, it can be applied in primary health care (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 467-78) <![CDATA[<B>Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis caused by C virus before and after liver transplantation</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400010&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= We report a girl with a chronic hepatitis caused by C virus diagnosed at the age of nine, unsuccessfully treated with interferon and ribavirine. Two years later, she was subjected to a liver transplantation. She maintained elevated viral loads with a normal pathological study of the liver until 22 months after transplantation. She was treated again with combined antiviral therapy, for 6 months, without response and experienced a progressive deterioration liver function, dying three years after transplantation (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 479-84) <![CDATA[<B>Poems syndrome</B>: <B>Report of one case</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400011&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Poems syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrine abnormality, M-protein, plasma cell dyscrasia, and skin lesions) is a plasma cell dyscrasia whose pathogenesis is unknown. We report a 60 years old woman that presented a tetraparesis caused by a sensitive motor polyneuropathy. The subsequent work up revealed an IgA type monoclonal gammopathy, hepatomegaly, hyperestrogenism, primary adrenal failure, hypothyroidism, hyperpigmentation and erythematous lesions in the skin and ankle edema. The patient is being treated with prednisone 0.5 mg/kg and levothyroxine 100 µg/day, with partial remission of her symptoms (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 485-8) <![CDATA[<B>Cyanoacrylate pulmonary embolism after embolization of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation</B>: <B>Report of one case</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400012&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Arterial embolization with cyanoacrylate is commonly used for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations. We report the case of a 40 years old man who four days after an embolization with cyanoacrylate, begins with cough, bloody sputum, and right hemithorax pleuritic pain. Pulmonary embolism was confirmed with chest X ray, CT scan and scyntigraphy. The patient received anticoagulation, with adequate response. The most common complications of cerebral embolization are related to central nervous system and pulmonary embolism is exceptional. Considering the high number of embolization procedures done nowadays, this complication must be borne in mind (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 489-92) <![CDATA[<B>Epidemiology of intoxications in Chile</B>: <B>ten years of registry</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400013&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: The existence of Poison Centers for management and prevention of intoxications has been endorsed by the international experience. In Chile, the Toxicological Information Center at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile has been active since 1992, receiving about 130.000 calls until 2002. Aim: To analyze the statistical data gathered throughout the first ten years of our Research Center. To delineate the epidemiological pa-ttern of intoxications in Chile. Material and methods: Retrospective study in which records from calls for toxicological information received during the 1992-2002 period reviewed. Analyzed data were total calls per year, place of call, exposure circumstances, age, sex, route of exposure and involved agents. Results: 96,468 calls analyzed. The main exposure circumstance was «unintentional» (78.6%), followed by «intentional» (16.9%). Intoxications in children under 5 years old motivated 50% of calls. According to route of exposure, ingestions involved 75,992 calls (78.8%). Medications were the most common substances, accounting for 49.2% of calls, followed by cleaning products (12.1%), pesticides (11.3%), industrial and chemical products (10.5%) and cosmetics (2.7%). Medications acting on the CNS were the most recurrent, with 19,096 reports. Conclusions: The epidemiological pattern for intoxications in Chile is very si-milar to that reported in developed and other Latin American countries. Children under 5 years old, are a high risk group for intoxications. It is imperative to improve the recording and follow-up of patients that call to the Center, to improve epidemiological data of intoxications in Chile (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 493-9) <![CDATA[<B>Primary prevention of congenital defects </B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400014&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Chile has experienced advances in the primary prevention of congenital defects. This article review separately the pre-conception and pre-natal prevention. The first avoids the production of a defective embryo and the latter avoids the effects of external agents, such as environmental teratogens, over a normaly conceived embryo. The preventive measures include education about the use of medications, lifestyles, alcohol and drug use and prenatal control of pregnant women. Special mention deserves nation wide programs held by the ministry of Health such as mandatory rubella vaccination, flour folic acid fortification and metabolic screening of phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism. The role of the main chemical, physical and infectious teratogens is reviewed. A Decalogue of recommendations for primary prevention, elaborated by the Latin American Collaborative Study for Congenital Defects, is included (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 501-8) <![CDATA[<B>The internist: A human being that helps others</B>: <B>On the training and clinical practice of the specialty</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400015&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= This is a critical overview of an internist with 33 years of practice, about the activities which are inherent to internal medicine. The author analyzes strategies on how to keep updated in the scientific literature, the importance of acquiring experience from peers and teachers and emphasizes the value of an adequate patient-physician relationship (Rev Méd Chile 132: 509-12) <![CDATA[<B>A critical appraisal of clinical reports in medical journals</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400016&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= This is a critical overview of an internist with 33 years of practice, about the activities which are inherent to internal medicine. The author analyzes strategies on how to keep updated in the scientific literature, the importance of acquiring experience from peers and teachers and emphasizes the value of an adequate patient-physician relationship (Rev Méd Chile 132: 509-12) <![CDATA[The antihypertensive and lipid lowering treatment to prevent heart attack: Major outcomes in high risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002; 288: 2981-98]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400017&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Context: Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first step therapy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment with a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events vs treatment with a diuretic. DESIGN: The Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), a randomized, double blind, active controlled clinical trial conducted from February 1994 through March 2002. Setting and participants: A total of 33357 participants aged 55 years or older with hypertension and at least 1 other CHD risk factor from 623 North American centers. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned to receive chlorthalidone, 12.5 to 25 mg/d (n = 15255); amlodipine, 2.5 to 10 mg/d (n = 9048); or lisinopril, 10 to 40 mg/d (n = 9054) for planned follow up of approximately 4 to 8 years. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was combined fatal CHD or nonfatal myocardial infarction, analyzed by intent to treat. Secondary outcomes were all cause mortality, stroke, combined CHD (primary outcome, coronary revascularization, or angina with hospitalization), and combined CVD (combined CHD, stroke, treated angina without hospitalization, heart failure [HF], and peripheral arterial disease). Results: Mean follow up was 4.9 years. The primary outcome occurred in 2956 participants, with no difference between treatments. Compared with chlorthalidone (6 years rate, 11.5%), the relative risks (RRs) were 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90-1.07) for amlodipine (6 years rate, 11.3%) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.91-1.08) for lisinopril (6 years rate, 11.4%). Likewise, all cause mortality did not differ between groups. Five years systolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the amlodipine (0.8 mm Hg, P =.03) and lisinopril (2 mm Hg, P <.001) groups compared with chlorthalidone, and 5 years diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower with amlodipine (0.8 mm Hg, P <.001). For amlodipine vs chlorthalidone, secondary outcomes were similar except for a higher 6 years rate of HF with amlodipine (10.2% vs 7.7%; RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.25-1.52). For lisinopril vs chlorthalidone, lisinopril had higher 6 years rates of combined CVD (33.3% vs 30.9%; RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.16); stroke (6.3% vs 5.6%; RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.30); and HF (8.7% vs 7.7%; RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.31). Conclusion: Thiazide type diuretics are superior in preventing 1 or more major forms of CVD and are less expensive. They should be preferred for first step antihypertensive therapy <![CDATA[<b>Crónica</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400018&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Context: Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first step therapy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment with a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events vs treatment with a diuretic. DESIGN: The Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), a randomized, double blind, active controlled clinical trial conducted from February 1994 through March 2002. Setting and participants: A total of 33357 participants aged 55 years or older with hypertension and at least 1 other CHD risk factor from 623 North American centers. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned to receive chlorthalidone, 12.5 to 25 mg/d (n = 15255); amlodipine, 2.5 to 10 mg/d (n = 9048); or lisinopril, 10 to 40 mg/d (n = 9054) for planned follow up of approximately 4 to 8 years. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was combined fatal CHD or nonfatal myocardial infarction, analyzed by intent to treat. Secondary outcomes were all cause mortality, stroke, combined CHD (primary outcome, coronary revascularization, or angina with hospitalization), and combined CVD (combined CHD, stroke, treated angina without hospitalization, heart failure [HF], and peripheral arterial disease). Results: Mean follow up was 4.9 years. The primary outcome occurred in 2956 participants, with no difference between treatments. Compared with chlorthalidone (6 years rate, 11.5%), the relative risks (RRs) were 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90-1.07) for amlodipine (6 years rate, 11.3%) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.91-1.08) for lisinopril (6 years rate, 11.4%). Likewise, all cause mortality did not differ between groups. Five years systolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the amlodipine (0.8 mm Hg, P =.03) and lisinopril (2 mm Hg, P <.001) groups compared with chlorthalidone, and 5 years diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower with amlodipine (0.8 mm Hg, P <.001). For amlodipine vs chlorthalidone, secondary outcomes were similar except for a higher 6 years rate of HF with amlodipine (10.2% vs 7.7%; RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.25-1.52). For lisinopril vs chlorthalidone, lisinopril had higher 6 years rates of combined CVD (33.3% vs 30.9%; RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.16); stroke (6.3% vs 5.6%; RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.30); and HF (8.7% vs 7.7%; RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.31). Conclusion: Thiazide type diuretics are superior in preventing 1 or more major forms of CVD and are less expensive. They should be preferred for first step antihypertensive therapy <![CDATA[<B>Physicians and the hospitality of pharmaceutical companies</B>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400019&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Context: Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first step therapy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment with a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events vs treatment with a diuretic. DESIGN: The Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), a randomized, double blind, active controlled clinical trial conducted from February 1994 through March 2002. Setting and participants: A total of 33357 participants aged 55 years or older with hypertension and at least 1 other CHD risk factor from 623 North American centers. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned to receive chlorthalidone, 12.5 to 25 mg/d (n = 15255); amlodipine, 2.5 to 10 mg/d (n = 9048); or lisinopril, 10 to 40 mg/d (n = 9054) for planned follow up of approximately 4 to 8 years. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was combined fatal CHD or nonfatal myocardial infarction, analyzed by intent to treat. Secondary outcomes were all cause mortality, stroke, combined CHD (primary outcome, coronary revascularization, or angina with hospitalization), and combined CVD (combined CHD, stroke, treated angina without hospitalization, heart failure [HF], and peripheral arterial disease). Results: Mean follow up was 4.9 years. The primary outcome occurred in 2956 participants, with no difference between treatments. Compared with chlorthalidone (6 years rate, 11.5%), the relative risks (RRs) were 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90-1.07) for amlodipine (6 years rate, 11.3%) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.91-1.08) for lisinopril (6 years rate, 11.4%). Likewise, all cause mortality did not differ between groups. Five years systolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the amlodipine (0.8 mm Hg, P =.03) and lisinopril (2 mm Hg, P <.001) groups compared with chlorthalidone, and 5 years diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower with amlodipine (0.8 mm Hg, P <.001). For amlodipine vs chlorthalidone, secondary outcomes were similar except for a higher 6 years rate of HF with amlodipine (10.2% vs 7.7%; RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.25-1.52). For lisinopril vs chlorthalidone, lisinopril had higher 6 years rates of combined CVD (33.3% vs 30.9%; RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.16); stroke (6.3% vs 5.6%; RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.30); and HF (8.7% vs 7.7%; RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.31). Conclusion: Thiazide type diuretics are superior in preventing 1 or more major forms of CVD and are less expensive. They should be preferred for first step antihypertensive therapy <![CDATA[Manual Práctico de Redacción y Crítica de Artículos Científicos]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872004000400020&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Context: Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first step therapy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment with a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events vs treatment with a diuretic. DESIGN: The Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), a randomized, double blind, active controlled clinical trial conducted from February 1994 through March 2002. Setting and participants: A total of 33357 participants aged 55 years or older with hypertension and at least 1 other CHD risk factor from 623 North American centers. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned to receive chlorthalidone, 12.5 to 25 mg/d (n = 15255); amlodipine, 2.5 to 10 mg/d (n = 9048); or lisinopril, 10 to 40 mg/d (n = 9054) for planned follow up of approximately 4 to 8 years. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was combined fatal CHD or nonfatal myocardial infarction, analyzed by intent to treat. Secondary outcomes were all cause mortality, stroke, combined CHD (primary outcome, coronary revascularization, or angina with hospitalization), and combined CVD (combined CHD, stroke, treated angina without hospitalization, heart failure [HF], and peripheral arterial disease). Results: Mean follow up was 4.9 years. The primary outcome occurred in 2956 participants, with no difference between treatments. Compared with chlorthalidone (6 years rate, 11.5%), the relative risks (RRs) were 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90-1.07) for amlodipine (6 years rate, 11.3%) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.91-1.08) for lisinopril (6 years rate, 11.4%). Likewise, all cause mortality did not differ between groups. Five years systolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the amlodipine (0.8 mm Hg, P =.03) and lisinopril (2 mm Hg, P <.001) groups compared with chlorthalidone, and 5 years diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower with amlodipine (0.8 mm Hg, P <.001). For amlodipine vs chlorthalidone, secondary outcomes were similar except for a higher 6 years rate of HF with amlodipine (10.2% vs 7.7%; RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.25-1.52). For lisinopril vs chlorthalidone, lisinopril had higher 6 years rates of combined CVD (33.3% vs 30.9%; RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.16); stroke (6.3% vs 5.6%; RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.30); and HF (8.7% vs 7.7%; RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.31). Conclusion: Thiazide type diuretics are superior in preventing 1 or more major forms of CVD and are less expensive. They should be preferred for first step antihypertensive therapy