Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720050007&lang=pt vol. 133 num. 7 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<b>Clinical and molecular features of cardial gastric cancer associated to Epstein Barr virus</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Mortality caused by cardial gastric cancer in Chile, is increasing. Previously we demonstrated an association between Epstein Barr virus and this specific location of gastric cancer. Aim: To perform a clinical and molecular characterization of cardial gastric cancer associated to Epstein Barr virus. Material and methods: Epstein Barr virus was identified in 93 cardial gastric tumors, by in situ hybridization. Clinical and pathological features, survival and expression of p53 and c-erbB2 were compared between tumors with or without the presence of the virus. Results: Twenty two (23.6%) tumors expressed Epstein Barr virus. No difference in sex or age of patients with tumors positive or negative for the virus was observed. Epstein Barr positive tumors had a tendency to have a higher frequency of Bormann III endoscopic appearance and a lower frequency of p53 accumulation (p=0.06). Five years survival was 67% and 42% of tumors positive and negative for the presence of the virus, respectively (p=0.57). Conclusions: Our results, although not significant, show a tendency towards unique characteristics of cardial gastric tumors associated to Epstein Barr <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of cardiac output measurement in critical patients using transesophageal Doppler or thermodilution</b>: <b>A preliminary report</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Cardiac output can be measured non invasively by transesophageal Doppler. This is an alternative to measure it by thermodilution with a catheter in the pulmonary artery. Aim: To compare both methods of cardiac output measurement. Material and methods: Simultaneous measurement of cardiac output by transesophageal Doppler and thermodilution with a catheter in the pulmonary artery in four male critical patients, aged 60±12 years, hospitalized in a University Hospital. The Bland and Altman method to compare the concordance between two measurements, was used. Results: Forty measurements were performed. The results of both methods had a correlation coefficient of 0.98. According to the Bland and Altman method, the difference between both methods was -0.5 L with a precision of 0.52 L/min (95% confidence interval -1.51 to 0.52 L/min). Considering that a change between two sequential measurements is considered significant when the difference is more than 15%, both measurements agreed in 83% of cases, that there was a change in cardiac output. Conclusions:Transesophageal Doppler is a promising non invasive technique to measure cardiac output in critical care patients. It becomes a valid alternative to the thermodilution technique. This preliminary experience must be confirmed in a larger series <![CDATA[<b>Screening of the delta-F508 mutation and analysis of two single nucleotide polymorphism of the CFTR gene, in a sample of the general population of Valparaíso, Chile</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The Cystic Fibrosis (CF) carrier rate in Chile was estimated to be 1/40. CF is caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. Delta F508 mutation is the most common in CF patients in Chile and worldwide. Delta F508 has linkage disequilibrium with two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), often used to define the haplotypic frameworks of CF mutations. Aim: To know the frequency of the delta F508 mutation and to establish the SNPs, M470V and T854T, haplotypic frequency, in a Valparaiso general population sample. Subjects and Methods: Fifty subjects were studied. Genetic material was obtained from blood samples, amplified by PCR and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Two of the 100 chromosomes analyzed, carried the delta F508 mutation. Therefore, the observed frequency carrier rate (0.02) was higher than the expected (0.01). Both carrier chromosomes had the same SNPs haplotypic framework (1-2). In normal chromosomes, the haplotype 2-1 was the most common. Discussion: These results suggest that the chromosomes that bear delta F508 mutation have most likely a Mediterranean European origin, since this haplotypic framework has been reported in that region. We suggest that CF could be more common in Valparaiso than it was previously <![CDATA[<b>Primary sclerosing cholangitis</b>: <b>A twelve-year experience</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic disorder characterized by progressive inflammation and fibrosis of the biliary tract, evolving to cirrhosis. It is commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aim: To communicate the clinical characteristics of patient with PSC seen in two reference centers. Patients and methods: Review of medical records of patients with PSC confirmed by liver biopsies. The clinical picture, laboratory abnormalities, imaging studies and treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty three patients (aged 16 to 73 years, 64% female) were identified. They corresponded to 1.7% of liver biopsies done between 1991-2003. Clinical presentation was a cholestatic picture in 40%, right upper abdominal pain in 36%, a dysenteric syndrome in 9% and varied symptoms in 15%. Laboratory tests showed cholestasis in 94% and positive anti ANCA, SMA, ANA and AMA antibodies in 28, 18, 15 and 9% of cases, respectively. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance cholangiography were diagnostic in 43 and 58% of patients, respectively. There was an association with ulcerative colitis in 12% of cases. Liver biopsies showed grade I PSC in 76% and grade II-III in 6% of patients. It also showed a concomitant chronic hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis in 12 and 6% of cases, respectively. Treatment consisted on ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in 45%, UDCA plus 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives in 12% and UDCA plus immunosuppresors in 12% of patients. Two patients had to be transplanted. Conclusions: PSC is an uncommon cause of chronic liver disease. It is suspected in cholestatic patients and confirmed with a liver biopsy. It can be associated with other autoimmune hepatic and extrahepatic diseases <![CDATA[<b>Hemolytic uremic syndrome</b>: <b>The experience of a pediatric center</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background:Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is one of the main causes of acute renal failure in the Chilean pediatric population. Aim: To report the features of patients with HUS, admitted to the pediatric ward of a clinical hospital. Material and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients admitted with the diagnosis of HUS between 1995 and 2002. Results: During the period, 58 patients were admitted with the diagnosis of HUS but only 43 (age range 1 month to 6 years, 22 females) had complete medical records for review. Ninety five percent presented with prodromic diarrhea, mainly dysenteric. Antibiotics were administered to 70%, in the previous days. Acute renal replacement, mainly peritoneal dialysis, was required in 40%. The clinical signs and laboratory parameters that correlated better with the indication for dialysis were anuria, hypertension, initial and permanently high serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Four patients with blood urea nitrogen over 100 mg/dl but without anuria or hyperkalemia, were treated conservatively, and experienced an uneventful course (permissive azotemia). Hospital stay was almost 3 times greater in dialyzed than in non dialyzed children. No deaths related to HUS were reported in the study period. In an average follow up of 54 months, 11.6% of the patients developed chronic renal failure of diverse magnitude. Conclusions: Despite the fact that our study group behaved clinically similar to published HUS patients in other series, no mortality was observed in a retrospective analysis of patients with this disease <![CDATA[<b>Diagnostic profiles at a Center for Memory Disturbances</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The Memory Disturbances Center is a multidisciplinary team devoted to the study and treatment of patients with memory problems. Aim: To report the clinical features of patients consulting to this center. Material and methods: Retrospective review of the clinical records of the first 100 patients consulting in the center. Results: The age of consulting patients ranged from 17 to 93 years and 57 were female. The most common diagnoses were Alzheimer disease, depressive pseudo dementia, mild cognitive impairment, vascular dementia and adult attention deficit disorder. A formal neuropsychological assessment was performed in 60% and 20% entered a cognitive stimulation program. Conclusions: Although Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of memory disorders in the adult, concealed depression and attention deficit disorders are also common. A multidisciplinary approach allows a better diagnosis and treatment <![CDATA[<b>Cardiovascular risk and metabolic profile in obese children and adolescents with low insulin sensitivity</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background:Infantile obesity is associated with metabolic disturbances (hiperinsulinism, impaired glucose, dislypidemia) that determine a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and atherosclerotic vascular disease in adulthood. Insulin resistance is a central mechanism of complications of obesity and is associated to body fat mass. Aim: To investigate insulin sensitivity and its association with anthropometric and metabolic variables in obese children. Patients and methods: We studied 314 children aged 6 to 15 years. Of these, 235 had a body mass index (BMI) over the 95 percentile for age and sex (classified as obese) and 79 had a normal body mass index; 161 were pre-pubescent and 153 were pubescent. Weight, height, percentage of total body fat (% TBF) using the sum of 4 skinfolds, blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC), basal glucose (Glu) and insulin (Ins) were measured. Insulin sensitivity (IS) was calculated with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and QUICKI index. Serum lipids, postprandial Glu and Ins were measured only in obese children. Results: BMI, WC and % TBF had an inverse and significant correlation with basal IS (p <0.001). Obese children had higher BP, basal Ins, and HOMA and a lower QUICKI index, compared to normal weight children. A low basal IS was present in 58% of obese children. Obese children with low IS had higher WC, % TBF, triglycerides, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, basal and 2-h post glucose Gli and Ins and lower HDL-cholesterol than obese children with normal IS. In prepubescent children, the risk of a low IS was 2.43 times higher with a TBF over 33%. In pubescent children, it was 2.92 times higher with a TBF over 37%. Conclusions: Low IS in prepubescent and pubescent obese children is associated with central obesity and a higher cardiovascular <![CDATA[<b>Training and research in Forensic Medicine</b>: <b>Present situation and future challenges</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background:Lawyers need some medical knowledge and physicians must know about forensics. Aim: To explore training and research programs in forensic medicine in Chilean universities. Material and methods: Deans of all Medicine Faculties in Chile were contacted by e-mail and invited to answer a questionnaire containing 21 questions. A survey of Chilean publications on forensic medicine was performed in Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases. Results: Fourteen deans answered the questionnaire. In all the responding faculties, forensic medicine is an obligatory course, generally during the fifth year and mostly combining theory with practice. In seven faculties, forensic medicine concepts are included in other courses. Forensics is taught in only two of 10 dental schools, two of 17 nursing schools, one of nine midwives schools and one of nine medical technology schools. It is not taught in phonoaudiology, kinesiology and nutrition schools. There are 74 physicians that teach the specialty but only 10 are certified by the National Board of Medical Specialty Certification (CONACEM). Treatment of most topics on forensics is insufficient. Thanatology is the strongest topic and forensic dentistry is the weakest. There are 52 publications in the area, mostly on "medical law". Conclusions: Forensic medicine is taught in medical schools mostly as thanatology. The knowledge of forensics among medical students is limited and must be improved <![CDATA[<b>Acquired von Willebrand disease as an unusual manifestation of primary hypothyroidism</b>: <b>Report of two cases</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Patients with hypothyroidism may have a minor increase in their bleeding tendency, causing easy bruising and menorrhagia. There is a positive correlation between factor VIII coagulant activity and thyroxin serum levels. Thus, patients with hypothyroidism have an acquired coagulation defect that is reversible with thyroxin supplementation. We report two sisters, aged 13 and 11 years, who met the criteria for von Willebrand's disease at the age of eight. Both sisters had a primary hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis, diagnosed three years later. Thyroid hormone replacement normalized von Willebrand factor, factor VIII, and the bleeding diathesis disappeared. Acquired von Willebrand's disease is an unusual manifestation of hypothyroidism. However the possibility of hypothyroidism should be considered in patients presenting with von Willebrand disease <![CDATA[<b>Addition of an arterio-venous shunt during veno-arterial extracorporeal life support in a patient with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A subgroup of patients infected with the Hantavirus develops a pulmonary syndrome (HPS) characterized by severe acute respiratory failure and myocardial depression, that has a high mortality rate. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) could be a valuable therapeutic tool in such patients. We report a 24 years old male with HPS that was successfully managed when an arterio-venous shunt was added to a conventional veno-arterial ECLS technique. Precise criteria have been developed to predict which patients should be considered for this treatment <![CDATA[<b>HDL cholesterol</b>: <b>A new target in the treatment of lipid disorders and atherosclerosis?</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Low plasma HDL cholesterol levels are an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. During the past years, the study of HDL has been stimulated by the discovery of novel genes and proteins, which have provided new insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in HDL metabolism. In addition, recent clinical studies focused on treating low HDL as primary objective in high cardiovascular risk patients have been very encouraging. Furthermore, new drugs for raising HDL cholesterol are under development. This article reviews the recent progress in the HDL field and its important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of atherosclerosis. In the near future, we expect that new drugs with specific and beneficial effects on HDL metabolism and the associated cardiovascular risk should improve the current approach to this disease with high burden on health systems and society <![CDATA[<b>Globalization of higher education in Europe</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt At the present time, higher education is a central process shaping the society of knowledge. The mutual strength of society and education influence worldwide changes. Globalization, that mainly embraces politics and commerce, is also promoting changes in professional training, modifying programs, structures and the organization of superior education. The European example is attractive and has a great projection. It will cause a profound impact in culture, development and life of Europeans. Universities in Latin America, in an attempt to achieve the same objectives than their European counterparts, are experiencing premonitory changes, that will have the same effects as in Europe. In the medical area, several changes will occur and we will have to provide initiatives to facilitate these changes in a timely manner. The revision of the model in its inception, is convenient to assimilate changes in our culture <![CDATA[<b>Bioethical issues involvedin the prescription of levonorgestrel</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The use of levonorgestrel for emergency post coital contraception after rape, has raised strong and recurring discussions during 2004 and 2005 in Chile. The debate has been centered in its presumed post fertilization or anti implantation effect, that some consider an abortive action. There are no scientific evidences supporting this effect, with divergences about the ontological status of the embryo. Therefore, the use of levonorgestrel implies bioethical decisions that, in a democratic and pluralistic society, should be solved considering individual and collective responsibilities, conditions of equity and the informed autonomy of the affected women. Their moral values and their capacity to assume the consequences of an assault on their dignity, honor and self-esteem, in addition to physical and mental injuries, should also be considered <![CDATA[<b>Molecular diagnosis of <i>Cryptosporidium spp</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The use of levonorgestrel for emergency post coital contraception after rape, has raised strong and recurring discussions during 2004 and 2005 in Chile. The debate has been centered in its presumed post fertilization or anti implantation effect, that some consider an abortive action. There are no scientific evidences supporting this effect, with divergences about the ontological status of the embryo. Therefore, the use of levonorgestrel implies bioethical decisions that, in a democratic and pluralistic society, should be solved considering individual and collective responsibilities, conditions of equity and the informed autonomy of the affected women. Their moral values and their capacity to assume the consequences of an assault on their dignity, honor and self-esteem, in addition to physical and mental injuries, should also be considered <![CDATA[<b><i>Peer-reviewers in Revista Médica de Chile, year 2004</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The use of levonorgestrel for emergency post coital contraception after rape, has raised strong and recurring discussions during 2004 and 2005 in Chile. The debate has been centered in its presumed post fertilization or anti implantation effect, that some consider an abortive action. There are no scientific evidences supporting this effect, with divergences about the ontological status of the embryo. Therefore, the use of levonorgestrel implies bioethical decisions that, in a democratic and pluralistic society, should be solved considering individual and collective responsibilities, conditions of equity and the informed autonomy of the affected women. Their moral values and their capacity to assume the consequences of an assault on their dignity, honor and self-esteem, in addition to physical and mental injuries, should also be considered <![CDATA[<b>GUÍAS DE ATENCIÓN PEDIÁTRICA. Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005000700016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The use of levonorgestrel for emergency post coital contraception after rape, has raised strong and recurring discussions during 2004 and 2005 in Chile. The debate has been centered in its presumed post fertilization or anti implantation effect, that some consider an abortive action. There are no scientific evidences supporting this effect, with divergences about the ontological status of the embryo. Therefore, the use of levonorgestrel implies bioethical decisions that, in a democratic and pluralistic society, should be solved considering individual and collective responsibilities, conditions of equity and the informed autonomy of the affected women. Their moral values and their capacity to assume the consequences of an assault on their dignity, honor and self-esteem, in addition to physical and mental injuries, should also be considered