Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> vol. 133 num. 8 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b><i>Evidence and decision making process</i></b>]]> <![CDATA[<b><i>Promoter methylation profile in gastric cancer</i></b>]]> Background:Promoter genomic DNA methylation is an important inactivation mechanism of tumor suppressor genes. This genetic-molecular pathway for cancer may separate a subset of patients with different prognoses and eventually different responses to specific therapies. Aim: To analyze the methylation pattern of important genes related to different carcinogenic mechanisms in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and the relationship with its morphological features and biological behavior. Material and methods: Forty-seven fresh-frozen GC samples were selected. The methylation-specific PCR (MSP) test was used to analyze promoter methylation status for genes MLH1, CDKN2A (p16), APC, CDH1 (Cadherin E) and FHIT. Follow-up and complete morphological features were obtained for all cases. Results: We found methylation in at least one of the genes studied in 83% of the cases. The frequencies of promoter hypermethylation of MLH1, CDKN2A, APC, CDH1 and FHIT were 31%, 43%, 46%, 80% y 62%, respectively. We found a relationship between APC methylation and good histological differentiation (p=0.03); CDH1 methylation with diffuse type by Lauren and 3 or more metastasic lymph nodes (p <0.05); FHIT, CDKN2A and CDH1 methylation and female condition (p <0.04). We also found a non-significant relationship between CDKN2A methylation and better survival (p=0.07). Conclusions: The high frequency promoter methylation found confirms its importance in gastric carcinogenesis. The finding of alterations in the methylation pattern of genes studied and its association with prognostic factors is a helpful tool in the search for new criteria in clinical and therapeutic decision making <![CDATA[<b><i>Myocardial revascularization of the anterior descending coronary artery with left internal mammary artery by means of extracorporeal circulation</i></b>: <b><i>10 years follow-up</i></b>]]> Background: The use of left internal mammary artery (LIMA) as a graft to anterior descending artery (LAD) has been associated with better long term results in coronary surgery. Aim: To assess and report the long-term results of LIMA to LAD bypass grafting for isolated LDA lesions. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of the medical records and surgical protocols of 40 patients (aged 60±10 years, 28 male) subjected to coronary surgery between 1992 and 2002. Results: Thirty-four patients presented with unstable angina. On angiography, the LAD had a proximal obstruction in 35 patients. Sixteen presented with a myocardial infarction of the LAD territory. Six were managed previously with angioplasty; four had a new critical obstruction, 1 was catalogued as a procedure failure, and one was totally occluded. There was no operative mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke or need for re operation. There were two late deaths, caused by an advanced cardiac failure at 120 months in one patient, and chronic renal failure at 61 months of follow-up in another. Actuarial survival probability was 100%, 93% and 75% at 1, 5 and 10 years. Probability of freedom from angina was 98%, and freedom of suffering a new myocardial infarction was 100% at more than 10 years. The probability of no need for a new coronary procedure (angioplasty or surgery) also was 100% at more than 10 years. Conclusions: The use of LIMA as a coronary bypass graft to LAD is a safe surgical technique, with an excellent duration and permeability and also provides a prolonged time free from cardiac events as mortality, angina, myocardial infarction, and the need of a new coronary procedure <![CDATA[<b><i>Autologous transplant (AT) with peripheral-blood stem-cell rescue for multiple myeloma</i></b>: <b><i>A clinical experience</i></b>]]> Background:Multiple myeloma is rarely curable. Advances in high dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation have improved overall survival and event-free disease periods, but relapses are inevitable. Aim: To report our experience with AT in multiple myeloma, between 1994 and 2003. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 20 patients (12 women), with a mean age of 51.1 years. VAD (vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone) was used as initial therapy in 19 patients. High dose cyclophosphamide (11 patients) and variations of VAD regimen (7) associated with granulocyte colony stimulating factor were used for peripheral-blood stem cell harvest. The conditioning regimen consisted of melphalan 200 mg/m² followed by the reinfusion of peripheral-blood stem cells 24 hours later. The median number of CD34 cells infused was 3,3x10(6)/kg. Three patients were subjected to a second auto graft and one to a non-myeloablative transplant. Mean follow up was 35.5 months. Results: Mucositis and febrile neutropenia were common complications. The median number of days for neutrophyl engraftment was 9 (range 8-11) and for platelets, 10 (range 7-13). No patient died. Complete remission was obtained in 60% (12/20), progession-free survival was 30 months and overall median survival, 47 months. Conclusions: The AT with high-dose melphalan is a safe procedure in our hospital, without mortality and engraftment in all the patients. Complete remission and progression free survival were similar to those reported abroad but the overall median survival was lower <![CDATA[<b><i>Anxiety disorders among patients hospitalized in a medical ward</i></b>]]> Background:Anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders are common among medical patients, however few studies differentiate both and consider the psychiatric comorbidity of anxiety disorders among such patients. Aim: To evaluate the presence of anxiety disorders among patients admitted to a medical ward. Patients and methods: Random selection of 406 patients (mean age 56 years, 203 female), hospitalized in a medical ward of a public hospital, mainly for cardiovascular, genitourinary and digestive diseases. All were assessed using an structured interview for DSM-III-R. Results: Twenty six percent of women and 13% of men had anxiety disorders. Fifteen percent of women and 6% of men had specific phobias, 7% of women and 4% of men had generalized anxiety, 5% of women and 0.5% of men had agoraphobia, 3% of women and 0.5% of men had social phobia, 1% of men and 0.5% of women had panic disorders and 0.5% of women had a post traumatic stress. Specific phobias and social phobias started during childhood. Anxiety and agoraphobia started during adulthood. Among patients with anxiety disorders, 43% of women and 34% of men did not have other psychiatric ailment, 34% of women and 19% of men had an associated depression and 34% of men had disorders due to use of alcohol. Conclusions: A high proportion of patients hospitalized in medical wards have anxiety disorders, that once identified it may help to treat the medical ailments <![CDATA[<b><i>Activity of cefpodoxime against pathogens causing respiratory, urinary or soft tissue infections</i></b>]]> Background: Cefpodoxime is a new antimicrobial in the Chilean market, recommended for treatment of respiratory and urinary tract infections. Aim: To study the susceptibility of common pathogens isolated from Chilean patients to cefpodoxime and other antimicrobials. Material and methods: The in vitro activity of cefpodoxime, expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration, was studied in 331 S pneumoniae, H influenzae, M catarrhalis, E coli, S aureus and S pyogenes strains, isolated between 2000 and 2004 from respiratory, urinary and soft tissue infections, respectively. Results: Eleven percent of S pneumoniae isolates were resistant to penicillin, 11% were resistant to cefuroxime and 10% to cefpodoxime. All H influenzae isolates were susceptible to cefpodoxime. No H influenzae isolates were resistant to second or third generation cephalosporines. Four percent of H influenzae isolates were resistant to ampicillin by ß-lactamase production. In contrast 81% of M catarrhalis strains were resistant to ampicillin. Six percent of E coli isolates were resistant to cefpodoxime, 9% to cefuroxime, 11% to cefadroxile and 50% to ampicillin or trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Cefpodoxime was the most active antimicrobial against S pyogenes. Conclusions: Cefpodoxime, recently introduced in Chile, is a good alternative for the treatment of common respiratory and urinary tract infections <![CDATA[<b><i>Clinical features of respiratory infections due to influenza virus in hospitalized children</i></b>]]> Background: Infants and toddlers have the highest influenza hospitalization rate in pediatrics. Although the impact of this virus in children has been recognized, there is no defined statement related to vaccination in this population. Aim: To describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of complicated influenza infections in hospitalized children. Material and methods: All hospitalizations due to influenza virus were recorded prospectively between March and June 2004. Results: We registered 40 laboratory-confirmed influenza admissions. Median age was 24 months (range: 15 days-14.5 years), 52% males, 18 younger than 2 years. Most of them had an underlying medical condition. The most common conditions were recurrent wheeze in 17, a neurological disease in 7 and asthma in 6. Twenty had more than one condition and 15 were previously healthy. The average days of respiratory symptoms and fever prior to admission were 5 and 3, respectively. The most common discharge diagnoses were concomitant viral-bacterial pneumonia in 53%, viral pneumonia in 38% and laryngitis in 8%. Influenza virus A was identified in 34/40 children. Oxygen supplementation was required by 34 cases; 20% of which required an O2 inspired fraction over 40%. The average days of hospitalization and oxygen were 4 and 3, respectively. Eleven children were treated with amantadine and 21 with antimicrobials. Four children were admitted to pediatric intensive care units and two cases required non-invasive ventilatory support. No deaths were recorded. Conclusions: Our data confirms the importance of influenza virus infection in children, as measured by admission rates, complications and length of hospital stay. Young children are a risk group for which immunization is recognized as protective <![CDATA[<b><i>Risk factors for non communicable chronic diseases among workers of a financial company</i></b>]]> Background: The epidemic of cardiovascular diseases in Chile, requires the development of strategies in health promotion and prevention. Aim: To assess the prevalence of risk factors for chronic non communicable diseases among workers of a financial company in Metropolitan Santiago. Material and Methods: Assessment of 2,225 workers (1,383 males with a median age of 49 years and 842 females with a median age of 43 years). All answered an enquiry about education, medical history, smoking habits and physical activity. Body mass index and blood pressure were measured and a blood sample was obtained to measure blood glucose and lipid levels. Logistic repression models were used to determine the main risk factors for hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and hyperuricemia. Results: Sixteen percent of studied subjects were obese, 49% had overweight, 57% had hypercholesterolemia, 28% had high blood pressure, 4% were diabetic, 4% had hyperuricemia, 45% smoked and 83% were sedentary. Each worker had a mean of 2.4±1.1 risk factors. This figure was significantly higher among men, obese subjects, those older than 40 years and those with a lower educational level. Conclusions: There is an important disease burden among the studied subjects, specially among obese and older individuals. Healthy lifestyles should be promoted in this population <![CDATA[<b><i>Reproductive history of women consulting in emergency services in a southern region of Chile</i></b>]]> Background: The occurrence and timing of menstrual and reproductive events such as menarche, regularity of menses, births, maternal breastfeeding and menopause play an important role in a woman's life. Aim: To study the variability of reproductive live from menarche to menopause in different age groups in Chilean Caucasian and Mapuche aborigine females in a southern location of Chile. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire about reproductive history was answered by 502 women consulting in six general emergency rooms of different public hospitals of the 8th region of Chile, between May and September 2002. Results: The median age at menarche was 12.8 years among adolescents and 13.7 years among older women (p <0.001). Fecundity rate was 5.2, 3.9 and 1.8 among older women, adults and young adults, respectively. Forty seven percent of adolescent had at least one child. The median age for natural menopause was 47 years. Eighty one percent of older women and 65% of adult women had given breastfeeding for more than six months. No statistical differences in reproductive characteristics were observed between Chilean Caucasians and Mapuche aborigines. Conclusions: Among these women, the age of menarche in younger women is similar to that of women from industrialized countries. Fecundity has been progressively decreasing. Menopause tends to occur sooner than in other geographical regions, probably due to the high number of surgical sterilizations in our population. Adolescent pregnancy still is a problem <![CDATA[<b><i>High prevalence of Down syndrome in the Rancagua Hospital in central Chile</i></b>]]> Background: The Latin American Collaborative Study for Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) has detected a higher incidence of Down syndrome in a zone of central Chile than in the rest of the country. Aim: To analyze the incidence rates of Down syndrome between 1997 and 2003 at the Regional Hospital of Rancagua, located 90 km south of Santiago, Chile. Material and methods: The information obtained by ECLAMC was used. This program, using a case control methodology, registers all newborns with congenital malformations and assigns, as a control, the next normal newborn of the same sex. Results: During the study period, 106 newborns with Down syndrome were registered, with a mean rate of 29.61 per 10,000 live births, twice higher than expected. The rate variations along the years of study suggest a cyclic change, with a hemicycle of six years. Conclusions: In this hospital, mothers under 35 years of age, have twice the risk of having a child with Down syndrome, than in the rest of the country <![CDATA[<b><i>Splenic artery aneurysm</i></b>: <b><i>Case report</i></b>]]> Splenic artery aneurysms are rare and occur predominantly in women. Most of them are asymptomatic until rupture. We report a previously healthy 73 year-old woman who presented with non specific symptoms: dyspepsia and constipation. Laboratory tests were normal. Subsequent examinations (ultrasound and CT) showed a large aneurysm of the splenic artery without any sign of rupture. Endovascular treatment remained successfully performed using coil embolization. During a 12-months follow-up period, the patient was asymptomatic and no evidences of complications or splenic infarction were observed on CT scans <![CDATA[<b><i>Severe hyperkalemia associated to the use of losartan and spironolactone</i></b>: <b><i>Case report</i></b>]]> Hyperkalemia is a complications of the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists and aldosterone antagonists. These drugs are commonly used for the treatment of hypertension and cardiac failure. We report a 84 year-old female treated with losartan 50 mg/day and spironolactone 25 mg/day that presented with a hyperkalemia of 8.4 mEq/l and bradicardia, drowsiness and respiratory depression. She required hemodialysis and ventilatory assistance. She was discharged in good conditions five days after admission <![CDATA[<b><i>Summary of the Consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults</i></b>]]> This is an update of the Consensus for treatment of community acquired pneumonia in adults, prepared by the Chilean Society of Respiratory Diseases and the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases. These norms were prepared by thirty specialists in respiratory diseases, internal medicine, infectious diseases, microbiology, intensive medicine and radiology. The purpose of the document is to norm the management of immunocompetent adults with community acquired pneumonia, by the public and private health systems of our country. The complete document will be published in June, in the respective journals of the Societies of Respiratory and Infectious Diseases. This is a summary to obtain a better diffusion of these norms among internists and general practitioners <![CDATA[<b><i>Emergent therapies for rheumatoid arthritis</i></b>]]> The use of biological agents such as etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and anakinra has been recently approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. All are effective controlling signs and symptoms and inhibiting disease progression. To overcome the problems generated by their high costs and possible participation in reactivating latent infections, other therapeutic tools are being developed. Gene therapy using expression vectors carrying genes coding for specific proteins, may interfere in key points involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Intra-articular administration of cDNA coding for soluble TNF receptors, IL-1, or IL-1Ra decreases signs of the disease in animal models. Vectors, expressing inhibitors of signal transduction pathways involving to NF-kB and JAK-STAT-3, are effective in modulating joint inflammation in mice. The use of antigen-pulsed antigen presenting cells or dendritic cells (DC) bound to apoptosis-inducing molecules, specifically eliminates autoreactive T cells. Other novel approach attempts the development of T regulatory-inducing tolerogenic DC-based vaccines that inhibit autoreactive T cells, through the secretion of suppressing cytokines or by other mechanisms to be elucidated. Oral tolerance induction to auto-antigens is also a successful experimental strategy under study. Current research aims to control peripheral tolerance in rheumatoid arthritis patients <![CDATA[<b><i>Evidence based medicine</i></b>: <b><i>Theoretical and conceptual issues</i></b>]]> Evidence based decision making in medicine is, nowadays, a movement with political and practical implications. This article performs a historical description of evidence based medicine and its underlying conceptual and philosophical premises. An open dialogue to recognize the diverse sources of evidence that modify clinical practice is proposed, to improve decision making in this field <![CDATA[<b><i>Death as a moment of peace and trust</i></b>]]> A young woman with aphagia, probably caused by an esophageal cancer that could not be confirmed, is reported. Fully respecting the will of the patient at the end of her life, palliative care measures were instituted, even though the diagnosis was uncertain. This case emphasizes the integrative role of internists and the difficulty of making decisions about life and death without being in close touch with desires of our patients