Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720050012&lang=es vol. 133 num. 12 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<b>Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria y trastornos afectivos</b>: <b>Un estudio comparativo</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The relationship between eating disorders and affective disorders still remains unclear. Eating disordered patients may have affective disorders and vice versa, depressed and maniac patients may experience eating problems. Aim: To compare eating symptoms, attitudes and behaviors in patients with affective disorders and normal subjects. Subjects and methods: A structured clinical interview, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) were administered to 194 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders, to 45 patients with affective disorders and to 82 normal female students. Results: Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and on the EDI and its factors (p <0.001). Patients with affective disorders ranked between eating disordered patients and the students (p <0.001). Compulsive-purgative type of anorectics and purgative type of bulimics showed the highest scores on these measures (p <0.001). Restrictive type of anorectics scored significantly highest on EDI maturity fears item (p <0.001). Not significant difference was observed on the EDI ineffectiveness item, between purgative bulimics and depressive patients and between the latter and compulsive-purgative anorexics, on the EDI interpersonal distrust item. Conclusions: Compulsive-purgative type of anorectics and purgative type of bulimics showed the more severe psychological and behavioral disturbances. Restrictive types of anorectics were the most immature. Both purgative bulimics and depressive patients showed feelings of general inadequacy, and both compulsive-purgative anorexics and depressive patients displayed an interpersonal distrust. As a whole, patients with affective disorders did not show the core eating disordered behaviors and attitudes as seen in patients suffering from eating problems (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1407-14) <![CDATA[<b>Asociación de la región microsatélite AGAT del gen receptor de mineralocorticoides con los niveles de actividad renina en hipertensos esenciales</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Hypertensive states could result from constitutive activation of mineralorticoid receptor (MR) that generates salt retention and blood pressure elevation. Moreover, microsatellite regions can be associated to the regulation of the gene expression, producing subtle pathologies. Aim: To determine the influence of microsatellite marker AGAT of the mineralocorticoid receptor gene in the plasma renin activity (PRA) and serum aldosterone (SA) levels of essential hypertensives (HT). Patients and Methods: We studied 292 HT patients and 57 normotensive (NT) controls. Blood samples were collected for PRA, SA and DNA isolation. Subjects were genotyped according to the length of the tetranucleotide AGAT repeat using polymerase chain reaction and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Based on the normal distribution, we considered 13 to 15 repeats as a habitual (H) length and less than 13 or more than 15 repeats, as non-habitual (non-H). Results: We detected 8 different lengths in the AGAT repeat (allele) in both groups, ranging from 9-17 repeats, where the allele 11 was not detected in either hypertensive or normotensive groups. The allelic distribution was different in both groups (c²=37.57, 4GL, p <0.001). In hypertensive patients, the H group showed higher PRA levels (median (Q1-Q3)) than the non-H group: 1.3 (0-7-3.5) vs 1.0 (0.5-2.3) ng/mL*h, p <0.05. The SA levels did not show differences between both groups, but the SA*PRA product was higher in the H group than the no-H group: 9.3 (3.0-24.6) vs 6.5 (2.5-14.6) p <0.05. In normotensive patients, no differences were observed in PRA, SA and SA*PRA between both groups. Conclusion: These results show association between the length of the AGAT repeat with the PRA in HT, suggesting a plausible role in the control of the MR gene expression, and secondarily in the regulation of blood pressure (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1415-23) <![CDATA[<b>Factor V Leiden y mutación de la protrombina G20210A en pacientes con trombosis venosa y arterial</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Factor V Leiden and G20210A mutation of prothrombin gene are two important genetic polymorphisms associated with an increased risk for thrombosis. Aim: To establish the prevalence of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation in the Chilean population and their association to venous and arterial thromboembolism. Material and methods: A case-control study was conducted where 149 patients with thrombosis (87 with arterial and 62 with venous thrombosis) confirmed by CAT-scan, electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes or Doppler depending on the case, and 160 healthy blood donors were genetically analyzed for the presence of both polymorphisms. Results: Factor V Leiden mutation was found in 5.4% of patients and in 1.3% of healthy controls (p=0.04). Heterozygosity for G20210A prothrombin mutation was found in 5.4% of patients and in 2.5% of the control group (p=NS). When arterial and venous thrombosis were considered as separate entities, 4.6% of patients with arterial thrombosis and 6.5% with venous thrombosis presented factor V Leiden (p=NS). Likewise, 8.1% of patients with venous thrombosis and 3.5% of patients with arterial thrombosis had G20210A prothrombin mutation (p=NS). Conclusions: In non selected consecutive Chilean patients with arterial and venous thrombosis the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A is less than we could expect from their prevalence in the general population (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1425-33) <![CDATA[<b>Mutación del gen K-ras en tumores pancreático-biliares</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The ras gene family (H-ras, N-ras and K-ras) are oncogenes that mutate frequently in human cancer, specially in tumors of the biliary tract and pancreas. Aim: To determine the frequency of K-ras gene codon 12 mutation in pancreatic and biliary tumors. Material and Methods: Samples of 35 gallbladder, 15 ampulla of Vater, 10 biliary tract and 9 pancreatic tumors, were analyzed. The tumor tissue was microdissected from paraffin embedded biopsies. The mutation was detected by a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: Overall, 46% of samples had K-ras gene mutations. Mutation frequency was 80, 56, 50 and 29% for ampulla of Vater, pancreatic, biliary tract and gallbladder tumors, respectively. When compared with the rest, gallbladder tumors had a significantly lower frequency of the mutation. Median survival for biliary tract tumors was 6 months, compared with 65 months for gallbladder tumors (p <0.05). Conclusions: Gallbladder carcinoma had the lower frequency of K-ras mutation, when compared with pancreatic, biliary tract and ampulla of Vater tumors (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1434-40) <![CDATA[<b>Uso de plasmaféresis en unidades de pacientes críticos</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Plasmapheresis is a therapeutic alternative for diseases in which a "humoral factor" has pathogenetic relevance. However it is not devoid of adverse effects. Aim: To review the indications, number of procedures, morbidity and clinical evolution of plasmapheresis in critical patients. Patients and Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study in four intensive care units of an University hospital. The severity of patients was evaluated with APACHE II and SOFA scores. Results: Twenty patients were studied. The most common indications of plasmapheresis were thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in 50% of subjects and small vessel vasculitides in 30%. The number of procedures per patient oscillated between 2 and 14 (mean: 7.1±3.3). The registered adverse effects were hypocalcemia in 50% of patients, hypotension in 42.1%, coagulopathy in 35%, hypokalemia in 29%, rash in 20%, procedure related infections in 18% and fever in 10%. There was a significant decrease of 17±28% in prothrombin time, after the procedures. Seventy five percent of patients had a favorable evolution. Global mortality rate was 15%. All deaths occurred in patients with TTP and were attributed to the progression of the disease. No death was attributed to the procedure. The initial APACHE II and SOFA scores were 12.4±8.4 and 5.3±2.9, respectively. Both scores decreased after the procedure. Among other therapeutic measures, 15% of the patients received immunosuppressant treatment, 27% were dialyzed and 32% were mechanically ventilated. Conclusions: The most common indication of plasmapheresis was TTP. Adverse effects were frequent, however there was no procedure related mortality. The global mortality rate was 15% and all deaths occurred in patients with TTP (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1441-48) <![CDATA[<b>Subdiagnóstico de <i>delirium </i>en adultos mayores hospitalizados</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Delirium is a common underdiagnosed and undertreated problem in elderly inpatients, associated to higher morbidity, mortality and health cost. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of delirium at hospital admission in medically ill elderly patients and the attending physician's diagnosis and treatment of delirium. Patients and methods: In a prospective and descriptive study, consecutive patients aged 65 years or more, admitted to an internal medicine ward were evaluated by independent physicians, during the first 48 h of admission, to asses the presence of delirium. Diagnosis of delirium was based on the Confusion Assessment Method. Medical and nurse records were reviewed. Family was interviewed when necessary. Results: One hundred eight patients (52% women, age range 65-94 years) with an APACHE II score of 11.6±5, were evaluated. Fifty seven patients (53%) had delirium (32% hyperactive, 72% hypoactive and 5% mixed). Delirium prevalence was significantly higher in older patients (66% among those aged 75 years or older versus 30% in younger, p <0.05) and among patients with more severe conditions (88% among those with an APACHE score over 16 versus 47% below that value, p <0.05). Medical records of patients with delirium showed that this diagnosis was present only in 32% and cognitive deficit was described in 73%. Ten percent of patients with delirium received sedative medication and 38% were physically restricted. There were no environmental interventions to prevent or control delirium. Conclusions: Delirium in elderly inpatients at this unit is an extraordinarily prevalent problem, seriously under diagnosed (68%) and under treated. This study should alerts our medical community to improve the diagnosis and management of delirium in elderly inpatients (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1449-54) <![CDATA[<b>Dosis de diálisis, nutrición y crecimiento en diálisis peritoneal pediátrica</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Stunting is common among pediatric patients on peritoneal dialysis. Aim: To stablish the best profile for urea kinetic variables associated to growth in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Patients and Methods: Twenty patients, aged 1 month to 14 years, 13 males, were followed for 6-12 months, with monthly measurements of weight/age and height/age Z score; plasma creatinine, BUN, protein and albumin and urine and dialysate urea nitrogen, creatinine, protein and albumin. Minimum total Kt/V was 2.1. Dialysis dose (Kt/V), Protein Equivalent of Urea Nitrogen Appearence (PNA), Protein Catabolic Rate (PCR) and Nitrogen Balance (NB) were calculated. To identify the variable(s) associated to growth, the Tree Classification Model (CART) Enterprise Miner 8.1 was applied. Results: Mean total/residual Kt/V: 3.4±1.3/1.69±1.27; Daily Protein Intake (DPI) was 3.25±1.27 g/kg/day. nPNA, PCR and NB were 1.37±0.44, 0.84±0.33 and 1.86±1.25 g/kg/day, respectively. Mean heigth/age Z score was -2.3±1.19. Eleven patients showed a positive height/age delta Z (mean 0.55±0.38) and nine showed a negative growth (mean -0.50±0.42). The main variable explaining the positive growth was a Nitrogen Balance between 0.54 and 2.37 g/kg/day, mean 1.55±0.21 (p <0.001). The second associated variable to growth was a residual Kt/V between 0.43 and 4.6 (2.02±0.49) (p <0.05). Kt/V and nPNA showed a significant correlation, but no correlation could be found between Kt/V and NB. Conclusions: Nitrogen Balance was the main variable associated to growth in pediatric PD, with values between 0.53 to 2.38 g/kg/day. The second variable was a residual Kt/V between 0.43 and 4.6. Therapy should be reassessed with NB values less than 0.54 or above 2.37 g/kg/day (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1455-65) <![CDATA[<b>Presencia de Bartonella henselae en gatos</b>: <b>cuantificación del reservorio natural y riesgo de exposición humana de esta zoonosis en Chile </b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The availability of a serologic test for cat scratch disease in humans has allowed the diagnosis of an increasing number of cases of this disease in Chile. Aim: To perform a serological survey for Bartonella henselae among cats in Chile. Material and methods: Blood samples from 187 cats living in three Chilean cities were obtained. IgG antibodies againts Bartonella henselae were measured using indirect immunofluorescence. Blood cultures were done in 60 samples. The presence of Bartonella henselae in positive cultures was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polimerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Results: The general prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae was 85.6%. No differences in this prevalence were found among cats younger or older than 1 year, or those infested or not infested with fleas. However domestic cats had a lower prevalence when compared with stray cats (73 and 90% respectively, p <0.01). Bartonella henselae was isolated in 41% of blood cultures. All the isolated were confirmed as Bartonella henselae by RFLP-PCR. Conclusions: This study found an important reservoir of Bartonella henselae in Chilean cats and therefore a high risk of exposure in humans who have contact with them (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1465-71) <![CDATA[<b>Uso de octreotide (análogo de somatostatina) en un caso de quilotórax bilateral secundario a linfoma </b>: <b><i>Report of one case</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Since chylothorax is uncommon and has multiple causes, its best treatment choice is not clear. Recent reports show that octreotide is useful in the treatment of chlylothorax secondary to cancer or caused by surgical procedures. We report a 21 years old male with a chylothorax secondary to a non Hodgkin lymphoma. Treatment with octreotide changed the color and triglyceride content of pleural effusion. Serum albumin and proteins increased and the effusion subsided after the second cycle of chemotherapy with CHOP. Thus octreotide was discontinued on the 27th day of therapy and pleural drainages were whithdrawn. He was discharged in good conditions, 38 days after admission (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1473-76) <![CDATA[<b>Tromboembolismo pulmonar con compromiso hemodinámico</b>: <b>Tratamiento con trombólisis farmacológica y fragmentación mecánica. Caso clínico </b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Pulmonary Embolism (PE) has a wide clinical spectrum. It is imperative to detect patients with a high risk to develop right ventricular failure, because this is the main cause of death in patients with massive PE. In this group of patients, invasive therapies to relieve pulmonary obstruction and right ventricle overload should be used as soon as possible. We report a 85 years old male with massive PE treated with pharmacological thrombolysis and mechanical fragmentation with an angioplasty balloon. Pulmonary perfusion improved significantly. Afterwards, systemic anticoagulation was started and an inferior vena cava filter was installed percutaneously. The patient was discharged in good conditions, five days after admission (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1477-82) <![CDATA[<b>Nuevos receptores nucleares heterodiméricos</b>: <b>reguladores metabólicos con impacto en fisiopatología y su proyección terapéutica en dislipidemias y diabetes mellitus </b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The regulation of gene expression is crucial for the normal development and the homeostatic maintenance of body tissues. Thus, its malfunction may determine a variety of human disease conditions. A growing body of evidence has shown the overwhelming relevance of a new class of gene expression regulators: the heterodimeric nuclear receptors, a family of structurally related proteins involved in multiple biological functions. In response to activating ligands, these molecules bind to specific genomic regulatory regions where they can coordinately modify the transcriptional activity of several genes involved in the main metabolic pathways of lipids and carbohydrates in cells. These functional properties have stimulated the study of the relationships between heterodimeric nuclear receptors and various disease conditions, such as dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus. Here we review the experimental, clinical and epidemiological evidences that support the relevance of these transcriptional regulators in the pathophysiology of the most prevalent and lethal diseases in Western countries. We also explore the potential therapeutic impact of new strategies based in the pharmacological modulation of the heterodimeric nuclear receptors. (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1483-92) <![CDATA[<b>Experiencia de plan piloto para pacientes del FONASA portadores de arritmias atendidos en el Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile </b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The costs of medical care increase along with technological advances. Therefore, highly complex and expensive procedures should be performed in a limited number of institutions. Aim: To report the initial experience on electrophysiological studies performed to beneficiaries of a public health insurance system in Chile (FONASA). Material and methods: An agreement was reached between the Electrophysiology Unit of the Clinical Hospital of the Catholic University and FONASA, to perform electrophysiological studies at a minimal cost, that only considered disposable materials and hospital stay. Thirty patients with supraventricular arrhythmias or ventricular arrhythmias without an associated cardiopathy, were attended using this agreement at the unit. Results: In all treated patients, arrhythmias disappeared. Costs remained within the assigned budget, excepting occasional complementary tests. Conclusions: This pioneering experience demonstrated that it is possible that public health insurance systems can buy complex and expensive procedures to private hospitals (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1493-9) <![CDATA[<b>Semblanza del Profesor Dr. Hernán Alessandri R</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hernán Alessandri, a renowned Chilean medical educator, was born in Santiago in 1900. He received his medical degree at the University of Chile in 1923. When in 1927 his father, then President of Chile, was sent into exile, he used the opportunity to deepen his medical knowledge in France and Germany. At the University of Chile, he became successively Professor of Clinical Medicine (1932), of Medical Semiology (1937), and Full Professor and Chair of Medicine (1944). At the Hospital del Salvador in Santiago, he organized a Clinical Department exemplary for its discipline, academic environment and dedication to patients and students. He was one of the prime movers for the reform of medical teaching in 1943, created medical residency programs for the training of specialists in 1952, served as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine from 1958 to 1962, and was a founding member of the Chilean Academy of Medicine (1964). He was the first Latin American to be named Honorary Member of the American College of Physicians (1968) and became Emeritus Professor of the University of Chile in 1973. He died in his hometown in 1982. His disciples and friends established in his honor a social and teaching foundation which they named after him. His clinical and diagnostic skills, along with his outstanding intelligence, made him the most brilliant clinician of his time and an exceptional medical educator who has inspired several generations of physicians (Rev Méd 2005; 133: 1500-3) <![CDATA[<b>Maestros de la Medicina Interna Chilena </b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hernán Alessandri, a renowned Chilean medical educator, was born in Santiago in 1900. He received his medical degree at the University of Chile in 1923. When in 1927 his father, then President of Chile, was sent into exile, he used the opportunity to deepen his medical knowledge in France and Germany. At the University of Chile, he became successively Professor of Clinical Medicine (1932), of Medical Semiology (1937), and Full Professor and Chair of Medicine (1944). At the Hospital del Salvador in Santiago, he organized a Clinical Department exemplary for its discipline, academic environment and dedication to patients and students. He was one of the prime movers for the reform of medical teaching in 1943, created medical residency programs for the training of specialists in 1952, served as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine from 1958 to 1962, and was a founding member of the Chilean Academy of Medicine (1964). He was the first Latin American to be named Honorary Member of the American College of Physicians (1968) and became Emeritus Professor of the University of Chile in 1973. He died in his hometown in 1982. His disciples and friends established in his honor a social and teaching foundation which they named after him. His clinical and diagnostic skills, along with his outstanding intelligence, made him the most brilliant clinician of his time and an exceptional medical educator who has inspired several generations of physicians (Rev Méd 2005; 133: 1500-3) <![CDATA[<b>Internadi rural</b>: <b>Una experiencia de aprendizaje inolvidable y significativa en la carrera de medicina </b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hernán Alessandri, a renowned Chilean medical educator, was born in Santiago in 1900. He received his medical degree at the University of Chile in 1923. When in 1927 his father, then President of Chile, was sent into exile, he used the opportunity to deepen his medical knowledge in France and Germany. At the University of Chile, he became successively Professor of Clinical Medicine (1932), of Medical Semiology (1937), and Full Professor and Chair of Medicine (1944). At the Hospital del Salvador in Santiago, he organized a Clinical Department exemplary for its discipline, academic environment and dedication to patients and students. He was one of the prime movers for the reform of medical teaching in 1943, created medical residency programs for the training of specialists in 1952, served as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine from 1958 to 1962, and was a founding member of the Chilean Academy of Medicine (1964). He was the first Latin American to be named Honorary Member of the American College of Physicians (1968) and became Emeritus Professor of the University of Chile in 1973. He died in his hometown in 1982. His disciples and friends established in his honor a social and teaching foundation which they named after him. His clinical and diagnostic skills, along with his outstanding intelligence, made him the most brilliant clinician of his time and an exceptional medical educator who has inspired several generations of physicians (Rev Méd 2005; 133: 1500-3) <![CDATA[<b>Examen Médico Nacional </b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872005001200016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hernán Alessandri, a renowned Chilean medical educator, was born in Santiago in 1900. He received his medical degree at the University of Chile in 1923. When in 1927 his father, then President of Chile, was sent into exile, he used the opportunity to deepen his medical knowledge in France and Germany. At the University of Chile, he became successively Professor of Clinical Medicine (1932), of Medical Semiology (1937), and Full Professor and Chair of Medicine (1944). At the Hospital del Salvador in Santiago, he organized a Clinical Department exemplary for its discipline, academic environment and dedication to patients and students. He was one of the prime movers for the reform of medical teaching in 1943, created medical residency programs for the training of specialists in 1952, served as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine from 1958 to 1962, and was a founding member of the Chilean Academy of Medicine (1964). He was the first Latin American to be named Honorary Member of the American College of Physicians (1968) and became Emeritus Professor of the University of Chile in 1973. He died in his hometown in 1982. His disciples and friends established in his honor a social and teaching foundation which they named after him. His clinical and diagnostic skills, along with his outstanding intelligence, made him the most brilliant clinician of his time and an exceptional medical educator who has inspired several generations of physicians (Rev Méd 2005; 133: 1500-3)