Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720060006&lang=pt vol. 134 num. 6 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Epidemiological transition</strong>: <strong>The other side of the coin</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The model of epidemiological transition proposed by Omram explains the changes in disease patterns in communities. In societies with a high level of development this model has been complemented with the study of the post transition process. In this context, the emergence of allergic diseases, asthma and subsequently, of autoimmune diseases, has reached worrisome proportions in some countries, and no model can explain these changes. The hygiene theory supported by Strachan gives a reasonable explanation to this phenomenon. It postulates that the reduction of early exposure to biological agents, along with an improvement of sanitation conditions, immunizations and medical therapies, causes an asymmetrical immunological response, favoring the expression of Th2 response. The hygiene theory does not fully explain by itself what is happening in developed countries and it is not universally accepted. Chile is experiencing an epidemiological transition from a high burden of infectious diseases to a growing prevalence of non communicable diseases. In a previous similar setting in developed countries, there is some evidence to suspect that asthma, allergic and autoimmune diseases are becoming part of the epidemiological situation of Chile <![CDATA[<strong>Potential cost effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine in Chile</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background:Cost effectiveness studies are essential to assess the real value of interventions with preventive or therapeutic objectives. Aim: To assess the theoretical cost-effectiveness of a vaccine against rotavirus in Chilean children of less than five years of age. Material and methods: An economic model was developed based on information on disease incidence, health care costs associated with treatment and the effectiveness and costs of vaccination. Net disease and vaccination costs were estimated from the health system perspective and were compared with life years and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) gained using a 3% discount rate. Local administrative and accounting hospital data and vaccine efficacy data were used to estimate healthcare costs and cost-effectiveness of vaccination. Results: A rotavirus vaccination program would prevent 10 deaths due to rotavirus gastroenteritis, 6,245 related hospitalizations and 41,962 outpatient visits during the first five years of life, per vaccinated cohort. For every 1,000 children born, the healthcare service spends US$15,077 on treatment of gastroenteritis. From the healthcare perspective, vaccination would yield a cost-effectiveness ratio of US$11,261 per DALY when the price of the vaccine is US$24 per course. Conclusions: Rotavirus vaccine can effectively reduce the disease burden and healthcare costs of rotavirus gastroenteritis and can be a cost-effective investment compared to other options <![CDATA[<strong>Innate immunity restoration in patients with HIV/AIDS infection associated with antiretroviral therapy</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV/AIDS infection induces an important reduction of the viral load (VL) and an immune system reconstitution. CD4+ T lymphocyte count is the immunological measurement commonly used for the follow up of HIV/AIDS patients. Aim: To study prospectively the restoration of the innate immune system in patients with HIV/AIDS infection during their first year on HAART. Patients and Methods: 25 naive HIV/AIDS patients, from San José Hospital and University of Chile Clinical Hospital, Santiago, Chile, were studied between years 2002-2003. Every 4 months after HAART initiation, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and CD16/56+ natural killer (NK) cells were quantified by flow cytometry. NK cell cytotoxicity was measured using radioactive chrome liberation (Cr51). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and viral load was determined using Amplicor HIV-1 from Roche Diagnostics Systems. Results: Thirteen of the 25 patients continued in the study. They were all males, average age 35 years old (23-50). At baseline average CD4+ count was 146 cells/µL (31-362) and average viral load was 82.000 copies/mL (4.000-290.000). A raise in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD16/56 cells was noted at months 9-12 of therapy. Viral load became undetectable in the same period. NK cell function was decreased at the beginning of the therapy (1-4 months), reaching its highest values at months 9-12. There was no significant change in IL-10. TNF-a increased in six patients during the study. Conclusions: In this group of patients, innate immunity was restored during HAART. These results should be confirmed in studies with a longer follow up period and also measuring cytokines such as MIP-1a, MIP-1ß and RANTES <![CDATA[<strong>Controlled trial of dexamethasone compared with droperidol and ondansetron for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Dexamethasone is useful as prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Aim: To study the short term efficacy of dexamethasone to treat PONV in adults without prophylaxis, and compare its efficacy with that of droperidol and ondansetron. Material and methods: A prospective study was performed with 120 consecutive adult patients presenting PONV in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) at a University teaching hospital. During the occurrence of PONV, patients were randomized to receive in a double blind manner dexamethasone 8 mg IV (Group 1, n=40), droperidol 1.25 mg IV (Group 2, n=40), or ondansetron 2 mg IV (Group 3, n=40). Risk factors for PONV were recorded. Evaluations were made until discharge from the PACU and included presence of PONV, degree of sedation, and other potential adverse effects of the study drugs. Short term efficacy was defined as the percentage of patients free of PONV during all the stay in PACU after treatment. Results: General data was similar for the 3 groups. Mean ± SD stay in PACU after treatment was 101±34 minutes in Group 1, 93±33 minutes in Group 2, and 99±32 minutes in Group 3 (NS). Short term efficacy (CI 95%) was 55% (40-70%) in Group 1, 90% (81-99%) in Group 2, and 63% (48-78%) in Group 3 (p <0.05 for group 2 vs 1 and 3). There were no adverse effects attributable to the study drugs. Conclusions: Short term efficacy of dexamethasone to treat PONV was similar to ondansetron, but inferior to droperidol. Further studies are needed to define the duration of this effect of dexamethasone <![CDATA[<strong>Changes in the patterns of disease after the epidemiological transition in health in Chile, 1950-2003</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: During the twentieth century there was a change in the pattern of diseases in Europe, with an increase in the incidence of allergies and autoimmune disorders, that paralleled a decrease of infectious conditions. The Hygiene hypothesis proposes that these phenomena are causally related. Aim: To evaluate the epidemiological changes of allergic, autoimmune, and infectious diseases in Chile between 1950 and 2003. Material and methods: Search for the incidence and prevalence of these diseases in the national records published by the Ministry of Health, as well as through a systematic search of national literature using PubMed and Scielo as search engines. Results: The annual incidence of tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, measles, and typhoid fever has progressively diminished in Chile since 1970. Figures for the national prevalence for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and type I diabetes are scarce and difficult to compare, but clearly show an increasing epidemiological trend in the last 20 years. Conclusions: The national figures suggest that, although the country has only recently gone through an epidemiological transition in health problems, there are detectable changes that show the same trends described in Europe <![CDATA[<strong>Quality of life of women depressed in the post-partum period</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Depression is common among women, specially during breeding. Aim: To characterize post-partum depression in a group of women attending a primary health care clinic and its relationship to quality of life. Material and methods: The sample included women meeting criteria for Major Depression, with a child of up to 11 months old. Exclusion criteria included the presence of psychosis, history of mania, alcohol abuse, illegal drug use, high suicide risk, and receiving mental health care in the last three months. Structured interviews used were the Edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Medical Outcomes Study Questionnaire (SF-36) and questions about incapacity and health care use. Results: The sample included 159 women with a median age of 27 years (range: 16-43 years). Thirty three percent were married, 30.8% lived in common law marriage, 9.4% were divorced, and 26.4% were single. Most (89.3%) were housewives, 31% were students, and 6.9% were employed. The average score on the EPDS was 17 points (S.D. 4.2). The average SF-36 somatic score was 42.7 points (S.D. 8.2), and the emotional score was 30.3 (D.S. 0.3). The relation between the average score on the EPDS and the somatic and emotional scores was statistically significant (p=0.000-0.006). Conclusions: Most women were mildly to moderately depressed. Their depression was associated with a marked impairment of activities of daily living. These findings add to the evidence suggesting that depression is associated with marked disability cultures, even when the depression is mild to moderate <![CDATA[<strong>Endoscopic biliary stents for the temporary management of choledocholithiasis</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Endoscopic extraction of biliary tract stones is safe and effective. When the procedure is not successful, the use of a temporary stent can be a solution. Aim: To prospectively analyze the usefulness of endoscopic biliary stents in the temporary management of biliary obstruction due to choledocholithiasis. Material and methods: Analysis of 51 consecutive patients (age range 21-88 years, 34 females) with common bile duct stones that, from January 1999 to December 2001, were subjected to an endoscopic insertion of a biliary stent. Results: The indications for stent placement were a large stone in 40 patients (78%), the insecurity of a complete biliary tract cleaning in eight (16%) and technical difficulties in three (6%). Twenty seven patients (52.9%) were jaundiced and 17 (33.3%) had cholangitis. The prostheses remained in place until definitive resolution of the choledocholithiasis in 47 patients (92%) and migrated in 4 (8%). Bilirubin levels became normal in all cases with jaundice and infection resolved in all those with cholangitis. The definitive treatment of choledocholithiasis was done endoscopically in 28 patients (58%) and surgically in 20 (42%). Three patients were lost from follow up. Of these, one patient (2%) died 14 months later due to a recurrent cholangitis. The remaining two patients were asymptomatic and with the prostheses still in place 522 and 560 days post stent placement. Conclusions: When the immediate endoscopic resolution of choledocholithiasis is not possible, temporary stenting is a simple and safe therapeutic alternative that allows patients to be free of obstructive complications until the definitive treatment is carried out <![CDATA[<strong>Smoking interventions in Primary Health Care</strong>: <strong>Smoking profile of women and beliefs and attitudes of local health care teams</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Chile has one of the highest prevalence rate of smoking in the world. Brief counseling interventions for smoking cessation at the primary health care level are effective. Compliance with counseling intervention is strongly associated with beliefs and attitudes of the primary health care team that deliver it. The effectiveness of these interventions improve if they are applied to smoking populations with higher motivation of change and high self-efficacy for quitting. Aim: To study the smoking profile of a group of smoking women in Santiago and to identify beliefs and attitudes of the primary health care team members to implement smoking cessation interventions. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional design that included 306 women smokers attending two primary health care clinics in Santiago. Perceptions, beliefs and attitudes of 34 primary care team members from three clinics in Santiago were explored using a qualitative methodology. Results: The study identified a subgroup of 18% of women highly motivated to quit (decisional stage of change) and a 58% with a high self-efficacy. Beliefs and attitudes of staff at the clinics were characterized by invisibility, ambivalence and fatalism regarding the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions. Conclusions: There is a subgroup of smoking women with a high probability of quitting if they receive an appropriate counseling. Developing a systematic approach for smoking cessation intervention at the primary care setting in Chile should consider the invisibility, ambivalence and fatalism of primary health care team members towards this topic <![CDATA[<strong>Differences among chronic restrained eaters</strong>: <strong>The influence of motivational systems</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Restrained eaters (RE) are individuals who restrain their food intake on a regular basis as they are frightened to gain weight. However, they tend to overeat under conditions of anxiety. It has been shown that RE possess a behavioral inhibition system that is more active in tonic terms, which would partially explain their affective vulnerability. Even so, the influence of variations in the activation levels of the emotional systems on the eating behavior of a RE is still unknown. Our hypothesis is that variations of such systems will give place to two types of RE: a successful or a non-successful one. Aim: To assess the influence of variations on the activation of motivational systems in food intake of RE. Materials and methods: As part of a factorial experimental design, 105 undergraduate university students were part of an experimental test for inducting food intake. Then they reported their levels of dietary restraint and their emotional behavioral preferences. Results: Differences in the activation of motivational systems were significantly related to differences in food intake (F= 7.210; p= 0.001). Additionally, food intake for those RE with a predominant inhibition system tended to be higher than for those with a more active approach system, though the latter did not reach a significant difference (F=0.718; p=0.399). Conclusions: Although more investigations are required, our data suggest that the success of retaining the diet among the RE would depend on their profile of affective reactivity (affective style). There are putative implications for research on anorexia and obesity <![CDATA[<strong>Exercise-induced asthma as perceived by pediatric patients and their parents</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Exercise is a frequent trigger of symptoms in asthmatic children and it worsens their quality of life. Aim: To compare the perception about exercise among asthmatic pediatric patients and their parents. Material and methods: Asthmatic patients with symptoms related to exercise, were tested with an exercise challenge test following the Tal protocol. Before testing, a questionnaire about symptoms triggered by exercise was answered by children and their parents. The data was analyzed with a Kappa correlation test. Results: Seventy five patients, aged 6 to 15 years, were studied. Forty one percent exercised less than one hour per week. Although 64% reported to experience respiratory difficulty and 80% cough during exertion, 87% were willing to perform more exercise. Forty percent of all patients had a positive challenge test for exercise-induced asthma. Correlation between patient's and parent's answers about the effect of physical activity exercise was low, with a kappa of 0.53. There was no correlation between exercise test and the answers to the questionnaire. Conclusions: Children with asthma frequently have exercise-associated symptoms and parental perception about this problem is very low <![CDATA[<strong>Experience in the use of a new endocardial stimulation electrode</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Since February 2002, Flextend® electrode catheters are used at the Cardiovascular Unit of the Catholic University Clinical Hospital. These transvenous catheters have an IS-1 connector, silicone coating, active fixation and retractile helix with dexamethasone acetate. Aim: To report early and one year results using Flextend® catheters. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients that received an implant of a Flextend® catheter in the Unit. Results: Forty one Flextend® catheters were implanted in 24 patients, without acute displacement or clinical pericarditis. In 18 electrode catheters located in the right atrium the mean values for p wave, stimulation threshold and impedance at the moment of placement, were 2.9±1.4 mV, 0.8±0.4 V and 522±86 Ohms, respectively. The figures 24 hours after placement were 3.6±2.1 mV, 0.8±0.3 V and 612±69 Ohms, respectively. In 23 electrode catheters in the right ventricle, mean values at the moment of placement for R wave, stimulation threshold and impedance were 11.3±3.6 mV, 0.8±0.2 V and 756±108 Ohms, respectively. The figures 24 hours after placement were 3.6±2.1 mV, 0.8±0.3 V and 612±69 Ohms, respectively. In one patient, the stimulation threshold increased two months after placement and required a new intervention. Conclusions: Flextend® catheters ca be placed successfully with a low rate of complications and stable function parameters on follow up <![CDATA[<strong>Impact of air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM<sub>10</sub>) on daily mortality in Temuco, Chile</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Temuco (304,000 inhabitants) has high levels of air pollution, mainly due to fine particulate matter of less than 10 µm (PM10). The effects of this pollution on population health have not been studied. Aim: To study the short-term effects of PM10 on daily mortality in Temuco, in Southern Chile, due to respiratory and cardiovascular causes. Material and methods: We followed the APHEA methodology (Air Pollution and Health European Approach) by estimating poisson multivariate regression models and controlling by trends, seasonality and meteorology. The PM10 variable was introduced after controlling by the confounders and checking by statistical adjustment and autocorrelation of errors. Mortality data was obtained from the Ministry of Health, registering age, gender, place of residence and cause of death. Cancer, respiratory and cardiovascular deaths, occurring between 1997 and 2002, were recorded for this study. Results: There was a significant and positive association between PM10 concentration and daily mortality caused by respiratory disease (p-value=0.046, relative risk (RR) 1.236, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-1.522) and cardiovascular diseases in people aged 65 years and more (p-value=0.042; RR 1.176 95% CI 1.006-1.374). Conclusions: There is a significant association between daily air pollution by PM10 particulate matter and mortality in Temuco, Chile <![CDATA[<strong>White blood cell lysis syndrome after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in the treatment of renal AL amyloidosis</strong>: <strong>Case report </strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The treatment of AL amyloidosis was not successful until the advent of myeloablative chemotherapy consisting of high-dose intravenous melphalan followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. This new treatment has achieved better survival rates and, remarkably, it has obtained complete remission. Among patients with renal involvement, achievement of a complete hematological response was associated with a 50% reduction in proteinuria and stable creatinine clearance in more than 2/3 of patients. Despite of these excellent results, this new therapy is associated with significant toxicity, including the development of acute renal failure due to white blood cell lysis syndrome. We report a 59 year-old female with a nephrotic syndrome due to primary amyloidosis successfully treated autologous stem cell transplantation who developed acute renal failure caused by white blood cell lysis syndrome. The patient required treatment with granulocytic colony stimulating factor and intermittent hemofiltration and was discharged 23 days after melphalan administration with a satisfactory renal function and white blood cell count. After one year of follow up, she maintains a good glomerular filtration rate, a proteinuria of less than, 1 g/day and normal hematological values <![CDATA[<strong>Permanent pacemaker implantation in patients with persistent left superior vena cava and absent right superior vena cava</strong>: <strong>Report of three cases</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Persistent left superior vena cava and absent right superior vena cava is an uncommon anatomical association. This is a challenging situation for permanent pacemaker implantation. We report three patients with this anomaly and a permanent pacemaker successfully implanted through the left superior vena cava and coronary sinus, without acute or chronic complications <![CDATA[<strong>Thyroid carcinoma as a cause of upper airway obstruction in children</strong>: <strong>Case report</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Upper airway obstruction (UAO) can be a severe medical condition with a high mortality in children. We report a 10 year-old girl with UAO due to papillary thyroid carcinoma. The study confirmed a thyroid cancer. The patient was referred to our centre for the evaluation of dyspnea and hoarseness. She was admitted in severe respiratory distress. Her chest X-ray revealed a critical narrowing of the cervical trachea and extensive infiltration of the lung with a miliary pattern; CT scan revealed a thyroid mass with bilateral pulmonary dissemination. An early surgical approach with total thyroidectomy and tracheotomy was performed. The study revealed a thyroid carcinoma. The patient was then referred to a specialized centre to receive chemotherapy. Recognition of thyroid carcinoma in children requires a high suspicion index. An early CT scan and fiberoptic assessment could show UAO in many unsuspected lesions <![CDATA[<strong>Hepatitis C in Chile</strong>: <strong>Burden of the disease</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hepatitis C virus-associated chronic hepatitis is one of the most important causes of liver-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. This review analysis the available clinical and epidemiological information about this disease in Chile and compares it with data available from Latin America and other countries. Chronic hepatitis C seroprevalence in the general Chilean population is 1.15% by ELISA III and 0.85% by recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Mortality due to cirrhosis (all causes) in Chile is one of the highest in the world. We show indirect evidence that chronic hepatitis C may account for a significant proportion of these deaths. The disease is the most common cause for liver transplantation in adults. Based on the available information, we conclude that chronic hepatitis C is an important cause of disease and mortality in Chile <![CDATA[<strong>Treatment of neurocysticercosis</strong>: <strong>A review</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Several drugs, such as drugs against tapeworms, praziquantel or albendazole associated to corticosteroids, have been tested for the treatment of this condition. Although some have claimed the reduction or involution of cystic or granulomatous lesions, there is no consensus about the efficacy of these treatments. The natural evolution of the disease is not clear and this hampers the assessment of treatment effects. Moreover, there are no good imaging or clinical indicators that can predict the progression or spontaneous resolution of lesions, specially at the meningeal or ventricular compartment. Therefore, evidence based medicine does not have a definitive answer about the treatment, neither of seizures, the most common manifestation of NCC, or the varied and complex meningeal and ventricular involvement. This review includes experts opinions to give the clinician some clues for decision making in the treatment of NCC <![CDATA[<strong>Multiple pregnancies and folic acid</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Several drugs, such as drugs against tapeworms, praziquantel or albendazole associated to corticosteroids, have been tested for the treatment of this condition. Although some have claimed the reduction or involution of cystic or granulomatous lesions, there is no consensus about the efficacy of these treatments. The natural evolution of the disease is not clear and this hampers the assessment of treatment effects. Moreover, there are no good imaging or clinical indicators that can predict the progression or spontaneous resolution of lesions, specially at the meningeal or ventricular compartment. Therefore, evidence based medicine does not have a definitive answer about the treatment, neither of seizures, the most common manifestation of NCC, or the varied and complex meningeal and ventricular involvement. This review includes experts opinions to give the clinician some clues for decision making in the treatment of NCC <![CDATA[<strong>Reply</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Several drugs, such as drugs against tapeworms, praziquantel or albendazole associated to corticosteroids, have been tested for the treatment of this condition. Although some have claimed the reduction or involution of cystic or granulomatous lesions, there is no consensus about the efficacy of these treatments. The natural evolution of the disease is not clear and this hampers the assessment of treatment effects. Moreover, there are no good imaging or clinical indicators that can predict the progression or spontaneous resolution of lesions, specially at the meningeal or ventricular compartment. Therefore, evidence based medicine does not have a definitive answer about the treatment, neither of seizures, the most common manifestation of NCC, or the varied and complex meningeal and ventricular involvement. This review includes experts opinions to give the clinician some clues for decision making in the treatment of NCC <![CDATA[<strong>Conflicts of interest</strong>: <strong>An academic proposal </strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Several drugs, such as drugs against tapeworms, praziquantel or albendazole associated to corticosteroids, have been tested for the treatment of this condition. Although some have claimed the reduction or involution of cystic or granulomatous lesions, there is no consensus about the efficacy of these treatments. The natural evolution of the disease is not clear and this hampers the assessment of treatment effects. Moreover, there are no good imaging or clinical indicators that can predict the progression or spontaneous resolution of lesions, specially at the meningeal or ventricular compartment. Therefore, evidence based medicine does not have a definitive answer about the treatment, neither of seizures, the most common manifestation of NCC, or the varied and complex meningeal and ventricular involvement. This review includes experts opinions to give the clinician some clues for decision making in the treatment of NCC <![CDATA[<strong>Antibiotic prophylaxis in neutropenic patients</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872006000600021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Several drugs, such as drugs against tapeworms, praziquantel or albendazole associated to corticosteroids, have been tested for the treatment of this condition. Although some have claimed the reduction or involution of cystic or granulomatous lesions, there is no consensus about the efficacy of these treatments. The natural evolution of the disease is not clear and this hampers the assessment of treatment effects. Moreover, there are no good imaging or clinical indicators that can predict the progression or spontaneous resolution of lesions, specially at the meningeal or ventricular compartment. Therefore, evidence based medicine does not have a definitive answer about the treatment, neither of seizures, the most common manifestation of NCC, or the varied and complex meningeal and ventricular involvement. This review includes experts opinions to give the clinician some clues for decision making in the treatment of NCC