Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720070006&lang= vol. 135 num. 6 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<b><i>Surgical treatment of gastric cancer</i></b>: <b><i>results in 423 cases</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600001&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer death worldwide and the first cause in Chile. Management of this pathology is controversial. Aim: To report the results on morbidity, mortality, and long-term survival rates of surgical treatment of gastric cancer, and compare them with those reported in the literature. Material and Methods: Follow up of 423 patients (aged 16 to 88 years, 271 males) operated for a gastric adenocarcinoma between 1996 and 2002. Patients were staged with the 5th edition of TNM staging system, and the 2nd edition in English of the Japanese Classification of Gastric Cancer. Morbidity was assessed using the classification of the Memorial Kettering Cancer Center group. Kapplan-Meier method was used to assay survival, and Log rank Test to compare long-term survivals. Results: Resectability of the lesions was 70.4%, and 88% of them corresponded to a curative-intended surgery. Seventy percent of patients were in stage TNM IIIA or higher at the moment of surgery. Mortality in curative intended operated patients was 4.2%, and morbidity was 33.7%. Overall five years survival rate was 33%: In the group with curative intended surgery it was 52%. Two years survival rate in the non intended curative group was 3.4%. Conclusions: The reported incidence of complications in our series is similar to that reported in the literature. Five year survival rates, morbidity and mortality were comparable to those reported abroad <![CDATA[<b><i>Predictors of the level of patient satisfaction in a university hospital</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600002&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Client satisfaction is an important indicator of the quality of services, and health care is not an exemption. Aim: To explore and establish the predictors that exert the greater influence on the level of satisfaction with the service offered in a University Hospital. Material and method: The source of the study is a data base, obtained from a survery made to 355 patients of the Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile prior to discharge. A multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relative importance of the different factors in the quality of service. The regression variables were reduced to a number of factors, obtained of Factorial Analysis and a Varimax rotation, allowing them to clarify their relations. Results: After performing the main components analysis, seven factors or dimensions that explained a 69% of the total variance were obtained. The predictive model explains up to 40% of the criterion variable (Global Satisfaction during the hospitalization). The factor with the greatest predictive power was the relationship between the patients and nursing staff. Other factors that emerged as important were communication, medical attention and room conditions. Conclusions: Perceptive type components had the greater relative weight to determine the level of patient satisfaction in this survey <![CDATA[<b><i>Role ofAzathioprine in steroid resistant non infectious ocular inflammatory diseases</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600003&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Topical and systemic steroids are the first line of treatment of non infectious inflammatory ocular disease. Immunosuppresants are reserved as a second line treatment. Aim: To evaluate the role ofAzathioprine (AZA) as a coadyuvant immunosuppressive treatment for non infectious ocular inflammatory diseases (OIDs) resistant to systemic steroid therapy in a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series. Patients and methods: Patients using oral Prednisone due to an active or recurrent OID, without clinical response, and not receiving any other immunosuppressive treatment were studied. A standard protocol of oral Prednisone (0.5 mg/kg/ day) and oral AZA (2-3 mg/kg/day) during one year was used. Ocular and systemic monthly evaluations were done including relapse rate, steroid dosage, inflammatory score and visual acuity. Results: Thirty patients (10 male) aged 18-75 years (mean 44 years) were studied. Three had bilateral anterior uveitis, one had pars planitis, four had diffuse uveitis, eight Vogt-Koyanahi-Harada syndrome, three Behget's disease, three necrotizing scleritis and eight had retinochoroidopathy A complete initial response was observed in 26 patients (87%). The time of response was between 1 to 6 months (mean 2.65 months). Seventeen percent of these had a relapse 6 to 12 months after AZA was started. In 61 %, visual acuity improved. The ocular inflammatory score decreased in 86.5%. Eleven patients had mild controlled side effects that did not require discontinuation of AZA. Conclusions: Combined systemic steroid and oral AZA therapy is safe and effective in controlling steroid resistant non infectious inflammatory ocular diseases <![CDATA[<b><i>Gender perspective in health care teaching</i></b>: <b><i>A pending task</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600004&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Gender must be considered in the design and implementation of health policies to safeguard equity and accomplish sanitary objectives. Aim: To identify gender perspective in the curricula of five health care careers in the Universidad Austral de Chile. To identify the situation of women in the teaching profile of such curricula. Material and methods: An exploratory and descriptive study with a critical reading of the structure of the programs of 217 courses. Revision of official academic registries. Results: Gender is usually not included in the curricula of health care careers. The generic language conceals female academics and students. There was a scarce inclusion of cross sectional issues such as collaborative work, interpersonal and democratic relationship, equity and critical analysis. There were no differences in academic achievements between female and male students. The contractual profile of female academics reproduces the gender inequity ofthe work market. Conclusions: The inclusion of gender is a pending task in the training of health care professionals ) <![CDATA[<b><i>Clinical features of 17 patients with familial non medullary thyroid carcinoma</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600005&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma can have familial aggregation. Aim: To compare retrospectively familial non medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of patients with thyroid carcinoma. An index case was defined as a subject with the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with one or more first degree relatives with the same type of cancer. Seventeen such patients were identified and were compared with 352 subjects with PTC. Results: The most common affected relatives were sisters. Patients with FNMTC were younger than those with PTC. No differences were observed in gender, single or multiple foci, thyroid capsule involvement, surgical border involvement, number of affected lymph nodes and coexistence of follicular hyperplasia. Patients with FNMTC had smaller tumors and had a nine times more common association with lymphocytic thyroiditis. Five patients with FNMTC had local recurrence during 4.8 years of follow up. Conclusions: Patients with FNMTC commonly have an associated chronic thyroiditis, are younger and have smaller tumors than patients with PTC <![CDATA[<b><i>Fusion of SPECT with computed tomography or magnetic resonance for the interpretation of abnormal tracer uptake</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600006&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Interpretation of abnormal foci with high tracer uptake may require morphological correlation. Fusion of functional images obtained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and anatomical images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (RM) allows an integrated comprehension of complementary information. Aim To demonstrate that SPECT/CT fusion with external markers is useful in clinical practice to clarify the location and pathological meaning of questionable foci. Material and methods: Thirty four pairs of images from separate equipments (31 SPECT/CT and 3 SPECT/RM) pertaining to 29 patients, were fused. Fifty one foci of abnormal tracer uptake of uncertain pathological meaning were analyzed. These were classified before and after the fusion as probably malignant or probably benign. Results: Seventy percent of patients had a differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The fusion localized 100% of foci. Nine percent had a normal and 26% an abnormal anatomy. Before fusion 82% of foci were classified as potentially malignant. This figure changed to 59% after the fusion (p <0.01). Therefore the suspicion of malignancy was presumptively confirmed in 72% of foci and fusion results would have reached a 27% of incremental diagnostic value in 14 cases that changed of category (11 with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, one with colorectal cancer, one with a nasalEwingsarcoma and one with a brain tumor). Conclusions: The fusion of SPECT and CT is useful in selected patients, specially those with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The fusion of SPECT and RM is also feasible <![CDATA[<b><i>Bile duct diameter before and 12 years after cholecystectomy</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600007&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Surgeons and radiologists commonly believe that common bile duct dilates after cholecystectomy. Aim: To measure common bile tract diameter before and 12 years after a cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Material and methods: Prospective study of 85 patients (aged 20 to 71 years, 68 fenmales) subjected to a cholecystectomy and followed for 12 years. AH were asymptomatic and had abdominal ultrasound to measure common bile duct diameter, seven days before and 12 years after the surgical procedure. Results: Common bile duct diameter before and 12 years after surgery was 4.6+0.9 and 5.0+1.8 cm respectively (p=NS) among 69 patients aged ¡ess than 60 years. The figures for 16 patients aged more than 60 years were 5+0.8 and 6.7+1.9 (p <0.03). Conclusions: Among patients below 60 years of age there is no significant change in bile duct diameter 12 years after surgery. In subjects over 60 years of age there is a significant increase in this diameter <![CDATA[<b><i>Association between glutathione peroxidase levels and clinical manifestations of dengue</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600008&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Glutathione peroxidase (GP) can be used as a marker of oxidative stress in infectious diseases. Aim: To evaluate the association between the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GP) and the manifestations and complications of dengue. Patients and Methods: Between April 2003 and December 2004, 161 patients with dengue were prospectively evaluated. In the first evaluation, within 48 and 96 hours of disease onset, a plasma sample was obtained to measure the GP levels. The association between GP levels, clinical manifestations and complications was evaluated during the follow up. Results: Mean GP values were 1198 U/L (95% confidence interval 1089-1306). Values greater than 1200 U/L were associated with headache, arthralgias and increased heart rate. There was a negative association between GP levels and serum triglycerides. During follow up, patients with GP >1200 U/L had a higher frequency of spontaneous hemorrhages. In a logistic regression analysis arthralgias, fever and increased heart rate, were independently associated with levels >1200 U/L. Conclusions: GP levels was associated to some of the manifestations of dengue. This finding suggests that the intensity of oxidative stress can influence the clinical presentation of dengue <![CDATA[<b><i>Clinical characteristics of children and adolescent hospitalized in a University Psychiatric Clinic</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600009&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Blackground: Five percent of children and adolescents consults in mental health services in one year. Approximately one every ten children has a mental health problem. Aim To assess clinical and demographic factors of children and adolescents hospitalized by psychiatric cause in a university psychiatric clinic. Patients and Methods: Review of medical records of 167 subjects aged 9 to 17 years, 97 women, admitted to a Psychiatric Service in the period 2001-2004. The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) manual of the World Organization of National Colleges, Academies and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians (WONCA) was used to classify admission complaints and symptoms and DSMIV to classify psychiatric disorders. Results: Mean hospital stay was 11+8 days. The main admission causes were suicidal attempts and psychomotor agitation/impulsive behavior in 54% and 26% of cases, respectively. The main psychiatric diagnoses were depressive disorder, suicide attempt and bipolar disorder. In 69% of patients, the personality diagnosis was deferred. Only 25% of families were considered functional. Conclusions: Affective disorders and suicidal behavior are the main psychiatric diagnoses at discharge in children and adolescents admitted to a psychiatric impatient service <![CDATA[<b><i>Colitis cystica profunda</i></b>: <b><i>Report of one case</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600010&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Colitis cystica profunda is a benign condition that can be confused with adenocarcinoma. We report a 35year-old woman that received radiotherapy for a uterine cervical carcinoma who presented intermittent hematochezia three times after ending the therapy. This episode was diagnosed and treated as a radiation colitis and the patient remained asymptomatic for six years. After this period she presented again intermittent hematochezia and a rectal mass that was surgically removed. The pathology report disclosed a colitis cystica profunda <![CDATA[<b><i>Requirement of fast ventricular stimulation to induce atrio ventricular nodal tachycardia</i></b>: <b><i>Report of one case</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600011&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= We report a 59 year-old woman who had recurrent episodes of paroxystic supraventricular tachycardia despite pharmacologic therapy. A previous electrophysiological study (EPS) was done two years earlier without induction of any sustained arrhythmia. A new EPS was performed, during which atrial and ventricular programmed stimulation failed to induce tachycardia, and only by fast ventricular stimulation during intravenous isoproterenol infusion, a typical atrio ventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) was induced. We successfully ablated the slow nodal pathway. After ablation the tachycardia was not inducible. We comment the occasional difficulties to induce AVNRT and the importance of a complete induction protocol to avoid false negative studies during the EPS <![CDATA[<b><i>Hepatocarcinoma</i></b><b><i> with sarcomatoid transformation</i></b>: <b><i>Case report</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600012&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Hepatocarcinoma with sarcomatoid transformation is uncommon. It presents clinically with ¡eucocytosis and fever, resembling a liver abscess. We report a 40 year-old male that presented pain in the right upper quadrant and fever. Abdominal imaging showed an hypodense image in the liver that resembled a liver abscess. The patient was subjected to a percutaneous drainage obtaining 150 ml of an hemorrhagic fluid whose culture was negative. The clinical picture persisted and the patient was subjected to a right hepatectomy. The pathological study of the surgical piece disclosed a hepatocarcinoma with sarcomatoid transformation. The patient was discharged sixteen days after surgery <![CDATA[<b><i>Aripiprazole for the treatment of Tourette syndrome. Experience in 10 patients</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600013&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics, attentional deficit, poor control of impulses and obsessive compulsive disorder. Pharmacological treatment is often disappointing due to partial response and frequent poor tolerance to neuroleptic drugs which are otherwise the most effective therapy so far. Aim: To report a lasting improvement obtained with a new drug, aripiprazole that acts modulating both dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission. Material and methods: Ten patients refractory to their usual therapy, aged 10 to 35 years, were switched to aripiprazole in an open trial. Results: Nine of the 10 patients showed a significant response assessed by the Yale severity tics rating scale and the clinical global impression scale (p <0.01). No relevant adverse effects were observed. Conclusions: Aripiprazole may be a good pharmacological option for patients with Tourette syndrome <![CDATA[<b><i>Coverage of preventive health activities in a Chilean region, calculated using the preventive medicine index</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600014&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Background: Preventive activities of the public health system in Chile are not integrated and there is no parameter assessing the whole population that is benefited with these activities. Aim: To develop and implement a mathematical measure of the coverage of preventive health activities, provided to different age groups. Material and methods: Data was gathered from the monthly statistical reports of the women, children, teenager, adult and elderly health programs in 30 communities of the Seventh Chilean Region. The preventive medicine index (PMI) was calculated as the ratio between the population that was ascribed to each program and the population that was a potential beneficiary of such program. Results: In the studied region, the global coverage of preventive medicine, calculated using the PMI, increased from 0.229 in 1999 to 0.370 in 2003. This represents a 61% increment. However, there are important inequalities in the access to preventive health in the different communities of the region. Conclusions: The PMI revealed a substantial increment in preventive health activities in the studied region <![CDATA[<b><i>Therapeutical targets for revert liver fibrosis</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600015&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Liver fibrosis is the common response to chronic liver injury, ultimately leading to cirrhosis and its complications: portal hypertension, liver failure, hepatic encephalopathy, and hepatocellular carcinoma and others. Efficient and well-tolerated antifibrotic drugs are still lacking, and current treatment of hepatic fibrosis is limited to withdrawal of the noxious agent. Efforts over the past decade have mainly focused on fibrogenic cells generating the scarring response, although promising data on inhibition of parenchymal injury or reduction of liver inflammation have also been obtained. A large number of approaches have been validated in culture studies and in animal models, and several clinical trials are underway or anticipated for a growing number of molecules. This review highlight recent advances in the molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis and discusses mechanistically based strategies that have recently emerged <![CDATA[<b><i>Genotype-by-nutrition interaction</i></b>: <b><i>interpretation of epidemiológical studies</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600016&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Epidemiológica! methods are increasingly used to assess the role of genetic factors and their interaction with environmental factors, in the occurrence of diseases in populations. Nutrition is one of the most relevant components of the interaction between the human being and the environment. Therefore, the interaction between susceptibility genotypes and nutritional risk factors has a great importance in the study of several chronic diseases. The aim of this article is to review different epidemiologic study designs and basic methods of analysis commonly used in the evaluation of the interaction between nutritional and genetic factors. These study designs and analytical methods are equally valid for the assessment of genotype-environment or genotype-genotype interaction <![CDATA[<b><i>Medicine between two sets of values</i></b>: <b><i>The Biblical Ethics and human or modern ethics</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600017&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= In this article, the author -a Bishop of the Catholic Church-discusses the similarities and differences between two sets of ethical values that may guide the behaviour of medical professionals towards their patients and society. One set derives from Biblical principles contained in the Old and New Testaments, mainly represented by the Ten Commandments and Christ's Prayer from the Mountain. These principles are shared by all Christian nominations and by the Jewish and Muslim religions. The second one, although intrinsically agnostic, is also focused in the human individual and the human society. Both streams obey a "natural morality" common to all humans: every individual should respect each one's conscience, should avoid doing to others what each one would not ¡ike to receive, to do not lie, kill or rob, to obey the rules of family and society. The Biblical Ethics stresses the value of responsibility in human behaviour while Modern Ethics sets the point in authenticity. In spite of their differences, the sharing of crucial points and end goals should inspire medical professionals regardless their religious beliefs to follow a common set of ethical values and to remain united in pursuing it <![CDATA[<b><i>Services for the care and prevention of birth defects. Reduced report of a World Health Organization and March of Dimes Foundation meeting</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600018&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= On 17-19 May 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation held a meeting in Geneva: The Management of Birth Defects and Haemoglobin Disorders. Meeting participants included 18 experts from developing and industrialized countries, including the author and nine staff from WHO Headquarters. The meeting had five goals: (A) ratify the data on the global toll of birth defects presented in the MOD Global Report; (B) agree upon a definition of terms; (C) develop a collaborative plan for strengthening care and prevention of birth defects; (D) develop a plan for strengthening care and prevention of haemoglobin disorders; and (E) determine how potential stakeholders could contribute to these efforts. The consensus for each of the goals were: a) Participants endorsed the estimates in the MOD Global Report, b) Participants concluded that the term "birth defect" is synonymous with the term "congenital disorder", whereas the term "congenital anomalies" should be avoided, c) Participants agreed that 70% of birth defects could be prevented, ameliorated or treated effectively, by the strengthening of medical genetic services, d) Participants agreed that efforts must be made to improve the control of hemoglobin disorders in developing countries, and e) Progress will require the combined efforts and political will of the WHO <![CDATA[<b><i>Werner Roeschmann von B, M. D.</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600019&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= On 17-19 May 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation held a meeting in Geneva: The Management of Birth Defects and Haemoglobin Disorders. Meeting participants included 18 experts from developing and industrialized countries, including the author and nine staff from WHO Headquarters. The meeting had five goals: (A) ratify the data on the global toll of birth defects presented in the MOD Global Report; (B) agree upon a definition of terms; (C) develop a collaborative plan for strengthening care and prevention of birth defects; (D) develop a plan for strengthening care and prevention of haemoglobin disorders; and (E) determine how potential stakeholders could contribute to these efforts. The consensus for each of the goals were: a) Participants endorsed the estimates in the MOD Global Report, b) Participants concluded that the term "birth defect" is synonymous with the term "congenital disorder", whereas the term "congenital anomalies" should be avoided, c) Participants agreed that 70% of birth defects could be prevented, ameliorated or treated effectively, by the strengthening of medical genetic services, d) Participants agreed that efforts must be made to improve the control of hemoglobin disorders in developing countries, and e) Progress will require the combined efforts and political will of the WHO <![CDATA[<b>CRÓNICA</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600020&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= On 17-19 May 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation held a meeting in Geneva: The Management of Birth Defects and Haemoglobin Disorders. Meeting participants included 18 experts from developing and industrialized countries, including the author and nine staff from WHO Headquarters. The meeting had five goals: (A) ratify the data on the global toll of birth defects presented in the MOD Global Report; (B) agree upon a definition of terms; (C) develop a collaborative plan for strengthening care and prevention of birth defects; (D) develop a plan for strengthening care and prevention of haemoglobin disorders; and (E) determine how potential stakeholders could contribute to these efforts. The consensus for each of the goals were: a) Participants endorsed the estimates in the MOD Global Report, b) Participants concluded that the term "birth defect" is synonymous with the term "congenital disorder", whereas the term "congenital anomalies" should be avoided, c) Participants agreed that 70% of birth defects could be prevented, ameliorated or treated effectively, by the strengthening of medical genetic services, d) Participants agreed that efforts must be made to improve the control of hemoglobin disorders in developing countries, and e) Progress will require the combined efforts and political will of the WHO <![CDATA[<b>FE DE ERRATUM</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872007000600021&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= On 17-19 May 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation held a meeting in Geneva: The Management of Birth Defects and Haemoglobin Disorders. Meeting participants included 18 experts from developing and industrialized countries, including the author and nine staff from WHO Headquarters. The meeting had five goals: (A) ratify the data on the global toll of birth defects presented in the MOD Global Report; (B) agree upon a definition of terms; (C) develop a collaborative plan for strengthening care and prevention of birth defects; (D) develop a plan for strengthening care and prevention of haemoglobin disorders; and (E) determine how potential stakeholders could contribute to these efforts. The consensus for each of the goals were: a) Participants endorsed the estimates in the MOD Global Report, b) Participants concluded that the term "birth defect" is synonymous with the term "congenital disorder", whereas the term "congenital anomalies" should be avoided, c) Participants agreed that 70% of birth defects could be prevented, ameliorated or treated effectively, by the strengthening of medical genetic services, d) Participants agreed that efforts must be made to improve the control of hemoglobin disorders in developing countries, and e) Progress will require the combined efforts and political will of the WHO