Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> vol. 135 num. 9 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b><i>Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome</i></b>]]> Background: The features of pituitary ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome are often indistinguishable from those of occult ectopic ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome (CS). Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome as compared with ACTH levels and the overnight high dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST). Material and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of 23 patients (aged 19 to 63 years, 16 women) with surgically proven CS, 20 pituitarymicroadenomas (CD) and 3 with occult ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS). Results: No tumor was identifiable by imaging techniques. Mean plasma ACTH values were higher in patients with EAS than in CD (103± 110.2 and 73.1±41.98 pg/mL respectively, p=NS). Three patients with EAS and 3 patients with CD did not suppress cortisol with the HDDST. The sensitivity of the test was 86% and the specificity 100%. To improve the diagnostic outcome of BIPSS, an stimulation with Desmopressin (9 fig i.v) was performed in 9 patients. The threshold for a pituitary source, was defined as an inferior petrosal sinus to peripheral ACTH basal and post Desmopression ratio >2. BIPSS was successfully carried out in 22 patients and no complications occurred. In 6 patients BIPSS failed to meet the threshold criteria. In 3 patients, bronchial carcinoid tumors which proved to synthesize ACTH, were removed. The diagnostic sensitivity of BIPSS greatly improved from 86% to 100% after Desmopressin stimulation. BIPSS accurately predicted the ¡ateralization of the microadenoma in 8 of 12 patients (66%). Conclusions: The combination of Desmopressin stimulation with BIPSS was useful for the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's Syndrome. However, the preoperative location of pituitary microadenomas was poorly predicted by BIPSS <![CDATA[<b><i>Mutations in gyrA and gyrB genes among strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Chilean hospitals and their relation with resistance to fluoroquinolones</i></b>]]> Background: A progressive frequency of resistance to fluorquinolones is observed among Gram-negative bacilli. Aim: To investigate the mechanism of resistance to fluoroquinolones mediated by mutations affecting gyrA and gyrB genes in strains of Gram negative bacüli isolated from CMean hospitals. Material and method: Minimal inhibitory concentration of fluoroquinolones was determined in 91 randomly selected nalidixic acid-resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from hospitals of 12 Chilean cities. Quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) was amplified by PCR and mutations were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. Results: Strains with mutation in codon 83 of gyrA showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin with MICs ranging from 0.25 to 1024 fig/ml. The sequencing of PCR products for gyrA indicated amino acid changes in the QRDR region. One strain ofE. coli presented a double mutation, in codon 83 Ser to Leu as well as in codon 87 Asp to Asn. In strains ofK. pneumoniae, however, the change of codon 83 was Ser to Tyr, in A. baumannii was Ser to Leu and in P. aeruginosa was Thr to He. No strains with mutations affecting gyrB were found. Conclusions: Mutations in codon 83 of gyrA is a frequent genetic event involved in the mechanism leading to decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolone in strains of Gram-negative bacilli <![CDATA[<b><i>Clinical features and survival of Chilean patients with multiple myeloma</i></b>]]> Background: Mortality rate records are the only data available in Chile about the prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Aim To characterize clinical features, survival rate and factors related to mortality in cases with MM treated in six large medical centers in Chile. Material and Method: Retrospective analysis of demographic data, clinical features and survival rate records of patients with MM, collected between 1998 and 2002. Survival curves were generated and a multivariate analysis of factors associated to early mortality was carried out. Results: Data from 245patients aged 38 to 95years (129 women) was collected. Fifty two percent had an IgG myeloma, 25% had and IgA and 6.1% had light chains myeloma. According to Durie and Salmon staging system, 8,2% were in Stage 112.6% in Stage II, 60.5% in Stage III and in 18.8% the information about staging was not available. Fifty percent had an hemoglobin level below 10 g/dL, 30% had a serum creatinine over 2 mg/dL and 28% had a serum calcium level over 10.5 mg/dL. Median survival was 33 months. Twenty percent of patients died within the first six months after diagnosis (early mortality). Predictive factors for early mortality were male sex, thrombocytopenia, anemia, renal failure, hypercalcemia, a beta2-microglobulin >5.5 mg/L and a serum albumin level <3.5 g/dL. There was a correlation between the number of bad prognosis factors present and the probability of early mortality. Conclusions: This group of Chilean patients with MM presented a short survival time, and 20% died within the first six months after diagnosis. More than a half of cases were diagnosed at an advanced stage (Durie and Salmon Stage III). Several factors were associated to early mortality, two of which (beta 2-microglobulin and serum albumin), are included in the new International Staging System for MM <![CDATA[<b><i>Isolation of periodontal bacteria from blood samples and atheromas in patients with atherosclerosis and periodontitis</i></b>]]> Background: Periodontitis is a common oral disease produced by bacterial species that reside in the subgingival plaque. These microorganisms have been associated to atherosclerosis and it is suggested that periodontitis is a cardiovascular risk factor. Aim: To isolate periodontal bacteria from blood and atheroma samples, from patients with atherosclerosis and periodontitis. Material and methods: Twelve patients with periodontitis and a clinical diagnosis of atherosclerosis and 12 patients with periodontitis but without atherosclerosis were studied. Blood samples were obtained immediately before and after scaling and root planing. The samples were incubated in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. One week after scaling, atheromatous plaques were obtained during endarterectomy in the 12 patients with atherosclerosis. These were homogenized and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were identified by means ofPCR. Results: Five patients with and two without atherosclerosis, had bacteremia after scaling and root planing. Bacterial species isolated from blood samples were the same found in periodontic pockets. Four atheromatous plaques of patients with bacteremia yielded positive cultures. The isolated bacteria were the same found in blood samples and periodontal pockets. Conclusions: Bacteremia occurred in seven of 24 patients after scaling and root planing. In four patients, the same species found in periodontic pockets and blood cultures were detected in atherosclerotic plaques obtained one week after the dental procedure <![CDATA[<strong>Association of hyperinsulinemia with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in patients with hypertension</strong>]]> Background: Hypertension is the main independent cardiovascular risk factor. However, there are additional factors that induce organic damage. Aim: To assess the association between hyperinsulinemia, ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular diastolic function. Patients and Methods: Seventy-four patients aged 30 to 65 years, with mild or moderate systemic hypertension, with overweight or mild obesity and normal glucose tolerance curve (GTC), were studied. Serum insulin was measured during GTC. The maximum levels of insulin and glucose were observed 60 minutes after the oral glucose load and they were expressed as rG/1. Patients were stratified in three groups according to their glucose and insulin fasting levels (I0) and post-glucose challenge levels (rG/I): Group 1 (normoinsulinemic patients) I0 &lt;17 mU/mL and rG/I >2 (2.45+0.4). Group 2 (post-prandial hyperinsulinemic patients) I0 &lt;17 mU/mL and rG/I <2> 1 (1.34+0.3). Group 3 (persistently hyperinsulinemic patients) I0 >17 mU/mL and &lt;1 (0.7+0.3). Left ventricular mass and its diastolic function were measured by Doppler echocardiography. Results: No differences in blood pressure or age were observed between groups. There was a negative correlation between ventricular mass and rG/1 (r =-0.282, p =0.015). Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was significantly more deteriorated in group 3, as compared with group 1 (p <0.001 ANOVA). There was a significant correlation between g/GI and diastolic dysfunction (r =0.232 p =0.047). Conclusions: Fasting, post challenge hyperinsulinemia and a rG/I &lt;1 are associated with higher ventricular mass and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, independent of blood pressure and age (Rev Méd Chile 2007; 135: 1125-31) <![CDATA[<b><i>Hiccup</i></b>: <b><i>Review of 24 cases</i></b>]]> Background: Although common and usually benign, hiccups can be an extremely uncomfortable disease. There is not much information about persistent and refractory hiccups. Aim: To report clinical features of patients admitted in a hospital due to hiccup. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study and prospective follow up of patients admitted for hiccup in Hospital Clínico de Santiago de Compostela between January 1998 and May 2005. Results: Twenty four patients (age 47 to 91 years, 23 males) were studied. Nineteen (79%) were admitted because of persistent hiccups. In twenty one patients, at ¡east one organic etiology was identified, and thirteen patients presented two or more possible associated conditions. The most common possible causes were digestive tract disorders, followed by central nervous system diseases. Twelve patients had a history of exposure to drugs that potentially could cause hiccups, mainly corticosteroids and benzodiazepines. Chlorpromazine was the first choice treatment in 23 patients, but seven required a second line drug. Average hospital stay was 13 days (range 3-90 days). Twelve patients died during follow up. Death occurred during the first three months of follow up in 61%. Conclusions: Persistent hiccup is often associated with organic conditions, specially advanced tumors of the digestive tract. It is usually associated with a bad prognosis <![CDATA[<b><i>Immunohistochemistry of degenerative changes in the central nervous system in spastic paraparesis associated to human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)</i></b>]]> Background: Human T lymphotropic virus type I is associated with tropical spastic paraparesis, that is a chronic and progressive disease which damages specially the cortiespinal tracts. The pathogenesis of this degenerative process remains unknown. Aim: To identify histopathological aspects that could suggest a pathogenic hypothesis we studied immunohistochemical features in spinal cords obtained from patients that died due to progressive spastic paraparesis. Patients and Methods: Five males and five females, who died between 1990 and 2000, with a mean age of 52 years and mean disease duration of 8.6, were studied. All had a complete clinical and virological diagnosis. Samples were obtained from the frontal motor cortex and spinal cord (cervical, dorsal and lumbar segments), were fixed in formol (10%), included in paraffin, and stained with Haematoxylin and Luxol-fast-blue. Immunohistochemical study was made with anti-neurofilament antibodies 1:100 (M0762, DAKO), anti-APP 1:20 (Rabbit Pre Amyloid protein 51-2700 ZYMED), anti-tau 1:100 (A0024DAKO) and anti-ubiquitine 1:50 (NCL UBIQm Novocastra). Results: All cases had demyelinization and axonal loss in the cortico-spinal tracts; distal and segmental demyelinization of Goll tract; axonal thickening, amyloid precursor protein deposits in the white matter; tau protein aggregation in the spinal cord oligodendrocytes; axonal ubiquitination of sensitive and motor tracts, and subcortical white matter. Neurona! injury was absent. Conclusions: The systematic damage of motor and sensitive tracts of the spinal-cord and the absence of neurona! damage, defines a degenerative process limited to axons. This central axonopathie could be caused by a disturbance of axoplasmic transport <![CDATA[<b><i>Clinical and ultrastructural features of ciliary dyskinesia</i></b>]]> Background: Ciliary dyskinesia (CD) is a low incidence genetic illness, that presents with a wide clinical spectrum. Also, there are transitory conditions that present with ciliary anomalies, secondary to infectious diseases of the airways. Aim: To descube clinical and ultrastructural findings and clinical and therapeutic evolution of these patients. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records and electron microscopy findings of 33 patients (aged 1 to 21 years, 14 females) with ultrastructural diagnosis of CD. To obtain follow up information, a telephone survey was done. Results: In 30 patients (90%) the inner dynein arm (IDA) was absent in 50 or more percent of the cilia. Twenty two (66%) had absence of the outer dynein arm. Before diagnosis of CD, 19 patients (57%) presented recurrent otitis media, 25 patients (77%), three or more episodes of rhinosinusitis and 18 patients (56%) had recurrent pneumonia. Middle ear ventilation tubes were placed in 19 patients (57%), and during its use, 12 (68%) remained without othorrea. Sixteen patients (48%) with recurrent episodes of rhinosinusitis required adenoidectomy Seven (21%) required a functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), and 6 (86%) improved after FESS. Conclusions: Our patients with CD presented recurrent infections in different airway locations. In those with a diagnosis of CD and recurrent otológica! and rhinosinusal infections, IDA was absent in a high percentage of cilia. FESS and the use of ventilation tubes may have a beneficial role in a subgroup of patients with CD <![CDATA[<b><i>The notion of decision making capacity in medical and legal practice</i></b>]]> Background: The relationship between patients and health professionals emphasizes deliberation and joint decision making, that derives in the informed consent. Aim: To evaluate decision making of patients in health care and to identify the notion of capacity for decision making, according to lawyers and physicians. Material and methods: A semi-structured interview about procedures to assess decision making capacity was applied to 27 selected physicians and lawyers, considering their experience in this area. A qualitative analysis of answers was performed. Results: Several differences were observed between physicians and lawyers, probably originated in their respective disciplines as well as the context of their professional practice. For physicians the notion of capacity is associated to comprehension of the information, it is not absolute, and it must consider the intellectual maturity of the teenager and the autonomy of the elderly. This evaluation is frequently performed in the clinical interview and standardized protocols do not exist. For lawyers, capacity is established by age and is associated to rights and obligations, as determined by law. When it is assessed by experts, including physicians, it becomes evidence. These professionals assume that experts will use standardized assessment instruments. Capacity has significance in the legal system. Conclusions: Since there are substantial consequences when a person is deemed incompetent, it is necessary to distinguish between health capacity and legal capacity, and to ¡ink the informed consent with the fundamental rights of citizens, such as taking decisions about our own health <![CDATA[<b><i>Prevalence and epidemiology of Loxosceles laeta bite. Analysis of consultations to a poison control center</i></b>]]> Background: Loxoscelism is caused by the bite of spider Loxosceles laeta. It can cause a cutaneous or systemic syndrome. Aim: To determine the epidemiológica! and clinical features of patients bitten by the Chilean recluse spider (Loxosceles laeta). Material and Methods: All communications received at a telephonic orientation center for intoxications during 2005 were analyzed, selecting those who involved patients with symptoms that suggested loxoscelism (i.e., pain, burning sensation, blue area, hematuria, fever or myalgia). These were derived to the emergency room for confirmation of the diagnosis. Forty-eight hours after the initial communication, patients were contacted by phone to find out about the definitive diagnosis. The variables analyzed were: gender, age, geographical location, time since exposure, part of the body involved, clinical signs and definitive diagnosis. Results: Of 2,831 telephonic consultations with suspected loxoscelism, the diagnosis was confirmed in 287. All of these patients had cutaneous loxoscelism and only 7.3% of them developed visceral loxoscelism. Fifty six percent of patients with loxoscelism presented two or more clinical signs. The most common were a blue area, pain and a burning sensation, in 69%, 58% and 38% of patients, respectively. Fifty-one percent of patients developed signs within the first 12 hours. All patients with visceral syndrome presented with hemoglobinuria. No cases of loxoscelism were registered in areas located southern than the Xth region of Chile. There were no fatalities attributed to loxoscelism. Conclusions: Most cases of loxoscelism of this series were cutaneous. The population must be educated about the clinical signs of spider bite to seek early and adequate medical treatment <![CDATA[<b><i>Lymph node involvement in classic Kaposi sarcoma</i></b>: <b><i>Report of three cases</i></b>]]> Classic Kaposi s sarcoma (KS) affects lower extremities in older adults, showing a progressive, benign course. It can also involve oral mucosa and gastrointestinal tract with a lower frequency. The involvement of internal organs and lymph nodes is rare, and its primary compromise is even more uncommon. We report an unusual presentation of classic KS in the lymph nodes of three patients. A 46 years old male had a primary involvement of an inguinal lymph node. Dermal involvement appeared one year later. A 58years old male and a 76years old female with simultaneous dermal and lymph node involvement. We conclude that the presence of classic KS in our region is more common than previously considered. Moreover, it must be emphasized that KS in lymph nodes can affect HIV-negative patients or patients without any associated immune deficiency <![CDATA[<b><i>Pulmonary resection of lung metastases of an uterine leiomyosarcoma</i></b>: <b><i>Report of one case</i></b>]]> We report a 45 years-old woman operated in 2003 for a stage IV uterine leiomyosarcoma with lung metastases. Pulmonary metastases were surgically excised in 2003, 2005 and finally in July, 2006. Since then, the patient is in good conditions. There is evidence that resection of pulmonary metastases of gynecologic cancers, when the primary tumor is controlled, significantly prolongs survival <![CDATA[<b><i>Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen</i></b>: <b><i>Report of one case</i></b>]]> Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen is rare and almost always fatal. The pathogenesis is unknown. It has an aggressive behavior and frequently presents with hematological abnormalities or metastatic disease. We report a 49 year-old male that presented with spleen and lymph node enlargement. He was subjected to a splenectomy and the biopsy disclosed an angiosarcoma of the spleen. Metastases were detected in the lung and bones and the patient was considered beyond any therapeutic option, dying fifteen months later <![CDATA[<b><i>Severe aneurisma I coronary artery disease probably caused by Kawasaki disease. Report of one case</i></b>]]> We report a 16 year old male with a history of angina on exertion. A treadmill exercise test was positive for ischemia in concordance with a Thallium-201 scintigraphy showing a septal and infero-posterior reversible myocardial perfusión defect. Coronary angiography disclosed severe aneurysmal coronary artery disease. Bilateral internal mammary coronary artery bypass grafting was successfully performed. Kawasaki disease is the most likely etiology, although not confirmed <![CDATA[<b><i>Adult celiac disease</i></b>]]> Celiac disease is a chronic enteropathy caused by intolerance to gluten. The true prevalence of this condition is much greater than previously recognized, with more silent cases being diagnosed and a greater proportion of cases diagnosed later in adulthood. It presents with a spectrum of clinical manifestations and histological abnormalities. Duodenal biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of celiac disease, even though there are new serologic tests that are very specific. Correlation of clinical, serologic, and histological features are essential for a definitive diagnosis of celiac disease. The pathogenesis consists in an interaction between genetic, immunologic and environmental factors, which interact with HLA molecules to activate an immunologic response in the small bowel mucosa causing tissue damage. The main treatment is a free gluten diet. Health risks for untreated celiac disease appear to be greater compared with those patients who adhere to this treatment <![CDATA[<b><i>Do antidepressants really Increase suicide rates In childhood and adolescence?</i></b>]]> The use of antidepressant in depressive illness results in a reduction of suicidal attempts and deaths due to suicide, conditions that are generally present in this disorder. Recently, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) prohibited the use of antidepressants during childhood and adolescence. This decision was based on a supposed increase in suicidal thinking in these age groups. However, the evidence came from flawed clinical studies, some of them not even published, in which no significant differences were observed when compared to placebo. It is not possible to ascribe a direct responsibility to antidepressants, because depression, by definition, has suicidal ideation. On the contrary, the reduction of suicidal rates supports the effectiveness of these medications <![CDATA[<b><i>Analysis of a university training program in endocrinology</i></b>]]> The Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile has a two decades experience in training endocrinology specialists. This communication explains the operation of the training program and the results of a survey, answered by 90% of Endocrinologists that were trained at the center. This survey covers different aspects of the program such as the strengths and weaknesses of the academic teaching and the present position of the trainees. Questions about the working environment and the relationship with their teachers during the application of the program are also included. These results can be useful for other University centers that are planning a training program in endocrinology and for those physicians that are planning to become endocrinologists <![CDATA[<b><i>The profile and number of primary care physicians required in Chile</i></b>]]> Medical schools curricular planning aim to obtain a physician trained to work as general practitioner and the Chilean health reform, considers ambulatory primary care as the main axis of health care. However there is still a low interest among physicians to work in primary health care, where there are problems related to a low level of clinical resolution, clinical and administrative management deficiencies and a low level of leadership in health promotion. The causes of these deficiencies stem from university training, government policies and the great attraction that exerts the technological and specialized model of secondary and tertiary health care. We analyze the ideal profüe that the general practitioner should have in our health care system and the possible solutions to primary health care problems. We also emphasize the need to coordinate the professional resource needs with university training, to reduce the existing gaps between medical training and professional practice <![CDATA[<b><i>The medical history of Edgar Alian Poe</i></b>]]> Edgar Allan Poe, one of the best American storytellers and poets, suffered an episodic behaviour disorder partially triggered by alcohol and opiate use. Much confusion still exists about the last days of his turbulent life and the cause of his death at an early age. Different etiologies have been proposed to explain his main medical problem, however, complex partial seizures triggered by alcohol, poorly recognized at the time when Poe lived, seems to be one of the most acceptable hypothesis, among others discussed <![CDATA[<b><i>Stem-cell therapy</i></b>]]> Edgar Allan Poe, one of the best American storytellers and poets, suffered an episodic behaviour disorder partially triggered by alcohol and opiate use. Much confusion still exists about the last days of his turbulent life and the cause of his death at an early age. Different etiologies have been proposed to explain his main medical problem, however, complex partial seizures triggered by alcohol, poorly recognized at the time when Poe lived, seems to be one of the most acceptable hypothesis, among others discussed <![CDATA[<b><i>A class on Religious tolerance</i></b>]]> Edgar Allan Poe, one of the best American storytellers and poets, suffered an episodic behaviour disorder partially triggered by alcohol and opiate use. Much confusion still exists about the last days of his turbulent life and the cause of his death at an early age. Different etiologies have been proposed to explain his main medical problem, however, complex partial seizures triggered by alcohol, poorly recognized at the time when Poe lived, seems to be one of the most acceptable hypothesis, among others discussed