Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> vol. 136 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b><i>Assessment of the acceptability and consumption of a nutritional supplementation program for the elderly in Chile</i></b>]]> Background: During 2005, the Chilean Ministry of Health included a fortified milk beverage to the Elderly Food Supplementation Program, to improve the compliance with the program and to increase the provision of micronutrients. This beverage was added to a soup that was distributed since 1999. Aim: To evaluate the long term acceptability, tolerance and consumption of the Milk Beverage and analyze the nutritional contribution of the products provided by the supplementation program to the usual diet of the elderly. Material and methods: One hundred twenty five elderly subjects, aged 77 ± 4 (52 males) living in Metropolitan Santiago, aged over 70 years, beneficiaries of the food supplementation program, were interviewed. The acceptability, consumption and tolerance of the Milk Beverage were evaluated by specially designed surveys. The contribution of the food suplementation products to daily nutrient intake was also analyzed by 24 hours dietary recalls. Results: The mean body mass index of the interviewed elderly subjects was 27.0 ±4.5 Kg/m². Monthly delivery of the products included in the program increased significantly after the incorporation of the Milk Beverage to the program. The milk beverage had a significantly higher daily consumption and a lower family dilution than the soup. The consumption of supplementation products increased significantly the daily intake of energy and most micronutrients. Noteworthy was the case for vitamin B12, C, E and zinc, whose intake doubled (p <0.01). Conclusions: The Milk Beverage had an excellent approval and consumption rate. The consumption of food supplementation products improved daily intake of most nutrients in elderly subjects <![CDATA[<b><i>Presence of metal lo ß-lactamases in imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i></b>]]> Background: Metallo-ß-lactamases (MBL) confer high resistance to carbapenems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psae). They are encoded in mobile elements of different genes (VIM, IMP, SMP, GIM), along with other resistance genes. Aim: To detect the presence of MBL in imipenem resistant Psae strains. Material and methods: Fifty-nine imipenem resistant Psae strains isolated from January 2004 to August 2005 in a University Clinical Hospital, were included. The presence of MBL was studied by Etest (phenotypic) and genotypic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. To rule out a nosocomial outbreak, MBL positive strains, were studied by pulse field gel electrophoresis. Results: The presente of MBL was detected in eleven strains. AH were type VIM and were not clonally related. There was no concordance between phenotypic and genotypic MBL detecting methods. AH the strains were also multiresistant. Conclusions: The presence of MBL was detected in 19% of imipenem resistant Psae strains <![CDATA[<b><i>Validation of equations to assess body composition using anthropometric data in Chilean preschool children</i></b>]]> Background: Validated equations to measure body composition in Chilean preschool children are lacking, since the only international equation available was developed in obese, and undernourished Caucasian children. Due to the increase in overweight and obesity in Chile, it is essential to have simple and reliable instruments to assess children. Aim: To design and validate anthropometric equations to estimate body fat (BF) and total body water (TBW) to be applicable in children aged 3 to 5 years, using deuterated water dilution as a reference method. Materials and Methods: Weight, height, circumferences and skinfold thickness were evaluated in 238 children aged 3 to 5 years, attending Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles (JUNJI). Several equations were developed using multiple regression models to estimate body water and fat. The proposed equations were validated against a sample of 77 children previously evaluated, using Bland and Alunan agreement analysis, that compares average differences of both methods with the average of predicted and estimated values. Results: New equations for TBW and BF were obtained, accounting for 86% and 72% in estimated variability. The agreement analysis showed a mean difference 0.001 ± 0.32 and 0.07 ± 0.56 kg, for TBW and BF, respectively, confirming the validity of the equations. Conclusions: The new validated equations in Chilean children aged 3 to 5 years, have an adequate and predictive capacity, especially useful for evaluating TBW and BF change in cohorts <![CDATA[<b><i>Predictors of acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation and risk stratification in the chest pain unit</i></b>]]> Background: Nearly 10% of patients with an actual acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are discharged with an inadequate diagnosis. Aim To select clinical and laboratory predictors to identify patients with a high likelihood of ACS in the Chest Pain Unit. Material and methods: Prospective evaluation of patients consulting in a Chest Pain Unit of a University Hospital. Initial assessment was standardized and included evaluation of pain characteristics, electrocardiogram and Troponin I. Independent predictors of ACS were identified with a multiple logistic regression. Results: In a four years period, 1,168 patients aged 62±23 years (69% males), were studied. After initial evaluation, 62% of the patients were admitted to the hospital for further testing and in 71% of them, a definite diagnosis of ACS was made. No events were reported by patients directly discharged from the Chest Pain Unit. Independent predictors associated with a higher likelihood of ACS were an abnormal electrocardiogram at the initial evaluation (Odds ratio (OR) 5.37, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.61-7.99), two or more cardiovascular risk factors (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.21-2.84), cervical irradiation of the pain (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.25-2.69), age over 65years (OR 1.73, 95% CI (1.32-2.27) and a Troponin I above the upper normal limit (OR: 5.68, 95% CI 3.72-8.29). Conclusions: Simple clinical findings allow an appropriate identification of patients with a high likelihood of ACS without specialized methods for myocardial ischemia detection <![CDATA[<b><i>Gene methylation patterns in digestive tumors</i></b>]]> Background: The loss of tumor suppresor gene function damages the defensive mechanisms that protect the indemnity of genetic material. Promoter gene methylation is one of the inactivation mechanisms of suppressor genes. Aim: To study the methylation pattern of a group of genes in biopsy samples of gastrointestinal tumors. Material and methods: Forty eight gastric, 25 gallbladder, 24 colon and 6 pancreas cancer biopsy samples were randomly selected. The methylation pattern of CDH1, FHIT, CDKN2A, APC and MLH1 genes, was studied using a specific polymerase chain reaction test for methylation. Demographic, morphological and follow up variables of patients bearing the tumors were also analyzed. Results: The general methylation frequency of CDH1, FHIT, CDKN2A, APC and MLH1 genes was 64.1, 56, 39.8, 18.1 and 34% respectively. In gastric cancer samples there was a correlation between APC gene methylation and well differentiated tumors; between CDH1 methylation and Lauren diffuse type and the presence of three or more metastasic lymph nodes; between FHIT, CDKN2A and CDH1 gene methylation and male gender. In ¡ess differentiated gallbladder tumors, the frequency of CDH1 methylation was higher. There was a tendency towards a lower survival in colon and gastric cancer when MLH1 (p =0.07) y CDKN2A (p= 0.06) were methylated, respectively. Conclusions: An abnormal methylation pattern was associated with morphological features in gastric and gallbladder cancer and with a tendency towards a lower survival in colon and gastric cancer <![CDATA[<b><i>Renal function during cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation</i></b>]]> Background: Patients with valvular heart disease are at high risk of acute renal failure after surgery with extracorporeal circulation. Aim: To describe changes in renal function parameters during surgery with extracorporeal circulation in patients with valvular heart disease and compare them with those found in patients undergoing elective coronary surgery Material and Methods: Two groups of patients were studied. Group 1 was composed by twelve patients undergoing elective coronary surgery and group 2 was composed by eleven patients undergoing surgery for heart valve replacement. Glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma now were estimated from inulin and the 131 I-hippuran clearance respectively, at five different times, during surgery and the postoperative period. Sodium filtration fraction and fractional excretion were calculated. Alpha and pi-glutathione s-transferase in urine were measured as markers of tubular damage in the pre and postoperative periods. Results: Effective renal plasma flow was reduced in both groups before induction of anesthesia, did not change during surgery and decreased significantly in patients with valvular disease in the postoperative period. Glomerular filtration rates were normal during all the study period. There was a non significant reduction of filtration fraction during extracorporeal circulation. Alpha and pi glutathione s-transferases were normal and did not change. Fractional excretion of sodium increased significantly postoperatively Conclusions: In patients with valvular disease undergoing surgery with extracorporeal circulation, renal function does not deteriorate. No significant difference was found when compared with patients undergoing coronary surgery. No evidence of functional and cellular renal disfunction or damage was found in both study groups <![CDATA[<b><i>Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis</i></b>: <b><i>Complications and long term functional results</i></b>]]> Background: The ileo anal-pouch-anastomosis (IPAA) is the treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Aim To analyze the surgical outcomes, long term evolution and functional results of IPAA. Material and methods: All patients subjected to an IPAA, from 1984 to 2006 were identified from a prospectively constructed inflammatory bowel disease database. Surgical variables, postoperative complications and functional evaluation, using Oresland score were analyzed. Chi square, Fischer exact test, T Student, Mann Whitney and binary logistic regression were included in the statistical analysis. Results: In the study period 107 patients, aged 14 to 62 years (61 females), subjected to an IPAA, were identified in this period. All patients, except 4, had a J pouch. All were protected with a loop ileostomy Thirteen patients (12.1%) had specific postoperative complications: pelvic collections in five (4.6%), wound infection in four (3.7%), fistula of the anastomosis in two (1.8%), hemoperitoneum and pouch necrosis in one each. Three (2.7%) patients were reoperated. There was no post-operative (30 days) mortality. A complete follow-up was obtained in 106 of 107 patients: four evolved as Crohn disease; four lost their pouch and two died for other causes. One patient required an ileostomy due to a vaginal fistula. Seventy two patients were followed more than 36 months after ileostomy closure and 92% have a satisfactory intestinal function. In the univariate analysis, poorest intestinal function was related to age of diagnosis of UC and presence of chronic pouchitis. In the multivariate analyses age of diagnosis was associated with poor function. Conclusions: IPAA has a low rate of complications. The long term intestinal function is satisfactory in most patients. A poorer intestinal function was observed in older patients and those with chronic pouchitis) <![CDATA[<b><i>Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of hip fracture in Chilean elderly women</i></b>]]> Background: Osteoporotic hip fractures are devastating events in older women. There is a genetic modulation of bone phenotypic parameters including bone density (BMD) and bone fragility fractures. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms explain a small part of the genetic influence on BMD, whereas their effect on fractures remains uncertain. Aim: To examine the contributions of VDR genotypes to the susceptibility to hip fracture in elderly Chilean women. Patients and methods: We recruited 126 women (67 with fractures and 59 without) from Bio-Bio Region, Chile, aged 65 to 94 years. Genotyping for Bsm-l, Apa-1, Taq-1 and Fok-1 VDR polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction methods. All hip fractures were confirmed by X-ray. Results: The alíele frequencies were 0.49 for B, 0.57 for A, 0.60 for T and 0.65 for F in the Bsm-l, Apa-1, Taq-1 and Fok-1 polymorphisms respectively. The prevalence of these VDR gene polymorphisms in women with fractures were 16% BB, 69% Bb, 15% bb for Bsm-l; 30% AA, 46% Aa, 14% aa for Apa-1; 17% TT, 34 Tt, 8% tt for Taq-1 and 43%FF, 41% Ff, 16% ff for Fok-1. All VDR genotype frequencies did not differ from Hardy- Weinberg expectations. Alíele or genotype frequencies did not differ between women with or without fractures. These results did not change when analysis was adjusted by age weight, height or gynecologic history. Conclusions: The genotype frequencies of the VDR polymorphisms are in accordance with the frequencies of other Hispanic and Caucasian populations. Our results suggest that VDR polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of hip fracture in older women of this Region of Southern Chile <![CDATA[<b><i>Cytokeratin 20 as a marker of tumor progression or dissemination in patients with colorectal cancer</i></b>]]> Background: Colorectal cancer relapses or metastasizes in 30% of cases. Cytokeratin 20 is present in 95% of colorectal tumors and their metastases and could be used as a marker to detect tumor cells. Aim: To assess the usefulness and prognostic value of peripheral blood and bone marrow cytokeratin 20 determinations in patients with colorectal cancer. Material and methods: Blood and bone marrow samples were obtained from 56 patients with colorectal cancer aged 26 to 77 years (31 females) before surgical procedure. They were followed for a mean of 22 months (range 2.9 to 72 months) after surgery. Blood and bone marrow from 45 patients without cancer and 35 healthy subjects were used as negative controls. Messenger RNA expression of cytokeratin 20 was studied by real time and nested polymerase chain reaction. Results: Cytokeratin 20 was detected in 6% of controls and 41% of patients. There was no relation between cytokeratin 20 expression and age, gender, overall survival, tumor relapse, progression, localization or stage. Conclusions: Cytokeratin 20 determination is not useful as a marker of tumor progression or dissemination in patients with colorectal cancer <![CDATA[<b><i>Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an immunocompetent patient</i></b>: <b><i>Report of one case</i></b>]]> Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor. It occurs mainly in people aged 50 year-old or older and is more common among men. Immunodeficiency is the only established risk factor for PCNSL. We report a 35 year-old, immunocompetent woman who presented with a two weeks history of persistent headache. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an expansive lesion in the right thalamus area. Immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the diagnosis of a difuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin 's lymphoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy, achieving complete remission of the tumor. This case is ilustrative of PCNSL and contributes to update its diagnosis, management and prognosis <![CDATA[<b><i>Chemoembolization of hepatocarcinoma</i></b>: <b><i>Report of two cases</i></b>]]> Chemoembolization is a therapeutic alternative for those patients with hepatocarcinoma that cannot be excised surgically or that are waiting a liver allograft. We report two patients with hepatocarcinoma who were subjected to chemoembolization. A 65 years old male with a chronic liver disease and right lobe hepatocarcinoma, waiting for a liver transplantation, was subjected to two sessions, of chemoembolization four weeks apart. A magnetic resonance showed a 80% reduction of tumor volume one month later. A 72 years old diabetic male with an alcoholic liver disease with two hepatocarcinoma in the right lobe was subjected to two sessions of chemoembolization, separated by four weeks. A magnetic resonance one month later showed the absence of blood flow in both lesions, suggesting complete necrosis <![CDATA[<b><i>Thrombolysis for stroke in 93 years old female</i></b>: <b><i>Report of one case</i></b>]]> Most studies evaluating the usefulness of intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke have excluded subjects aged over 80 years. Therefore there is no evidence to support or contraindícate this therapy in this age group. We report a 93 year-old female subjected to intravenous thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA), according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders protocol. The treatment was successful, there were no hemorrhagic complications and three months later, the patient was practically without any disability. Therefore age is not an absolute contraindication for intravenous thrombolysis in elderly subjects <![CDATA[<b><i>Constipation in adults</i></b>: <b><i>An update</i></b>]]> Constipation affects 2% to 27% of individuals. It is associated to irritable bowel syndrome in 59% of cases, to a pelvic floor dysfunction in 29% and to a low transit time in 13%. During assessment of patients with constipation the effects of medications and chronic diseases must be discarded and the ideal is to determine which type of functional disorder it present. An algorithm for the management of chronic idiopathic constipation, that includes a recommendation to increase fiber and liquid intake as an initial approach and an orientation to the use of different laxatives, is presented. The usefulness of biofeedback in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction and without organic cause of constipation, is also discussed <![CDATA[<b><i>Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas</i></b>]]> Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas is characterized by a dilatation of the main pancreatic duct and/or secondary ducts, mucin production and the absence of ovarian ¡ike struma. The symptoms are non-specific and often the diagnosis is incidental. The treatment of choice is surgery, since these tumors may become malignant. The prognosis depends on the type of lesion, whether the excision is complete and lymph node involvement. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinical, diganostic, therapeutic and pathological characteristics of this disease <![CDATA[<b><i>Resistant hypertension</i></b>]]> Resistant hypertension, defined as a persistent blood pressure over 140/90 mmHg despite the use of three antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic, is unusual. The diagnosis requires ruling out initially pseudoresistance and a lack of compliance with treatment. Ambulatory blood pressure recording allow the recognition of white coat hypertension. When there is a clinical or laboratory suspicion, secondary causes of hypertension should be discarded. Excessive salt intake, the presence of concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, obesity, and psychiatric conditions such as panic attacks, anxiety and depression, should also be sought. The presence of target organ damage requires a more aggressive treatment of hypertension. Recent clinical studies indicate that the administration of aldosterone antagonists as a fourth therapeutic line provides significant additional blood pressure reduction, when added to previous antihypertensive regimens in subjects with resistant hypertension. The possible blood pressure lowering effects of prolonged electrical activation of carotid baroreceptors is under investigation <![CDATA[<b><i>Perspectives in medical liability</i></b>]]> The progressive increase of medical negligence law suits requires an updated analysis of the current situation of medical liability in Chile. The application of a new criminal procedure will avoid criminal prosecution of doctors, transfering to the civil courts the pecuniary sanctions for malpractice. Medical negligence and damage inflicted by doctors that require compensation are explained. The most likely evolution of medical liability is proposed, through an increase in civil liability insurances and the necessary standardization of rules applicable to profesional liability <![CDATA[<b>Salud en las Americas - 2007</b>]]> The progressive increase of medical negligence law suits requires an updated analysis of the current situation of medical liability in Chile. The application of a new criminal procedure will avoid criminal prosecution of doctors, transfering to the civil courts the pecuniary sanctions for malpractice. Medical negligence and damage inflicted by doctors that require compensation are explained. The most likely evolution of medical liability is proposed, through an increase in civil liability insurances and the necessary standardization of rules applicable to profesional liability <![CDATA[<b>FE DE ERRATUM</b>]]> The progressive increase of medical negligence law suits requires an updated analysis of the current situation of medical liability in Chile. The application of a new criminal procedure will avoid criminal prosecution of doctors, transfering to the civil courts the pecuniary sanctions for malpractice. Medical negligence and damage inflicted by doctors that require compensation are explained. The most likely evolution of medical liability is proposed, through an increase in civil liability insurances and the necessary standardization of rules applicable to profesional liability