Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720100004&lang=pt vol. 138 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<b>Diabetic renal disease</b>: <b>The World Kidney Day in Chile</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The third version of the World Kidney Day will be held on May 13, 2010 in Chile and will be focused in diabetic renal damage, the main cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, we are living a pandemia of CKD, a progressive and irreversible condition with high social and economic impact. In Chile, we have 857 patients per million inhabitants in hemodialysis and 35% are secondary to diabetes. Our general prevalence of diabetes is 4.2%, rising to 15% in people aged more than 64 years. With a 34% prevalence of hypertension, an aging population, high prevalence of obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle, there is an estimation of a rise in 85% of the prevalence of diabetes in South-America, for the next decades. The steps to be taken are clear: campaigns should be aimed at (1) prevention of type 2 diabetes; (2) screening for early diabetic kidney disease; (3) increasing patient awareness of kidney disease; (4) using medications of proven strategy and fnally (5) research on new therapies. These concepts must be included in community and professional education to reduce the effects of this pandemia. <![CDATA[<b>Definition of priorities in health research for the Ministry of Health</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Health research oriented to solve the most relevant sanitary problems in Chile must be encouraged. In 2001, the National Health Research Fund (FONIS) was created by the National Research Council of the Ministry of Health and the National Scientifc Research Commission, to stimulate relevant health research that contributes to develop health care policies. In 2008 an experts meeting proposed eighty research areas. These areas were grouped in twelve thematic containers. Each of these containers were classifed as having maximal, intermediate or minimal priority. The seven most important containers were grouped in three areas. Among the latter, two were selected. One is evaluation of the Ministry programs and, within this area, with the following priorities in decreasing importance: primary prevention, health care priorities, and diseases included in the Explicit Guarantees plan. The second area corresponds to diseases with high prevalence, incidence, costs or impact, including the following priorities in diminishing importance: mental health, diseases of high prevalence and problems with social impact. <![CDATA[<b>Validation of transcranial Doppler in the diagnosis of brain death</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The clinical diagnosis of brain death is complex. Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of transcranial Doppler (TCD) for brain death. Patients and Methods: Patients seen on the intensive care unit of a private hospital between January 2004 to December 2008, were included if they were in structural coma, had no craniectomy and had a blind evaluation by a neurologist and TCD done in less than three hours. The diagnosis of brain death was based on a clinical evaluation that considered the absence of sedative drugs, median blood pressure >60 mmHg, body temperature over 35º Celsius and complete absence of brainstem refexes. An expert neurosonologist, with a TCD-PMD-100, 2 Mhz transducer, used an institutional protocol that considers the examination as positive for brain circulatory arrest when there is presence of reverberating, small systolic peaks or the disappearance of a previous signal present on both middle cerebral arteries and intracranial vertebral arteries. Results: Fifty three patients were evaluated, 25 with clinical brain death. On 45 cases (84.9%), the interval between both evaluations was less than one hour. The sensitivity, specifcity, positive and negative predictive values for the diagnosis of brain death with TCD were 100, 96, 96.1 and 100% respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios for brain death were 28 and 0, respectively. Conclusions: TCD is a valid and useful technique for the diagnosis of brain death and can be used on complicated cases. <![CDATA[<b>Ross operation in Chile</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Donald Ross introduced the pulmonary autografit for aortic valve replacement with reconstruction of the right ventricular outfow tract with a homografit. Despite its advantages over conventional valve prostheses, the Ross Operation is performed in a minority of patients who need an aortic valve replacement throughout the world. Aim: To report the operative and long term results of a series of patients subjected to Ross operation in Chile. Patients and Methods: Between 1996 and 2006, 131 patients aged 35 ± 11 years (62% males) were subjected to an aortic root replacement with a pulmonary autografit and reconstruction of the right ventricular outfow tract with a pulmonary homografit. Seventy percent had congenital valve disease. Associated procedures were done in 39%. Patients were followed for a mean of 56 ± 30 months. Results: Operative mortality was 2.3%. Two patients had the autografits replaced intraoperatively because of tears in the proximal suture line and one within a month of the operation after suffering autografit endocarditis. At last follow up all patients are in functional class 1 or 2. Autografit reoperations were done in two patients who developed dilation with valve regurgitation (both had aortic regurgitation as primary indication for aortic valve replacement). Three patients required reoperation for pulmonary homografit dysfunction. Another three patients had uneventful pregnancies with normal newborns. Actuarial freedom from any reoperation at 10 years is 93%. Conclusions: The Ross Operation has low operative morbidity and mortality with excellent long term results. Reoperations have been rare within 10 years of follow up both for the autografit or the homografit. <![CDATA[<b>Presence of mutations associated with ganciclovir resistance in cytomegalovirus UL 97 gene</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Long term use of ganciclovir (GCV) is associated with acquired resistance to it. Ninety percent of the responsible mutations occur in cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL 97 gene. Aim: To search for these mutations, comparing nucleotide sequences of CMV-positive samples from post transplant and immunocompromised patients receiving GCV, with sequences of CMV isolates obtained from subjects not exposed to the drug. Patients and Methods: Codons 440 to 465 of gene UL 97, in-cluding the most common mutations causing resistance to GCV, were amplifed in 33 plasma samples from patients exposed to GCV and in 15 urine samples of newborns. Both populations and their nucleotide sequences were compared with the prototype strain CMV AD169. Results: Samples of exposed patients had multiple mutations but only one had a mutation associated with clinical resistance (M460I). Eight subjects had the D605E mutation, whose role in resistance is controversial. The remaining 150 mutations were silent mutations. Conclusions: A low frequency of mutations associated with CMV resistance to GCV was found in these exposed and unexposed samples. These mutations may refect coexistence of multiple genetic variants of CMV. The absence of clinical expression of resistance, even with these mutations, can be explained by the use of GCV for a shorter lapse than that associated with the appearance of resistance. <![CDATA[<b>Efficacy and associated costs of an outpatient intervention in women with severe depression and early trauma</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: A high proportion of women consulting for depression have a history of childhood abuse and trauma. Aim: To compare the effcacy and costs associated with a treatment that inquires directly into childhood trauma and understands present interpersonal diffculties as a compulsion to repeat the traumatic past, versus the usual treatment, in women with severe depression and childhood trauma. Material and Methods: Eighty seven women with depression and prior history of early trauma that sought help at the Mental Health Unit of the Hospital de Curicó were studied. Forty four were randomly assigned to the experimental treatment, and 43 to the usual management. Patients were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ 45.2) and an expenditures sheet at baseline, three and six months. An intention to treat analysis and a simple cost-analysis were performed. Results: Hamilton and OQ 45.2 scores improved in both treatment groups, with signifcantly better results achieved in the experimental patients. The direct overall costs of experimental and control treatments were CLP 8,628,587 and 9,688,240, respectively. The main contributors to costs in both arms were medications (26.5%), followed by the number of psychiatric consultations (19.2%) in the experimental group and by hospitalizations (25.4%) in the control group. The costs per patient recovered in experimental and control groups were CLP 616,328 and 1,973,649, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed model resulted more effective for the treatment of this group of women. <![CDATA[<b>The effects of a new model of hospital management on undergraduate teaching of urology</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Since January 2005, a new model for hospital coordinated assistance was implanted in Chile, denominated “Self Managed Hospitals in net”, to improve resource use effectiveness and effciency. This new design changed health care and teaching models. Aim: To analyze, understand and to refect on how teachers and students of the Urology Unit of the Eastern Campus of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Chile, perceive learning in this new hospital scenario. Material and Methods: A qualitative methodology was used, including semi-structured interviews to chief teachers and focal groups of teachers and students. Also, a written structured questionnaire was answered by a group of 5th year students and interns. Results: University teachers perceive that undergraduate learning is affected in the new hospital scenario. Students think that they have less opportunities to directly interact with patients, and therefore have fewer possibilities to take medical histories, perform physical examinations, and fewer occasions to discuss cases with their tutors. Conclusions: The new health system that runs hospitals under a network could jeopardize undergraduate teaching. This is the case for the Urology Service at Hospital and the corresponding Department of Specialties, where the dominant perception of teachers and a number of students is that their clinical learning is endangered by these innovations. To obtain the learning objectives of the undergraduate program in this subject, reorientation of their ambulatory practice and derivation skills must be rationally elaborated to improve student’s accomplishment. <![CDATA[<b>Cross sectional geriatric assessment of free living older subjects from Antofagasta, Chile</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The effects of aging on people must be evaluated to adequate sanitary actions. Aim: To assess the characteristics of older subjects living in Antofagasta, Chile. Material and Methods: Cross sectional assessment of 602 subjects without dementia, aged more than 60 years (55% females). A socioeconomic and medical history was obtained and Barthel, Lawton, Yesavage depression, Tromp fall risk and Folstein Mini mental scales were applied. Results: Sixty eight percent of subjects had more than six years of studies. Forty six percent had hypertension, 28% had osteoarticular problems, 20% had hypercholesterolemia and 17% diabetes mellitus. Four percent had depression and falls were reported by 35%. Seventy four percent were independent in basic and instrumental activities. Ninety four percent had normal cognitive functions. Age was an important determinant of functional capacity. Conclusions: The main problems detected in this sample were the risk of falls and the presence of chronic diseases. <![CDATA[<b>Drug interactions and adverse events induced by drugs used in an intensive care unit</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Eleven percent of hospitalized patients experience drug-drug interactions (DDIs), elevating morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Polypharmacy is very common in intensive care units (ICUs), increasing the risks of drug adverse events (AEs). Aim: To assess DDIs in ICU patients. Material and Methods: A prospective study conducted in the ICU of a private hospital, evaluating the frequency of DDIs, AEs developed and their relationship. Patients admitted to the ICU were included if they stayed at least three days in the ICU and received at least one studied drug Results: Thirty fve patients aged 59 ± 16 years (24 women) were enrolled in the study. Seventy six DDIs and 60 AEs were recorded. Statistically signifcant associations were only found for midazolam-fentanyl-propofol with bradycardia and hypotension and amphotericin B-vancomycin and vancomycin-amikacin with acute renal failure (ARF). Relative risks were 10.4 (95% confdence intervals (CI) 1.59 - 68) for bradicardia, 5 (95% CI 1.082 - 23.4) for hypotension and 6.4 (95% CI 1.9 - 21.6) for ARF. The odds ratios were 125.2 (95% CI 3 - 250), 12.6 (95% CI 1.3 - 77) and 10.8 (95% CI 1.3 - 282) respectively. Conclusions: DDIs associated with risk of AEs were fentanyl, propofol and midazolam for bradycardia and hypotension and amphotericin B-vancomycin and vancomycin-amikacin for ARF. <![CDATA[<b>Spina bifida occulta associated with environmental arsenic exposure in a prehispanic sample from northern Chile</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The Camarones River Valley, located in the extreme north of Chile, is characterized by high environmental arsenic levels and an arid desert. It has been inhabited by humans for the past 7,000 years. Evidence exists for chronic arsenic poisoning in both prehispanic and present populations residing in the area. Chronic arsenic exposure causes multi-systemic problems and can induce congenital malformations, in particular neural tube development defects such as spina bifda. Aim: To study the prevalence of spina bifda among prehispanic mummies of the area. Material and Methods: Onehundred and twenty prehistoric adult individuals were analyzed for evidence of spina bifda occulta of the sacrum in skeletal samples from the sites of Camarones 8, Camarones 9, Azapa 140 and Lluta 54, held in repository at the Museo Universidad de Tarapacá de Arica- San Miguel de Azapa. A diagnosis was considered positive when at least S1, S2 or S3 were affected. As controls, mummies of individuals that resided in Lluta and Azapa valley, with a low arsenic exposure, were analyzed. Results: The frequency of spina bifda occulta among samples from the Camarones coast and Lluta and Azapa Valley were 13.5 and 2.4% respectively. Conclusions: Considering these were contemporaneous samples, and are believed to have had no other differences in diet or other factors, the differential exposures to arsenic could have produced the observed differences in spina bifda frequencies. <![CDATA[<b>Bilateral foreign bodies in the airway</b>: <b>Report of one case</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Inhaled foreign bodies can be a life-threatening emergency and requires immediate intervention. We report a 40-year-old man who came to the ER complaining of chest pain and cough. He had lost his dental prosthesis. Chest X-Rays showed two foreign bodies, one at the intermediate bronchus and the other at the left posterior basal segmental bronchus. By fbrobronchoscopy, porcelain fused to a metal dental crown of six teeth was extracted from the right side, and a cast of metal from the left side. <![CDATA[<b>Sarcoidosis presenting as partial seizures</b>: <b>Report of one case</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The nervous system is affected in 10% of patients with sarcoidosis. However, neurological disturbances are rarely the frst manifestation of the disease. We report a 36-year-old woman presenting with partial seizures that generalized secondarily. Magnetic resonance showed a left parietal cortical-subcortical lesion with a minimal mass effect, moderate vasogenic edema and intense enhancement with intravenous contrast. A magnetic resonance spectroscopy disclosed a low aggressiveness profle, compatible with an infammatory lesion. Angiotensin converting enzyme levels were normal. The lesion was excised and the pathological study showed the presence of granulomas with dubious necrosis. The patient was treated with antituberculous drugs. One year later, the lesion had grown and a thorax CT scan showed numerous mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathies. A new determination of angiotensin converting enzyme disclosed elevated levels and the biopsy of mediastinal lymph nodes confrmed the presence of sarcoidosis. <![CDATA[<b>Serial transverse enteroplasty for short bowel syndrome</b>: <b>Case report</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Among patients with short bowel syndrome, surgical small intestine lengthening techniques are employed to increase the absorptive surface. Among these, serial transverse enteroplasty involves transecting the bowel transversally, preserving the blood supply of the small intestine and creating a longer segment of bowel. We report a 51-year-old woman with a short bowel syndrome and multiple hospital admissions for complications. She was subjected to a serial transverse enteroplasty, increasing small intestinal length from 140 to 180 cm. During the postoperative period, she presented intra abdominal blood collections and a septic episode with bacterial endocarditis. One month after the operation, total parenteral nutrition was discontinued and nutritional and fuid balances were achieved using exclusively the oral route. During the ambulatory follow up, the patient continues with exclusive oral feeding and fve bowel movements per day. <![CDATA[<b>Neurotoxocariasis associated with lower motor neuron disease</b>: <b>Report of one case</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt We report a 51-year-old male with a history of palpitations, hepatopathy and hypercholesterolemia, who habitually ate raw goat meat, and developed general fasciculations, muscle cramps in the lower limbs, distal muscle weakness and wasting, without upper motor neuron signs or sensory abnormalities. Diagnostic workup revealed positive antibodies against Toxocara canis in the serum and cerebrospinal fuid. Nerve conduction studies revealed a proximal and distal axonal lesion of motor nerves and needle electromyography was indicative of acute and chronic denervation with giant motor unit action potentials. Despite a therapy with albendazole and riluzole, muscle weakness and wasting further progressed and affected also the respiratory muscles. Followup nerve conduction studies and electromyography confrmed progression of the axonal degeneration. Whether lower motor neuron disease was causally related to neurotoxocariasis or due to a general metabolic defect, remains speculative.<hr/>Presentamos un hombre de 51 años con una historia de palpitaciones, hepatopatía e hipercolesterolemia que comía habitualmente carne de cabra cruda, que desarrolló un cuadro caracterizado por fasciculaciones generalizadas, calambres musculares en las extremidades inferiores, pérdida de fuerza y atrofa muscular distal, sin signos de lesión de motoneurona superior o alteraciones sensitivas. El laboratorio mostró anticuerpos anti Toxocara canis en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. La electromiografía mostró una lesión axonal proximal y distal de nervios motores y denervación con potenciales de acción gigantes en las unidades motoras. A pesar de tratarse con albendazol y riluzona, la debilidad muscular y atrofa continuaron progresando. Una nueva electromiografía confrmó la progresión de la degeneración axonal. La asociación entre esta enfermedad de motoneurona inferior y la neurotoxocariasis, es especulativa. <![CDATA[<b>Are low-molecular-weight heparins safe in patients with chronic kidney disease?</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Due to their effcacy and convenience, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are used as sustitutes of unfractionated heparin. Unfortunately, most of the evidence about safety and usefulness of LMWH have excluded patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), in whom their elimination clearance is reduced, allowing an increased anticoagulant effect. Accordingly, there is a growing number of reports about major and fatal bleeding episodes in this group of patients using LMWH. At the present stage of knowledge, there is no defnitive cut-off value of renal function to adjust the doses or avoid the administration of LMWH, making their effects unpredictable in patients with CKD. Hence, it is reasonable to avoid the use of these drugs in patients with CKD, while awaiting for more evidence that supports their safer use. <![CDATA[<b>Current management strategies for pulmonary hypertension in surgical patients</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Pulmonary hypertension is a clinical condition with a low prevalence, but carries high morbidity and mortality. Important advances in the understanding of this disease and in its therapy have occurred. A particular scenario is pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing non-cardiac as well as cardiac surgery. The aim of this review is to present information that may allow diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of this clinical condition in patients undergoing surgery. <![CDATA[<b>Liver disease recurrence after liver transplantation</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Liver transplantation has become a standard option in the management of patients with end-stage liver disease. It is now evident that the most common etiology of long-term graft dysfunction is the recurrence of the primary liver disease. Autoimmune liver disorders such as autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis recur between 15 to 30% of the graft recipients. The clinical expression of this recurrence tends to be milder; the diagnosis is only established in many patients by fndings in the liver biopsy. This milder clinical expression may be due to the use of immunosuppressive therapy for the prevention of organ rejection and it may also be modulating immune mechanisms that underlie these conditions. The recurrence of hepatitis C virus infection is characterized by an accelerated progression towards cirrhosis and hepatic failure due to the lack of an effective immunoprophylaxis program and an effective antiviral therapy. The recurrence of hepatitis B is uncommon due to the availability on an effective immunoprophylaxis program with effective antiviral agents. The familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is a genetic condition residing in the hepatocyte that produces a mutation of transthyretin; this abnormal protein is deposited in peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidneys. The liver from these patients, apart from producing this abnormal protein, is otherwise normal, and has been used as an organ for recipients in dire need of a liver transplant, such as patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. This approach is known as “domino” liver transplantation. As these recipients are followed long term, they may develop de novo amyloidosis. In summary, the underlying liver condition that led to endstage liver disease and liver transplantation may recur after liver transplantation. The clinical expression of the recurrence of the hepatic disease is modulated by the immunosuppression program unless we have an effective immunoprophylaxis and antiviral agents such as in hepatitis B. <![CDATA[<b>Problems with statins and the marketing of these medications</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt All statins inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase but each has a different chemical structure that may have individual advantages. Some pharmaceutical companies have minimized side effects and stated that dose has no relation to incidence. To the contrary, dose is related to side effects with all statins. Myopathy occurs in up to 10.5% of patients taking a high dose. There is an attempt to sell statins that have lost patent protection over-the-counter. However, evidence supports medical supervision as offering greatest patient safety. Concerns were raised about ezetimibe after the initial ENHANCE (effcacy) and SEAS (cancer risk) study but these concerns appear to have been answered. Fenofbrate can be used with a statin but gemfbrozil is contraindicated. Coenzyme Q-10 possibly helps to mitigate the risk of myopathy with a statin but evidence is not universally accepted. JUPITER represented a valid outcomes study but made a claim that rosuvastatin has special value in risk management because of decreased high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein. This actually occurs with any statin, a decrease also enhanced by ezetimibe. Statins have benefted the lives of our patients but, as with any treatment, the physician needs to look critically at all the problems and claims made. <![CDATA[<b>Biomonitoring pesticides</b>: <b>A national need?</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The word ‘biomarker’ is being used more frequently during the last decade. Currently, a great amount of research is directed to fnd toxicological biomarkers for several different chemical substances, since persons are more exposed now than decades before. For this reason, it is important to perform a biomonitoring of such substances in order to assess the possibility that low quantities could cause health problems. Obtaining toxicological values through biomonitoring is also useful to control the exposure. The markers of poisoning by chemicals available worldwide are numerous, but unfortunately in Chile only a few are being used. It is essential to have more toxicology and environmental laboratories to test the levels of exposure of our population.<hr/>El término biomarcador ha tenido un uso explosivo en la última década y el área de la toxicología no ha sido la excepción. En la actualidad se busca obtener el mayor número de biomarcadores toxicológicos de sustancias químicas a las que un ser humano puede estar expuesto. La biomonitorización de los agentes químicos es fundamental para conocer en qué concentraciones estas sustancias pueden ocasionar algún problema de salud en la población y también es útil para regular la exposición a ellos. A nivel mundial, son numerosos los marcadores disponibles de intoxicación por sustancias químicas, pero en Chile son pocos los que se utilizan en forma amplia. Dado lo anterior, es fundamental implementar laboratorios toxicológicos y ambientales capaces de realizar la biomonitorización de plaguicidas en forma exhaustiva y confiable. <![CDATA[<b><i>Purulent pericarditis complicated by cardiac tamponade due to Streptococcus agalactiae</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The word ‘biomarker’ is being used more frequently during the last decade. Currently, a great amount of research is directed to fnd toxicological biomarkers for several different chemical substances, since persons are more exposed now than decades before. For this reason, it is important to perform a biomonitoring of such substances in order to assess the possibility that low quantities could cause health problems. Obtaining toxicological values through biomonitoring is also useful to control the exposure. The markers of poisoning by chemicals available worldwide are numerous, but unfortunately in Chile only a few are being used. It is essential to have more toxicology and environmental laboratories to test the levels of exposure of our population.<hr/>El término biomarcador ha tenido un uso explosivo en la última década y el área de la toxicología no ha sido la excepción. En la actualidad se busca obtener el mayor número de biomarcadores toxicológicos de sustancias químicas a las que un ser humano puede estar expuesto. La biomonitorización de los agentes químicos es fundamental para conocer en qué concentraciones estas sustancias pueden ocasionar algún problema de salud en la población y también es útil para regular la exposición a ellos. A nivel mundial, son numerosos los marcadores disponibles de intoxicación por sustancias químicas, pero en Chile son pocos los que se utilizan en forma amplia. Dado lo anterior, es fundamental implementar laboratorios toxicológicos y ambientales capaces de realizar la biomonitorización de plaguicidas en forma exhaustiva y confiable. <![CDATA[<b>Pathologic gambling as an adverse effect of the treatment for Parkinson’s disease</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000400021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The word ‘biomarker’ is being used more frequently during the last decade. Currently, a great amount of research is directed to fnd toxicological biomarkers for several different chemical substances, since persons are more exposed now than decades before. For this reason, it is important to perform a biomonitoring of such substances in order to assess the possibility that low quantities could cause health problems. Obtaining toxicological values through biomonitoring is also useful to control the exposure. The markers of poisoning by chemicals available worldwide are numerous, but unfortunately in Chile only a few are being used. It is essential to have more toxicology and environmental laboratories to test the levels of exposure of our population.<hr/>El término biomarcador ha tenido un uso explosivo en la última década y el área de la toxicología no ha sido la excepción. En la actualidad se busca obtener el mayor número de biomarcadores toxicológicos de sustancias químicas a las que un ser humano puede estar expuesto. La biomonitorización de los agentes químicos es fundamental para conocer en qué concentraciones estas sustancias pueden ocasionar algún problema de salud en la población y también es útil para regular la exposición a ellos. A nivel mundial, son numerosos los marcadores disponibles de intoxicación por sustancias químicas, pero en Chile son pocos los que se utilizan en forma amplia. Dado lo anterior, es fundamental implementar laboratorios toxicológicos y ambientales capaces de realizar la biomonitorización de plaguicidas en forma exhaustiva y confiable.