Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720100007&lang=es vol. 138 num. 7 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<b>Versión actualizada del Formulario Uniforme para Declaración de Confictos de Intereses, elaborado por el <i>International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Colesterolosis y cáncer de la vesícula biliar</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Cholesterolosis is frequently observed in cholecystectomies performed for lithiasis or chronic cholecystitis. Aim: To determine the degree of association between cholesterolosis and gallbladder cancer. Material and Methods: In a prospective study of gallbladder cancer, all gallbladders obtained during cholecystectomies were processed for pathological study, following a special protocol. As part of this study, 23304 surgical samples obtained between 1993 and 2002 were studied, looking for a relationship between cholesterolosis and chronic cholecystitis, adenomas, dysplasia and gallbladder cancer. Results: Seventy nine percent of patients were women. Cholesterolosis was observed in 3,123 cases (13.4%). Cholesterolosis was more common in women (14.2%) than in men (10.2%) (p < 0.001). In the same period, 29 patients were diagnosed with adenomas (0.12%), 179 cases with dysplasia not associated with gallbladder cancer (0.8%) and 739 gallbladder cancer (3.2%). The frequency of cholesterolosis was 13.8% in chronic cholecystitis, 13.7% in adenomas, 12.1% in dysplasias and 1.35% in patients with gallbladder cancer (p < 0.01). Of the thirteen cases with gallbladder cancer and cholesterolosis, 10 were early gallbladder carcinomas. Patients with cholesterolosis were 9.2 times less likely to have cancer than those who did not have cholesterolosis. Conclusions: Cholesterolosis has a strong negative association with gallbladder cancer. <![CDATA[<b>Elevada seroprevalencia de citomegalovirus, virus herpes simplex tipo 1 y virus Epstein Barr en adultos con virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) are latent persistent infections. Their reactivation may cause illnesses and death in human immunodefciency virus-infected (HIV) people. World wide seroprevalence of these viruses is over 50%. In Chile, information is not available. Aim: To determine the seroprevalence of CMV, HSV-1 and EBV in Chilean HIV-infected adults. Patients and Methods: A total of 400 HIV- infected adults aged 17 to 67 years (340 males) were studied during 2005 and 2006. CMV, HSV-1 and EBV serum antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Results: The mean lapse from the diagnosis of HIV and serum testing was 67 months and 69.5% patients received antiretroviral therapy. Sixty seven percent of the sample were men who had sex with men (MSM). The seroprevalence for CMV, HSV-1 and EBV were 98.5, 92.2 and 99.7%, respectively. No patient had negative antibodies for all three viruses. Male patients that were negative for HSV-1 had a lower frequency of MSM than the rest of males (26% vs 62%, p < 0.01). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of positive antibodies against CMV, HSV-1 and EBV in Chilean adults infected with HIV. Specifc diagnostic tests and antiviral therapy should be available for these patients. <![CDATA[<b>Análisis de una experiencia de consultoría ético clínica en cuidado intensivo</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Very few patients are presented to ethics committees, and individual ethics consultations are a response to this situation. At the intensive care unit (ICU) in Clínica Alemana, Santiago Chile, an ethics consultation system was organized coordinated with the ethics committee. Aim: To report an evaluation of this ethics consultation system. Material and Methods: Analysis of the frst 50 cases analyzed in the consultation system. Analysis of the responses of intensive care physicians to a questionnaire about the main ethical problems that they face in their work. Results: The consultation system is mainly required by the ICU staff, and reports to the ethics committee. Fifty four percent of patients subjected to consultation were aged over 80 years. The main diagnoses were neurological, oncological or cardiopulmonary problems. The ethical problems identifed were treatment limitation (62%), proportionality or futility (42%), need of a peaceful death (36%), lack of anticipated decisions (28%), disagreement between physicians and patient’s family (24%), undefined subrogation (14%), and abuse of public resources (14%). Twenty six of 31 ICU physicians answered the questionnaire, using a 1 (min) to 7 (max.) scale. They found that consultation is helpful for decision making (6.3), useful for improving ethical perception (6.0), supportive for staff (6.5), good for patients (6.3), supportive for families (6.7), and timely performed (5.2). Conclusions: As a complement for the ethics committee’s work, consultation is a valid alternative for ethics counselling and a support for physicians and patient’s families. Its implementation depends on the particularities of each health institution. <![CDATA[<b>Manejo endovascular de las complicaciones agudas de la disección aórtica tipo B</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Type B aortic dissection is usually managed by intensive care medical therapy and surgery is reserved for treating the complications that can occur during the evolution of a case. Aim: To assess the endovascular management of acute complications of type B aortic dissection and the closure of the intimal defect and aortic false lumen. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 8 consecutive patients aged 40 to 57 years (seven males) treated for acute complications in the initial episode of a type B aortic dissection between August 2006 and July 2008. Results: Six/eight were known hypertensive patients. The indications for surgery were intractable pain in one, hypertension refractory to treatment in two and distal hypoperfusion in fve. Five patients required covering of the left subclavian artery ostium, without need for surgical repair. One patient was subjected to renal angioplasty and stenting. Technical success was achieved in all cases, with complete closure of the proximal aortic tear and thoracic aortic false lumen, although 7 of patients had a persistent distal aortic false lumen. One case had a transient lower limb paraparesis. No patient died. Conclusions: Endovascular treatment is effective in closing the aortic tear as well as the thoracic aortic false lumen in aortic type B dissections with a low complication rate. Due to the high frequency of distal aortic false lumen persistence, it is not a defnitive treatment for this condition but it is useful for the acute complications of the initial phase of type B aortic dissection. <![CDATA[<b>Tiroiditis crónica de Hashimoto</b>: <b>Serie clínica</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Chronic Hashimoto Thyroiditis (CHT) is the main cause of hypothyroidism. Aim: To report a series of patients with CHT. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of a series of 27 men aged 38 ± 14 years and 201 women aged 37 ± 16 years, evaluated in the private offces of two of the authors. Results: Fifty six percent of patients only had unspecifc symptoms at the moment of consultation, 50% had a family history of thyroid diseases and only 21% of women had a previous history of goiter. Eighty one percent of patients had clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism, 62% had both antithyroglobulin and antithyroid peroxidase positive antibodies and 13% had both antibodies negative. Only 1.4% of patients had a normal thyroid ultrasound examination. Patients were treated with levothyroxine at a mean dosage of 75 µg/day and 53% achieved an adequate TSH level. Six of ten patients operated due to nodules had a papillary carcinoma. Conclusions: CHT should be sought in the general population, especially those with a family history of thyroid disease. Thyroid ultrasound is seldom normal in patients with CHT. Thyroid substitution should be monitored periodically to achieve adequate TSH levels. <![CDATA[<b>Fortificación de la harina de trigo con ácido fólico en Chile</b>: <b>Consecuencias no intencionadas</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: High daily intake of folic acid (FA) could determine health risks in some populations. Aim: To review the Chilean FA wheat four fortifcation and to identify the existence of populations at risk. Material and Methods: We categorized the FA levels in four samples (percentil P) (2005-2008) and estimated intake of FA (mg/d) in adults from apparent bread consumption according to different levels (P20, 50 and 95) and children consumption (8-13 years) considering socioeconomic status (SES), bread/g/d intake (P20, 50 and 75) and regulated level of four fortifcation (2.2 mg FA/100 g). Daily Dietary Folate Equivalent (DFE) consumption was estimated from serum folate in adults and elderly people (both sexes). We calculated the percentage of population with FA intakes over the estimated average requirement (EAR) and maximum level (UL) pre and post-fortifcation. Results: There is great variability in FA four: 10-20% samples without FA and 10-30% with levels > 2.2 mg/100 g. Adult daily consumption (2-4 day/loaves) could determine FA intakes close to UL. Children daily bread consumption (low socioeconomic level) > P75 have intakes close to UL. Post-fortifcation estimated daily DFE from serum folate in women, men and elderly people show: 99% of women, 100% of men and the elderly people have intakes higher than EAR. Additionally 2.3% of women and 6% of men would have intakes near the UL. Conclusions: The four FA levels and serum folate levels in some populations show increased FA post-fortifcation intakes, which could lead to greater risk suggesting a revision of the fortifcation level. <![CDATA[<b>VIPoma pancreático</b>: <b>Caso clínico</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Neuroendocrine tumors are uncommon, including VIPoma that produces vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. We report a 45-year-old female presenting with a history of diarrhea lasting three months. An abdominal CAT scan showed a solid tumor in the body of the pancreas. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor. The patient was subjected to a partial pancreatectomy, excising a 4 cm diameter tumor. The pathological study was compatible with a neuroendocrine carcinoma. There was no regional lymph node involvement. During the postoperative period the results of serum vasoactive intestinal polypeptide were received. These were 815.9 pg/ml before surgery and normalized after the operation. <![CDATA[<b>Bacteriemia por <i>Streptococcus pyogenes</i></b>: <b>Presentación de un caso clínico con aparición tardía de neumonía</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We report a 58-year-old female presenting with fever and vomiting. The initial laboratory examination disclosed two blood cultures that were positive for Streptococcus Pyogenes. An abdominal CAT scan showed a right basal pneumonia. The patient was treated with antimicrobials and discharged with oral cefadroxil for 21 days. One month after discharge she was asymptomatic and with a normal C reactive protein. Pneumonia is an important differential diagnosis in unknown origin bacteremia caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes. It may have a fulminant evolution and may complicate with abscess and empyema. <![CDATA[<b>Reumatismo palindrómico (Enfermedad de Hench Rosemberg)</b>: <b>Caso clínico con respuesta a los glucocorticoides</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Palindromic rheumatism is characterized by multiple recurrent episodes of arthritis and periarthritis (mono or oligoarticular) that may last hours or days, disappearing without sequels. We report a 69-year-old male with a history of hypertension and a presumptive diagnosis of gout due to recurrent episodes of arthritis and periarthritis in the last thirty years. They involved at least two joints, lasted few days and were self limited. The patient was admitted due to arthritis and periarthritis of both wrists, knees, ankles, elbows and hands. He presented with fever (38-39º C), intense articular pain and anorexia. With a presumptive diagnosis of palindromic rheumatism and the lack of response to non steroidal anti infammatory drugs, methylprednisolone 20 mg/od per os was started, with an excellent response. <![CDATA[<b>Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo con respuesta exitosa a trombolisisfarmacológica</b>: <b>Caso clínico</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Massive pulmonary thromboembolism has a high mortality. Early thrombolysis is the treatment of choice. We report a 79-year-old man admitted in shock. A chest angio-CAT scan showed a massive pulmonary thromboembolism. A transthoracic echocardiography showed a right cardiac dysfunction. Although the patient was in hemodynamic instability, he was subjected to thrombolysis with streptokinase, assisted with noradrenaline support and invasive mechanical ventilation. Parenteral anticoagulation was started thereafter. A second echocardiography, performed 72 hours later showed an improvement in right ventricular function. The patient had a nosocomial pneumonia that was treated. Noradrenalin and mechanical ventilation were discontinued nine and 15 days after thrombolysis. A new angio-CAT scan, 23 days after the procedure, was normal. The patient was discharged in good conditions 27 days after admission. <![CDATA[<b>Rol del riñón en la hipertensión sal-sensible</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es An important proportion of patients with essential hypertension are salt sensitive, defined as those who experience signifcant blood pressure changes according to the amount of salt intake. They have a disturbance in the pressure induced natriuresis mechanism and their kidneys have functional and morphological alterations con-sistent with an acquired tubulointerstitial alteration, afferent arteriole damage and alteration of peritubular capillaries. All these alterations lead to disturbances in sodium load excretion under normal pressures. There is also an associated activation of kidney vasoconstrictor/salt retaining systems and a reduction in the vasodilator/ salt eliminating mechanisms. These alterations, that originate early in life, generate a new blood pressure level, that corrects natriuresis at the expense of a sustained hypertension. <![CDATA[<b>Impacto de la apolipoproteína A5 en el riesgo cardiovascular</b>: <b>Modulaciones genéticas y ambientales</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Triglyceride concentrations are an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has an important role determining triglyceride metabolism and it is a potential cardiovascular risk. However the mechanisms for these actions are not well-known. Despite the different allelic frequency of its major polymorphisms in different populations, multiple studies have shown consistent associations between these variants and fasting triglycerides. Variations in the APOA5 gene have also been associated with postprandial triglycerides, as well as with different sizes of lipoproteins and other markers. Moreover, some of the APOA5 gene variants have been associated with ischemic heart disease, stroke, and carotid intima media thickness, although the references on this issue are scanty and contradictory. This may be due to the presence of gene-environment interactions that have been poorly studied until now. Among the few studies that have examined the infuence of environmental factors on possible genetic variations, the most important are those that contemplate possible gene-diet interactions. However, the evidence is still scarce and more research is required in the feld of nutrigenomics. To understand the impact of this gene on cardiovascular disease, we review the genetic functionality and variability of APOA5, its associations with intermediate and fnal phenotypes and gene-environment interactions detected. <![CDATA[<b>Terapias biológicas en el lupus eritematoso sistémico</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The immunosuppressive agents used in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have signifcantly improved prognosis. However, it is necessary to develop more specifc immunosuppressive treatments with less toxicity. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the loss of tolerance in autoimmune diseases has contributed to the development of potential new treatments called biologic therapies. The targets of these biological therapies are directed toward the B cell depletion, interference in the co-stimulation signals and the blockade of cytokines. Therapies using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies have shown satisfactory results especially in patients with SLE refractory to conventional treatment. The biological therapies provide encouraging results that represent a possible option in the treatment of refractory patients as well as a potential therapy in the future management of SLE. <![CDATA[<b>Disfunción miocárdica en la sepsis</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Myocardial dysfunction appears in 25% of patients with severe sepsis and in 50% of patients with septic shock, even in the presence of hyper dynamic states. It is characterized by a reduction in left ventricle ejection fraction, that reverts at the seventh to tenth day of evolution. Right ventricular dysfunction and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction can also appear. There is no consensus if an increase in end diastolic volume is part of the syndrome. High troponin or brain natriuretic peptide levels are associated with myocardial dysfunction and a higher mortality. The pathogenesis of myocardial dysfunction is related to micro and macro circulatory changes, infammatory response, oxidative stress, intracellular calcium management disturbances, metabolic changes, autonomic dysfunction, activation of apoptosis, mitochondrial abnormalities and a derangement in catecholaminergic stimulation. Since there is no specifc treatment for myocardial dysfunction, its management requires an adequate multi systemic support to maintain perfusion pressures and systemic fows suffcient for the regional and global demands. <![CDATA[<b>El terremoto de Darwin</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specifc species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. Hace 175 años (febrero de 1835) Charles Darwin presenció un gran terremoto en Concepción y Valdivia, en Chile. Sus observaciones ilustraron dramáticamente los principios geológicos de James Hutton y Charles Lyell, quienes sostenían que la superfcie de la tierra estaba expuesta a alteraciones por eventos naturales, tales como terremotos, erupciones volcánicas y la acción erosiva del viento y el agua, operando durante largos períodos de tiempo. Cambios en la tierra crearon nuevos ambientes y fomentaron adaptaciones en las formas de vida que pudieron conducir a la formación de nuevas especies. Sin la demostración de múltiples eventos acumulados en la corteza terrestre a través del tiempo, en Chile, las implicaciones biológicas de las especies de aves y tortugas descubiertas en las Islas Galápagos y la formulación del concepto de selección natural habrían permanecido latentes. <![CDATA[<b>La profesión docente</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article focuses on understanding teaching activities, especially in the feld of health science, as a set of tasks and actions that teachers undertake when transforming scientifc knowledge into curriculum contents and actions. There are several ways to address this issue. Some authors identify specifc roles and qualities of teachers structured as variables and dimensions. Others use the term competences, applied as skills, aptitudes or abilities to do something very well or duly intervene in a certain matter. The term competence, although not yet clearly defined, is used in this work because it is widely used in Health Sciences education. Some defnitions are reviewed. Teacher’s competences in the following areas recognized: those related to specifc professional skills, in contents organization, in learning skills, in new information and communication technologies, in evaluation and in social and ethical areas of educational practices. <![CDATA[<b>Revisión por pares en la <i>Revista Médica de Chile</i>, año 2009</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article focuses on understanding teaching activities, especially in the feld of health science, as a set of tasks and actions that teachers undertake when transforming scientifc knowledge into curriculum contents and actions. There are several ways to address this issue. Some authors identify specifc roles and qualities of teachers structured as variables and dimensions. Others use the term competences, applied as skills, aptitudes or abilities to do something very well or duly intervene in a certain matter. The term competence, although not yet clearly defined, is used in this work because it is widely used in Health Sciences education. Some defnitions are reviewed. Teacher’s competences in the following areas recognized: those related to specifc professional skills, in contents organization, in learning skills, in new information and communication technologies, in evaluation and in social and ethical areas of educational practices. <![CDATA[<b>Sobre el origen de la Bacteriología Experimental en Chile</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The origin of Bacteriology in Chile is intimately bound to the life of the physicians Vicente Izquierdo Sanfuentes and Francisco Puelma Tupper. Both were awarded in 1874 with a government fellowship to study in the most prestigious universities of Europe. Dr. Izquierdo studied Histology and Dr. Puelma Tupper Pathology. After their return to Chile in 1879, both founded in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, the frst experimental laboratories in their respective disciplines. It was in those laboratories that the new science of microbiology started to be developed slowly. This discipline was just consolidating itself in Europe, led by the famous scientists Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. <![CDATA[<b>Plan de Reconstrucción Psicológica Post Terremoto</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The origin of Bacteriology in Chile is intimately bound to the life of the physicians Vicente Izquierdo Sanfuentes and Francisco Puelma Tupper. Both were awarded in 1874 with a government fellowship to study in the most prestigious universities of Europe. Dr. Izquierdo studied Histology and Dr. Puelma Tupper Pathology. After their return to Chile in 1879, both founded in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, the frst experimental laboratories in their respective disciplines. It was in those laboratories that the new science of microbiology started to be developed slowly. This discipline was just consolidating itself in Europe, led by the famous scientists Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. <![CDATA[<b>Transfusión sanguínea y Testigos de Jehová</b>: <b>puntos a considerar</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The origin of Bacteriology in Chile is intimately bound to the life of the physicians Vicente Izquierdo Sanfuentes and Francisco Puelma Tupper. Both were awarded in 1874 with a government fellowship to study in the most prestigious universities of Europe. Dr. Izquierdo studied Histology and Dr. Puelma Tupper Pathology. After their return to Chile in 1879, both founded in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, the frst experimental laboratories in their respective disciplines. It was in those laboratories that the new science of microbiology started to be developed slowly. This discipline was just consolidating itself in Europe, led by the famous scientists Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. <![CDATA[<b>Obstrucción respiratoria alta aguda inducida por neurolépticos</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The origin of Bacteriology in Chile is intimately bound to the life of the physicians Vicente Izquierdo Sanfuentes and Francisco Puelma Tupper. Both were awarded in 1874 with a government fellowship to study in the most prestigious universities of Europe. Dr. Izquierdo studied Histology and Dr. Puelma Tupper Pathology. After their return to Chile in 1879, both founded in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, the frst experimental laboratories in their respective disciplines. It was in those laboratories that the new science of microbiology started to be developed slowly. This discipline was just consolidating itself in Europe, led by the famous scientists Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. <![CDATA[<b>Profesor Dr. Ramón Ortúzar Escobar (1914-2010)</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872010000700023&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The origin of Bacteriology in Chile is intimately bound to the life of the physicians Vicente Izquierdo Sanfuentes and Francisco Puelma Tupper. Both were awarded in 1874 with a government fellowship to study in the most prestigious universities of Europe. Dr. Izquierdo studied Histology and Dr. Puelma Tupper Pathology. After their return to Chile in 1879, both founded in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, the frst experimental laboratories in their respective disciplines. It was in those laboratories that the new science of microbiology started to be developed slowly. This discipline was just consolidating itself in Europe, led by the famous scientists Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch.