Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720110004&lang=pt vol. 139 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[Study of resistance to chemotherapy mediated by ABC transporters in biopsies of glioblastoma multiforme]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Mortality rate is dramatically high in high grade brain tumors. The presence of multiple drug resistance transporters in glioblastoma multiforme, has contributed largely to the poor effcacy of targeted therapy against cancer in the central nervous system. Aim: To analyze the percentage of survival and mortality of patients with glioblastoma multiforme in a cohort of patients in Chile and to co-rrelate the chemo-resistance of these cells with the expression level of multiple drug resistance transporters. Materials and Methods: Eighteen biopsies of glioblastoma multiforme were obtained from patients at the Institute of Neurosurgery Dr. Asenjo (INCA). The tumor cells were obtained from primary cultures and the expression and activity of multiple drug resistance transporters was assessed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Population-based study was performed using the databases of the Department of Neurosurgery of INCA. Results: The number of patients with glioblastoma multiforme increased between 2007 and 2009, from 3.5% to 7.9% of total brain tumors. Mortality of these tumors is 90 % at three years. A high expression and activity of the multiple drugs resistance associated protein 1 (Mrp1) transporter was observed in primary cultures of biopsies. Conclusions: We propose that Mrp1 activity is responsible for the chemo-resistance of the glioblastoma multiforme and inhibition of this transporter could represent a plausible strategy for the treatment. <![CDATA[<b>Intake and energy metabolism in a sample of overweight and obese Chilean adolescents</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: In the last decades, a seven to nine fold increase in the prevalence of teenage obesity and overweight has occurred. Aim: To assess energy intake and metabolism in a sample of overweight and obese adolescents. Material and Methods: In a sample of 113 overweight and obese Chilean adolescents (aged 13 to 16 years, 67 females) we studied anthropometry, body composition by deuterium isotope dilution water, resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry and 24-h diet and physical activity recalls. Results: Most participants (87% of men and 67.2% of women) had an intake that was adequate compared to requirements (fAO/WHO 2005). However, 82.6% of men and 83.6% of women showed reduced energy expenditure. The sample was classifed as sedentary, with a physical activity level of 1.29. Conclusions: In our sample of overweight and obese adolescents there was a sedentary behavior, resulting in low energy expenditure that would explain a sustained caloric retention. Preventive and therapeutic interventions should encourage the increase in physical activity. <![CDATA[<b>Prognostic factors for gastric cancer without lymph node involvement</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The absence of lymph node involvement (N0) in gastric cancer is associated with a better survival. However some N0 gastric tumors still have a bad prognosis. Aim: To study demographic and morphological variables associated with prognosis in N0 gastric carcinoma. Material and Methods: Review of pathologica records of a regional general hospital, identifying patients with a N0 gastric cancer surgically excised between 1986 and 2003. Results: In the study period, 459 gastrectomies were performed for gastric cancer and in 32%, the tumor was devoid of lymph node involvement. These later patients were followed for a median of 64 months with a 71% fve years actuarial survival. Bivariate analysis identifed age, tumor size, gastric wallinfiltration, pathological type according to Lauren and Ming, lymphovascular involvement, number of lymph nodes excised and TNM stage as prognostic values Multivariate analysis disclosed the level of gastric wallinfiltration, the presence of a poorly differentiated tumor, lymphatic vascular involvement, number of excise lymph nodes and tumor size as independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: N0 gastric tumors are found in 32% of gastrectomies for gastric cancer and have a 71% fve years actuarial survival. Gastric wallinfiltration, pathological degree of differentiation tumor size and lymphovascular involvement are independent prognostic factors. <![CDATA[<b>Rectal ozone therapy for patients with pulmonary emphysema</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Ozone therapy may stimulate antioxidant systems and protect against free radicals. It has not been used formerly in patients with pulmonary emphysema. Aim: To assess the effects of rectal ozone therapy in patients with pul-monary emphysema. Material and Methods: Sixty four patients with pulmonary emphysema, aged between 40 and 69 years, were randomly assigned to receive rectal ozone in 20 daily sessions, rectal medicinal oxygen or no treatment. Treatments were repeated three months later in the frst two groups. At baseline and at the end of the study, spirometry and a clinical assessment were performed. Results: fifty patients completed the protocol, 20 receiving ozone therapy, 20 receiving rectal oxygen and 10 not receiving any therapy. At baseline, patients on ozone therapy had significantly lower values of forced expiratory volume in the frst second (fEV1) and fEV1/forced vital capacity. At the end of the treatment period, these parameters were similar in the three treatment groups, therefore they only improved significantly in the group on ozone therapy. No differences were observed in other spirometric parameters. Conclusions: Rectal ozone therapy may be useful in patients with pulmonary emphysema. <![CDATA[<b>Source of infection in young infants hospitalized with <i>Bordetella pertussis</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Despite pertussis vaccination, very young infants have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality caused by the microorganism. Aim: To determine the source of Pertussis infection in infants aged six months or less in Chile. Material and Methods: Twenty six household contacts of 10 young infants hospitalized with confirmed Pertussis were studied for the presence of Bordetella Pertussis by polyme-rase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical and demographic data were analyzed. Results: Respiratory symptoms were present in 20 (77%) contacts, being cough the most common. Pertussis cases were identifed in every household and in 18 (72%) of the household members. four members with B.pertussis were asymptomatic. Source of infection was identifed in 80% (8/10) of the infant cases with ages ranging from 6 to 62 years. Half of primary cases had positive PCR and their cough duration was significantly shorter compared to primary cases with negative PCR. Conclusions: B. pertussis transmission to young infants occurred mainly within the household where adults are generally the source of the infection. Risk factors for infant infection are the same as in developed countries. Therefore, the same strategies, such as routine vaccination in adolescents and adults or cocoon strategy, will help to prevent this disease in infants. <![CDATA[<b>Assessing a test to evaluate clinical analytical thinking according to medical training level</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: MATCH (Measuring Analytical Thinking in Clinical Health Care) is an instrument to evaluate clinical reasoning. Aim: To assess MATCH performance in professionals and students with different training in pediatrics. Material and Methods: MATCH was administered to medical students (S), frst (R1) and third (R3) year residents and staff physicians (P). We evaluated the score and time required to achieve it, according to training level in pediatrics. Results: Eighty fve subjects were included (23 S, 28 R1, 17 R3 y 17 P), achieving 37.4 ± 6.0 points, in 25.2 ± 8.5 minutes. There were significant differences in score and time, according to training level. There was a positive correlation between training level and score (Rho = 0.515; p < 0.001), and a negative one between training level and time (Rho = -0.589; p < 0.001). Conclusions: More experienced and trained professionals had a better performance in a clinical analytical thinking test. <![CDATA[Medical students as members of the health care team]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Teaching hospitals include both undergraduate and postgraduate students, but the role of medical students in the health care team has not been clearly established. Aim: To know the opinion of different professionals about the role of medical students and how this opinion may have an influence in medical education. Material and Methods: A qualitative method was used, asking open questions to focus groups of physicians, nurses and midwives, technicians and undergraduate medical students of 4th and 5th grade. Results: Physicians believe that medical students have no special role in the health care team, nurses think that they may help in commu-nication with patients, and technicians (nurses’s aids) value their companionship and closeness with patients. Medical students recognize that their main function is to learn but they are aware that they do help patients. They suggest increasing their integration with other students of other health related careers. Conclusions: Although medical students are usually not seen as part of the health care team, they may fulfll a role with patients during their clinical learning practice. This would improve the quality of their training and the multidisciplinary work of the health care team. <![CDATA[<b>Detection of genes associated with drug resistance in <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </i>strains isolated in Chile</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The incidence of acquired resistance to antituberculous drugs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Chile is approximately 23%. Aim: To analyze the mutations associated with drug resistance in drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Material and Methods: In 28 drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Chile, genes leading to drug resistance were studied. DNA was amplifed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing was carried out using the ABI PRISM big dye terminator cycle sequencing ready reaction kit. Results: In rifampicin-resistant strains, the mutations in rpoβ gene were in the codons S531W/L (56%), D516Y (16%) and D516V (16%). The predominant mutation in katG gene was in the codon S315L (73%) in isoniazid-resistant strains. The mutation S95T was found in the 71% of ciprofoxacin resistant strains. Only one ethambutol resistant strain had the M306I mutation. Three unreported mutations in katG were identifed. Conclusions: Drug resistance associated mutations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Chile were similar to those reported abroad. <![CDATA[<b>A self administered survey to assess bullying in schools</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Bullying is common in schools and has negative consequences. It can be assessed using a self-reported instrument. Aim: To validate a Spanish self-reporting tool called “Survey of High School Bullying Abuse of Power” (MIAP). Material and Methods: The instrument has 13 questions, of which 7 are multiple choice, rende-ring a total of 49 items. It was applied to 2.341 children of seventh and eighth grade attending private, subsidized and municipal schools in the city of Concepción, Chile. Expert judge analysis and estimated reliability using the Cronbach Alpha were used to validate the survey. Results: The instrument obtained a Cronbach Alpha coeffcient of 0.8892, classifed as good. This analysis generated four scales that explained 30.9% of the variance. They were called “Witness Bullying” with 18 items, accounting for 11.4% of the variance, “Bullying Victim” with 12 items, accounting for 7.5% of the variance, “Bullying Perpetrator and Severe bullying Victim”, with 10 items explaining 6.4% of the variance and “Aggressor Bullying” with 6 items accounting for 5.7% of the variance. Conclusions: The MIAP can recognize four basic factors that facilitate the analysis and understanding of bullying, with good levels of reliability and validity. The remaining questions also deliver valuable information. <![CDATA[<b>Rhabdomyolysis</b><b> and acute renal failure after cocaine overdose</b>: <b>Report of one case</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Rhabdomyolysis caused by cocaine abuse is multifactorial, involving tissue ischemia secondary to vasoconstriction and cellular damage caused by the drug. Renal failure may or may be not associated to rhabdomyolysis. We report a 41-year-old male admitted with a severe rhabdomyolysis after a cocaine overdose. In spite of a vigorous hydration and alkalization, he developed acute renal failure. Renal function recovered after several weeks of dialysis. <![CDATA[<b>Remission of vitiligo during treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin</b>: <b>Report of one case</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Vitiligo is associated with other autoimmune diseases. We report a 52-year-old male with a Sjögren syndrome that was treated with monthly pulses of intravenous immunoglobulin for a chronicinflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. The neurological disorder responded adequately to the treatment and the patient also noted a marked remission of his vitiligo with almost compete re-pigmentation of the scalp and face and partial repigmentation of other areas. <![CDATA[Retroperitoneal fibrosis associated with chronic use of ergotamine: Report of one case]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) associated with chronic use of ergotamine is a very rare disorder. We report a 45-year-old woman who presented with a RPf after using, almost daily for 23 years, ergotamine tartrate for migraine relief. FRP presented as a chronicinflammatory state, anemia, abdominal and lumbosacral pain and a hypogastric mass. A CT-Scan showed a periaortic mass and left hydronephrosis. A percutaneous biopsy was obtained and the patient was subjected to a surgical ureterolysis and tissue resection. The biopsy confirmed the presence of RPf. Due to persistent symptoms and increase in the volume of periaortic tissue, treatment with colchicine 1 mg/day and defazacort 30 mg/day was started, resulting in a rapid di-sappearance of symptoms, disappearance ofinflammation and a significant reduction in the volume of the periaortic tissue. The patient remains in complete remission after 29 months of follow up. <![CDATA[<b>International policies towards sick leave</b>: <b>A referent to analyze the Chilean situation</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This is a comparative review of sick leave and wage replacement policies among countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (EOCD), an organism that Chile joined recently. This review also deals with the main transfor-mations applied to the system to improve its effciency and the variables that explain such changes. The Chilean system is analyzed from the perspective of substitution rates, waiting time and protection length. According to these parameters, Chile is located below countries such as Scandinavian countries, that provide a universal protection, and over those countries that provide a focalized protection according to worker’s needs. <![CDATA[<b>The role of uric acid in heart failure</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Complications and mortality of heart failure are high, despite the availability of several forms of treatment. Uric acid, the end product of purine metabolism would actively participate in the pathophysiology of heart failure. However, there is no consensus about its action in cardiovascular disease. Serum uric acid would have a protective antioxidant activity. This action could help to reduce or counteract the processes that cause or appear as a result of heart failure. However, these protective properties would vanish in the intracellular environment or in highly hydrophobic areas such as atherosclerotic plaques and adipose tissue. This review discusses the paradoxical action of uric acid in the pathophysiology of heart failure. <![CDATA[<b>Developmental toxicity of misoprostol</b>: <b>An update</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Misoprostol, a synthetic analog of prostaglandin E1, is currently used in Chile and other countries as an antiulcer medication, mainly for the prevention of non-steroidal anti-infammatory-induced gastric ulcers. Due to its uterotonic properties, it is also indicated in obstetrics for induction of labor and termination of pregnancy. In this last case, misoprostol is either used alone or in combination with other oxytocic drugs such as methotrexate or mifepristone. The use of misoprostol as an abortifacient agent is considered to be safe since it rarely causes serious side effects. However up to 15 % of misoprostol-induced-abortions may not be successful, even under medical supervision, leading to in utero exposure to the drug and to the induction of a series of birth defects including limb and joints defects and Moebius syndrome. Reports from the nineties failed to show a strong epidemiological association between in utero drug exposure and induction of defects, a situation that has changed now that the number of cases reported has increased. Since the practice of abortion is illegal in Chile, many women turn to off-medical procedures to interrupt their pregnancy and use misoprostol as an easy and cheap alternative, readily available in the INTERNET. The lack of medical supervision in these cases may lead to situations that favor the induction of congenital defects. Here, we present an updated review of scientifc data, to evaluate the risk of birth defects in babies exposed to the drug during pregnancy termination failed attempts. <![CDATA[<b>Medical schools</b>: Students today]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Physicians that are faculty members in medical schools receive new students every year, and they are expected to prepare those students to become professionals. They usually appeal to their experience to meet that challenge. However, newer generations of students are different, and experience, with no formal training for teaching them, can be insuffcient. New characteristics of students can be related to their early contact in life with information technology. Their brain has been somehow modifed by stimuli offered by this technology, and the way they learn has also been modifed. This paper is a refection about how students have changed and it analyzes how their learning experience needs to be modifed accordingly. Teaching based only on experience might be insuffcient to fulfll the expectations of young students that have chosen the medical profession for their future. <![CDATA[<b>Bioethics of Sigmund Freud´s death</b>: <b>Euthanasia or appropriation?</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The death of Freud raises the ethical dilemma about euthanasia. It can be characterized as indirect active euthanasia according to the rule of double effect, or terminal sedation, or palliated death. The primacy of the principle of autonomy over non maleficence, conditioned the physician’s attitude toward his patient Freud. The physician assisted death was and remains punishable in western medicine. Therefore, a fundamental tradition was infringed. In contrast, the present study attempts to characterize the final position of Freud himself to his death and called it appropriation of his finitude; he assumes his being-unto-death, that is, he now projects his being not as a being-at-his-end but as a being-unto-end, indicating thereby that he understood that the end always penetrated his whole existence. <![CDATA[<b>The anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp</b>: <b>The beginning of a medical utopia</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp was painted by Rembrandt Harmen-szoon van Rijn at the early age of 26 years. In the XVII century these paintings were very popular in the Netherlands, and in this country the cities fourished as cultural centers searching the anatomy knowledge. Nicolaes Tulp was one of the persons in the center of Amsterdam’s scene during XVII century. In 1632 Tulp was 39 years old, and he was an anatomist and a surgeon. Rembrandt masterly shows an autopsy performed by Dr. Tulp. This picture is the description of the beginning of a medical intellectual utopia: the absolute visibility of the disease. Unfortunately this utopia is blind to the complete visibility of the psycho-socio-cultural dimensions of the ill. <![CDATA[<b>Basic concepts about paternity testing</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nowadays, the analysis of genetic markers is a very important and validated tool for the identification of individuals, and for paternity testing. To do so, highly variable regions of the human genome are analyzed, making it possible to obtain the genetic profle of an individual, and to distinguish between different individuals. The methodology used is basically the same all over the world, consisting in the analysis of 13 to 15 markers. To assign biological paternity the child must have inherited the characteristics from the alleged father in each of the genetic markers analyzed. This analysis achieves a certainty higher than with any other test, which is expressed as the probability of paternity. This probability has to be at least 99.9%, but greater probabilities are usually obtained, especially if the mother is included in the analysis. If the characteristics of two or more genetic markers from the alleged father are absent in the child, biological paternity is excluded.<hr/>El análisis de marcadores genéticos se ha convertido en una herramienta muy importante y ampliamente reconocida para la identificación de individuos y para el estudio de paternidad. Para esto se estudian distintas regiones del genoma humano que son altamente variables en la población y que permiten obtener el perfil genético y distinguir entre distintos individuos. La metodología que se utiliza es básicamente la misma en todo el mundo y consiste en el análisis de entre 13 a 15 marcadores. La paternidad biológica se asigna cuando el hijo/a presenta las características que debe heredar del presunto padre en cada uno de los marcadores genéticos estudiados. A través de este análisis es posible asignar paternidad con un grado de certeza más alto que con cualquier otro sistema, el que se expresa como probabilidad de paternidad. Esta probabilidad debe alcanzar al menos 99,9%. Sin embargo, es posible obtener probabilidades mucho más altas, sobre todo si se incluye a la madre en el estudio. Si las características genéticas del supuesto padre están ausentes en el hijo/a en al menos dos marcadores, se excluye la paternidad biológica. <![CDATA[<b>Updated reference values for sperm counts (WHO 2010)</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nowadays, the analysis of genetic markers is a very important and validated tool for the identification of individuals, and for paternity testing. To do so, highly variable regions of the human genome are analyzed, making it possible to obtain the genetic profle of an individual, and to distinguish between different individuals. The methodology used is basically the same all over the world, consisting in the analysis of 13 to 15 markers. To assign biological paternity the child must have inherited the characteristics from the alleged father in each of the genetic markers analyzed. This analysis achieves a certainty higher than with any other test, which is expressed as the probability of paternity. This probability has to be at least 99.9%, but greater probabilities are usually obtained, especially if the mother is included in the analysis. If the characteristics of two or more genetic markers from the alleged father are absent in the child, biological paternity is excluded.<hr/>El análisis de marcadores genéticos se ha convertido en una herramienta muy importante y ampliamente reconocida para la identificación de individuos y para el estudio de paternidad. Para esto se estudian distintas regiones del genoma humano que son altamente variables en la población y que permiten obtener el perfil genético y distinguir entre distintos individuos. La metodología que se utiliza es básicamente la misma en todo el mundo y consiste en el análisis de entre 13 a 15 marcadores. La paternidad biológica se asigna cuando el hijo/a presenta las características que debe heredar del presunto padre en cada uno de los marcadores genéticos estudiados. A través de este análisis es posible asignar paternidad con un grado de certeza más alto que con cualquier otro sistema, el que se expresa como probabilidad de paternidad. Esta probabilidad debe alcanzar al menos 99,9%. Sin embargo, es posible obtener probabilidades mucho más altas, sobre todo si se incluye a la madre en el estudio. Si las características genéticas del supuesto padre están ausentes en el hijo/a en al menos dos marcadores, se excluye la paternidad biológica. <![CDATA[<b><i>Medical research, Chilean miners and “Medicine P4”</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872011000400021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Nowadays, the analysis of genetic markers is a very important and validated tool for the identification of individuals, and for paternity testing. To do so, highly variable regions of the human genome are analyzed, making it possible to obtain the genetic profle of an individual, and to distinguish between different individuals. The methodology used is basically the same all over the world, consisting in the analysis of 13 to 15 markers. To assign biological paternity the child must have inherited the characteristics from the alleged father in each of the genetic markers analyzed. This analysis achieves a certainty higher than with any other test, which is expressed as the probability of paternity. This probability has to be at least 99.9%, but greater probabilities are usually obtained, especially if the mother is included in the analysis. If the characteristics of two or more genetic markers from the alleged father are absent in the child, biological paternity is excluded.<hr/>El análisis de marcadores genéticos se ha convertido en una herramienta muy importante y ampliamente reconocida para la identificación de individuos y para el estudio de paternidad. Para esto se estudian distintas regiones del genoma humano que son altamente variables en la población y que permiten obtener el perfil genético y distinguir entre distintos individuos. La metodología que se utiliza es básicamente la misma en todo el mundo y consiste en el análisis de entre 13 a 15 marcadores. La paternidad biológica se asigna cuando el hijo/a presenta las características que debe heredar del presunto padre en cada uno de los marcadores genéticos estudiados. A través de este análisis es posible asignar paternidad con un grado de certeza más alto que con cualquier otro sistema, el que se expresa como probabilidad de paternidad. Esta probabilidad debe alcanzar al menos 99,9%. Sin embargo, es posible obtener probabilidades mucho más altas, sobre todo si se incluye a la madre en el estudio. Si las características genéticas del supuesto padre están ausentes en el hijo/a en al menos dos marcadores, se excluye la paternidad biológica.