Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720120011&lang=pt vol. 140 num. 11 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[Effect of metformin on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, Toll like receptors 2/4 and C reactive protein in obese type-2 diabetic patients]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The pharmacological action of metformin goes beyond mere glycemic control, decreasing markers of inflammation and contributing to the reduction of oxidative stress. Aim: To evaluate biochemical, anthropometric and pro-inflammatory markers in obese type 2 diabetic patients treated or not with metformin. Patients and Methods: Obese patients with type 2 diabetes were invited to participate in the study if they were aged more than 40 years, were not receiving insulin, did not have cardiovascular diseases and were not taking anti-inflammatory drugs. A pharmacological history was taken and patients were stratified in two groups whether they were using metformin or not. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure blood glucose, insulin, lipid levels, C reactive protein (hsCRP) and to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RNA was isolated from these cells to measure expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), Toll-Like Receptor 2/4 (TLR 2/4) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M). Results: Thirty participants were studied. Of these, 16 subjects aged 54.4 ± 5.5years were treated with metformin and 14 subjects aged 54.9 ± 6.4 years did not receive the drug. Participants receiving metformin had lower levels of hsCRP and lower mRNA relative abundance of TNF-α and TLR 2/4. There were no differences in glucose levels or lipid profile between both groups. Conclusions: Obese diabetic patients treated with metformin had lower levels of hsCRP expression of TNF-α and TLR 2/4, than their counterparts not receiving the drug. <![CDATA[Spontaneous activity of cutaneous nociceptors in patients with painful polyneuropathy. Report of three patients]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Painful polyneuropathy may result from selective impairment of small diameter nerve fibers, while tactile and motor functions are preserved. In these patients clinical and electrophysiological assessment is usually unrevealing. We report three patients with a pure painful polyneuropathy. One of them had neurogenic pruritus additionally. Quantitative sensory analysis disclosed a slight warm hypoesthesia (3/3) and paradoxical hot sensation (2/3) in the feet. Intraneural recordings from the peroneal nerve demonstrated abnormal spontaneous activity in 8 of 17 nociceptive afferents. One of them displayed double firing reflecting impulse multiplication. These results support the notion that patients with pain or pruritus with a distal distribution similar to a polyneuropathy, could have small diameter afferent fiber damage, despite normal function of large diameter fibers. <![CDATA[Clinical practice guidelines in the Chilean health sector reform: a critical assessment of their quality]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Clinical practice guidelines are widely used as tools for improving quality of health care. However, there is increasing concern about limitations in their development process conducting to inconsistent recommendations. During the last decade the use of guidelines has been promoted in the Chilean health system, but their quality has not yet been evaluated systematically. Aim: To assess the quality of clinical practice guidelines developed by the Chilean guidelines program. Material and Methods: All the guidelines developed by the Chilean program between 2005 and 2009 were retrieved from the Ministry of Health website. Each guideline was assessed independently by three appraisers using the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument. Standardized scores were obtained for each dimension in each guideline and across the whole set of guidelines. Results: Sixty guidelines were assessed. The 'scope and purpose' dimension scored significantly higher (mean 82.2%, range: 25.9%-100%) and the 'applicability' dimension scored significantly lower (mean 23.3%, range: 0%-72.4%) than any other dimension. 'Publication date' was the only variable consistently associated with dimension scores. Conclusions: The quality of Chilean clinical practice guidelines is far from ideal. Although they seem to have a strong sense of purpose and vision, methodological procedures should be strengthened, especially those related to applicability. <![CDATA[Frequency of subclinical thyroid problems among women during the first trimester of pregnancy]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Thyroid hormones play an important role in fetal neural and cognitive development. Therefore thyroid abnormalities should be detected and treated early during pregnancy. Aim: To assess the frequency and risk factors for functional thyroid disorders during the first trimester of pregnancy. Material and Methods: A blood sample was obtained from women during their first trimester of pregnancy, consulting in a prenatal care facility. Women with known thyroid diseases were excluded from the study. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured by electrochemoluminiscence. Antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti TPO) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results: Five hundred and ten women aged 25.7 ± 6.6 years were assessed. The frequency of clinical hypothyroidism was 0.6%, subclinical hypothyroidism 35.3% and clinical hyperthyroidism 1%. Five percent of women with hypothyroidism and 3.5% of euthyroid women had positive anti TPO antibodies. There was no association between the frequency of thyroid diseases and risk factors for thyroid diseases. Conclusions: There is a high frequency of subclinical thyroid diseases among women consulting in this prenatal care clinic. <![CDATA[Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Aymara children]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The assessment of Attentional Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among ethnic groups may reveal environmental or cultural variables that influence the appearance of this disorder. Aim: To assess the presence and characteristics of ADHD in two communities of the inland Arica valleys (Azapa and Lluta), where the Aymara population predominates. Material and Methods: Startingfrom a screening based on the Conner's test, we evaluated 79 children aged 8 to 13 years. Sixty children were of Aymara origin and 19 children were of non-Aymara origin. Twenty Aymara and 9 non-Aymara children had ADHD. They were compared with a group of patients from Santiago, Chile (110 children) that were previously assessed. Results: Patientsfrom Azapa/Lluta displayed similar characteristics to those from Santiago. However the former had significantly less psychiatric comorbidities than the latter. On the other hand, the non-Aymara subgroup of Azapa/ Lluta displayed an increased rate of comorbidities and was exclusively of the combined subtype, although their sample size is too small to draw strong conclusions. Conclusions: Although we cannot dismiss biological variables, the importance of family values and the respect to authorities may be protective factors for ADHD, associated to Aymara culture. Our findings suggest that the clinical characteristics of ADHD are not uniform among ethnic groups and cultures. The relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors in this variability remain to be determined. <![CDATA[Risk factors and behaviors among children and adolescents hospitalized for a suicidal attempt]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Suicidal behavior is the result of the interaction of several factors and represents an increasing health problem. Aim: To characterize epidemiologically children and adolescents with suicidal attempts and compare them to a control group. Material and Methods: A case-control and prospective study, based on clinical interviews and tests performed to 30 children and adolescents hospitalized due to a suicidal attempt and their parents or tutors, (GIS) and 40 ambulatory controls without such history (CG). Psychopathological disorders, risk behaviors (substance use, maltreatment, peer violence, sexual abuse and early sexual relations), family factors and their association with suicidal attempts, were analyzed. Results: Seventy seven percent of participants with a history of suicidal attempt had psychopathological disorders (depression in 38%) and a higher prevalence of suicidal behavior, maltreatment, substance and sexual abuse. Male sex was a risk factor for suicide among children under 12 years and female sex was a risk factor for adolescents aged over 12years. Other risk factors detected were a risky communication between parents and siblings. Conclusions: Children and adolescents who attempted suicide and their families have a higher prevalence of risk behaviors than the control group. <![CDATA[Airway humidification practices in Chilean intensive care units]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: In patients with an artificial airway, inspired gases can be humidified and heated using a passive (heat and moisture exchange filter - HMEF), or an active system (heated humidifier). Aim: To assess how humidification is carried out and what is the usual clinical practice in this field in Chilean intensive care units (ICUs). Material and Methods: A specific survey to evaluate humidification system features as well as caregivers' preferences regarding humidification systems, was carried out on the same day in all Chilean ICUs. Results: Fifty-five ICUs were contacted and 44 of them completed the survey. From a total of 367 patients, 254 (69%) required humidification because they were breathing through an artificial airway. A heated humidifier was employed only in 12 patients (5%). Forty-three ICUs (98%) used HMEF as their routine humidification system. In 52% of surveyed ICUs, heated humidifiers were not available. Conclusions: In Chile the main method to humidify and heat inspired gases in patients with an artificial airway is the HMEF. Although there are clear indications for the use of heated humidifiers, they are seldom employed. <![CDATA[A clinical teaching course for residents improves self-perception about preparation to teach]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Medical doctors need to be competent to teach patients, their families, students, and the health care team. In a previous study we determined that although the residents attach great importance to have teaching skills, they do not feel prepared to meet this role. Aim: To assess self-perception of learning in a formal course of training how to teach for residents. Material and Methods: In 2004 we implemented the course "Residents as Clinical Teachers", based on the Stanford Faculty Development Center for Medical Teachers Model (SFDC), for residents of a Medical School. Residents of all the post graduate programs were invited to take the course as an elective during the period 2004-2011. At the end of the course each resident completed the pre/post Seminar Series Housestaff/student Questionnaire; assessing perceptions of learning, expressed in a Likert scale from 1-5. Results: The implementation of the course in 111 residents significantly improved self-perception of general preparation for teaching and improved self-perception of preparedness in each educational category. The personal goals most commonly established by participants were on feedback (52,2%), control of session (44%) and communication of goals (40%). Barriers for teaching most frequently identified were lack of time to do clinical teaching (51,3%) and environmental limitations (16,2%). The main impact of the course reported by residents were acquisition of teaching skills or tools for teaching (39,6%), enhancing of motivation (14%), and a richer understanding of teaching principles (14%). Conclusions: A clinical teaching course for residents improves their self-perception of preparation to teach and enhances motivation for clinical teaching. <![CDATA[Neuropsychological assessment of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis prior to the use of immunomodulatory drugs]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The detection of cognitive changes (CC) and psychiatric disorders in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS-RR) contributes to patient clinical monitoring. Aim: To assess the frequency and characteristics of CC and psychiatric disorders in Chilean patients with MS-RR, before starting immunomodulatory treatment. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of data that was obtained following a standard assessment protocol. It consisted in the application of the Expanded Disability Status Scale of Kurtzke (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), fatigue intensity scale of Krupp, brief repeatable battery of neuropsychological Rao (BRN-R) and Hamilton's depression and anxiety questionnaires. Results: We evaluated 129 patients aged between 12 and 60 years of age (69% women). Ninetyfour percent of patients had eight or more years of schooling. The average EDSS score was 2.83. CC were detected in 62% of participants, in at least one subtest of the BRN-R. The main changes were verbal memory and speed in the processing information. The frequency of cognitive impairment (CI), defined as at least two BRN-R subtests altered, was 36%. The figures decreased to 17% when significant major depression or associated fatigue were excluded. Depressive symptoms were observed in 58% and anxiety in 76.7%. Conclusions: The results are consistent with those described in the literature. The type of instruments used in the investigation of CC and the definition of CI in MS should be standardized. <![CDATA[Priapism associated with risperidone use: Report of one case]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The use of drugs with α-adrenergic antagonistic effect is one of the most prominent etiologies of priapism. We report a 32-year-old schizophrenic male in treatment with risperidone who consulted in the emergency room for a painful priapism. A low flow priapism was diagnosed. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and the patient was subjected to a proximal corporo-spongiosal shunt (Quackels technique), with good results. The patient was discharged in good conditions. <![CDATA[Cardiac hydatidosis: Report of one case]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Hydatidosis is an endemic zoonosis in Chile. We report a 48-year-old former slaughterman, with a previous history of pulmonary hydatidosis, who presented a stroke without associated cardiovascular symptoms. An echocardiogram revealed a tumor mass with cystic features in the left ventricle. The patient was operated and the cyst was successfully excised. During the follow up, the patient remains asymptomatic. <![CDATA[Parvovirus B19 arthritis: Report of three cases]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Parvovirus B19 infection is highly prevalent in children and the most common manifestation is a facial rash. In adults, acute polyarthritis and skin rash are often the presenting features. We report three patients with the disease. A 40-year-old female presenting with fever, myalgias and painful swelling of elbows, knees, wrists and feet, with functional limitation, after having a respiratory infection. Additionally, an erythematous skin rash appeared in both extremities. IgM antibodies against Parvovirus B19 were positive. The skin biopsy disclosed a leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and antihistaminics. A 40-year-old female, presenting with skin rash and pain in wrists and hands. IgM antibodies against parvovirus were positive. The patient was treated successfully with acetaminophen. A 38-year-old male with psoriasis, presenting with generalized and progressive polyarthralgia. A Parvovirus viral load determination found 239000 copies of the virus and IgM antibodies were positive. He was successfully treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. <![CDATA[Homozygous germline mutation in MUTYH gene in familial adenomatous polyposis]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Recently, MUTYH mutations have been reported to predispose to the development of polyposis. However, polyposis caused by mutations in MUTYH has been characterized as an autosomal recessive hereditary disease, different from the autosomal dominant pattern observed in polyposis caused by APC mutations. We report a 41-year-old female consulting for anemia. Colonoscopy detected multiple sessile polyps and a cecal carcinoma. The patient was operated and in the surgical piece, the tumor invaded serosa and there was lymph node involvement. Approximately 100 polyps were found. The patient received 5-fluorouracil, as adjuvant therapy. The patient had a sister (of a total of 12 brothers) with a colorectal carcinoma. The genetic study identified a homozygous mutation of the MUTYH gene, called c.340T > C, that produces an amino acid change of tyrosine for histidine called p.Y114H. The sister with colorectal cancer was a heterozygous carrier of this mutation. <![CDATA[Folate, vitamin B<sub>12</sub> and human health]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared functions and intertwined metabolic pathways that define the size of the "methyl donor" pool utilized in multiple metabolic pathways; these include DNA methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. In Chile, folate deficiency is virtually nonexistent, while vitamin B12 deficiency affects approximately 8.5-51% depending on the cut-off value used to define deficiency. Folate is found naturally mainly in vegetables or added as folic acid to staple foods. Vitamin B12 in its natural form is present only in foods of animal origin, which is why deficit is more common among strict vegetarians and populations with a low intake of animal foods. Poorfolate status in vulnerable women of childbearing age increases the risk of neural tube birth defects, so the critical time for the contribution of folic acid is several months before conception since neural tube closure occurs during the first weeks of life. The absorption of vitamin B12 from food is lower in older adults, who are considered to have higher risk of gastric mucosa atrophy, altered production of intrinsic factor and acid secretion. Deficiency of these vitamins is associated with hematological disorders. Vitamin B12 deficiency can also induce clinical and sub-clinical neurological and of other disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent advances in the basic and applied knowledge of these vitamins relative to human health. <![CDATA[Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Backgroud: Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is the term used to describe adults who have a slowly progressive form of diabetes mellitus (DM) of autoimmune etiology, but that may be treated initially without insulin. Although it shares some immunological and genetic aspects with type 1 DM, it affects an age group that is typically affected by type 2 DM. Therefore, it could be considered an intermediate type. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory criteria: age of onset, initial response to oral hypoglycemic agents and the presence of specific antibodies for diabetes. Although the definitive treatment is insulin, glitazones may be useful in early stages of the disease. Currently, its management represents a challenge for the physician, including specialists, and it is a form of DM to keep in mind. <![CDATA[Risk stratification of pulmonary thromboembolism]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The prognosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) is related to the cardiopulmonary reserve of the patient and the magnitude of the embolus that impacts pulmonary circulation. The presence of hemodynamic instability (shock) stratifies a group of patients with high mortality, which should be treated with thrombolysis. Patients without shock but with right ventricular dysfunction can have a dismal evolution and should be managed aggressively. CAT scan, echocardiography and serum markers can be of value to define patients with a higher mortality. The available evidence to define the best diagnostic and therapeutic strategy is scanty, controversial and inconclusive. A good combination of clinical, imaging and biological markers should be defined to identify those patients without shock but with a high rate of complications and mortality, that could benefit from aggressive treatments. <![CDATA[The law of rights and duties of persons in health care from the viewpoint of bioethics]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The enactment of Law 20.584 in April of 2012 promotes a change in the physician-patient relationship, with recognition of people's rights and duties in healthcare by all the health professional and entities. The legal obligation, and not only the ethical one, as it currently happens, for humane treatment and regard for the dignity of the sick, informed consent, medical data confidentiality, the possibility to reject treatments, etc., is established. This review analyzes the contents of this law, especially those parts affecting physicians. It exposes its limitations, especially those related to minors' consent, living wills and research in people with mental disabilities. It also highlights positive aspects such as the promotion of a humane healthcare. This Law begins to consider patients' autonomy shyly. However, from a bioethical viewpoint, there are still many issues to be perfected such as healthcare humanization, excellence of patient care, healthcare quality and medical professionalism, considering competence, social service, charity and solidarity. It is a first step that must be supplemented with a greater development of medical deontology, and the development of clinical and institutional bioethics. <![CDATA[The contribution of Jose Juan Bruner to Chilean psychiatry]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The contribution of Dr. Bruner to psychology and psychiatry is largely unknown. This is a summary of the ideas proposed in his "Medical-Psychological Monograph" from 1857, that was written after a case of a possibly possessed woman from Santiago. In this work Dr. Bruner discards the spirit-brain duality, proposes a functional morphology of the brain, recognizes the importance of remote history taking when interviewing patients, proposes a theory for self-formation and the risks of self-fragmentation. He proposes that the case of the woman corresponds to a brain disease, opposing the thought of an ovarian and uterine origin. He proposes a hypothesis of the psychogenic origin of the disease, the importance of what happened during dreams and beyond the conscience of the patient. Many of his ideas preceded by decades those of Charcot and Freud, but they have not had a proper recognition. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of the use of testosterone for the treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome in adult patients treated for prostate cancer</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The contribution of Dr. Bruner to psychology and psychiatry is largely unknown. This is a summary of the ideas proposed in his "Medical-Psychological Monograph" from 1857, that was written after a case of a possibly possessed woman from Santiago. In this work Dr. Bruner discards the spirit-brain duality, proposes a functional morphology of the brain, recognizes the importance of remote history taking when interviewing patients, proposes a theory for self-formation and the risks of self-fragmentation. He proposes that the case of the woman corresponds to a brain disease, opposing the thought of an ovarian and uterine origin. He proposes a hypothesis of the psychogenic origin of the disease, the importance of what happened during dreams and beyond the conscience of the patient. Many of his ideas preceded by decades those of Charcot and Freud, but they have not had a proper recognition. <![CDATA[<b>Self-directed learning and self-regulated learning</b>: <b>two different concepts</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The contribution of Dr. Bruner to psychology and psychiatry is largely unknown. This is a summary of the ideas proposed in his "Medical-Psychological Monograph" from 1857, that was written after a case of a possibly possessed woman from Santiago. In this work Dr. Bruner discards the spirit-brain duality, proposes a functional morphology of the brain, recognizes the importance of remote history taking when interviewing patients, proposes a theory for self-formation and the risks of self-fragmentation. He proposes that the case of the woman corresponds to a brain disease, opposing the thought of an ovarian and uterine origin. He proposes a hypothesis of the psychogenic origin of the disease, the importance of what happened during dreams and beyond the conscience of the patient. Many of his ideas preceded by decades those of Charcot and Freud, but they have not had a proper recognition. <![CDATA[<b>Follow up of subjects without known thyroid pathology, participants in a study that assessed the frequency of positive anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (ATPO)</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The contribution of Dr. Bruner to psychology and psychiatry is largely unknown. This is a summary of the ideas proposed in his "Medical-Psychological Monograph" from 1857, that was written after a case of a possibly possessed woman from Santiago. In this work Dr. Bruner discards the spirit-brain duality, proposes a functional morphology of the brain, recognizes the importance of remote history taking when interviewing patients, proposes a theory for self-formation and the risks of self-fragmentation. He proposes that the case of the woman corresponds to a brain disease, opposing the thought of an ovarian and uterine origin. He proposes a hypothesis of the psychogenic origin of the disease, the importance of what happened during dreams and beyond the conscience of the patient. Many of his ideas preceded by decades those of Charcot and Freud, but they have not had a proper recognition. <![CDATA[<b>"Bioética Clínica", de Juan Pablo Beca y Carmen Astete (Editores)</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872012001100022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The contribution of Dr. Bruner to psychology and psychiatry is largely unknown. This is a summary of the ideas proposed in his "Medical-Psychological Monograph" from 1857, that was written after a case of a possibly possessed woman from Santiago. In this work Dr. Bruner discards the spirit-brain duality, proposes a functional morphology of the brain, recognizes the importance of remote history taking when interviewing patients, proposes a theory for self-formation and the risks of self-fragmentation. He proposes that the case of the woman corresponds to a brain disease, opposing the thought of an ovarian and uterine origin. He proposes a hypothesis of the psychogenic origin of the disease, the importance of what happened during dreams and beyond the conscience of the patient. Many of his ideas preceded by decades those of Charcot and Freud, but they have not had a proper recognition.