Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720130004&lang=pt vol. 141 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Evolution of functional capacity of older people during hospital stay</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Up to 70% of hospitalized older people experience a deterioration of their functional capacity during the course of hospital stay. This change has a dismal effect of quality oflife and prognosis. Aim: To assess the change in functional status of older people during the course of hospitalization in a geriatric unit. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of83 patients with a mean age of79years (70% women), hospitalized in an acute geriatric unit of a clinical hospital, between 2007 and 2009. Functional capacity was assessed using Barthel and Lawthon scales in a basal period, on admission and on discharge. Results: Mean hospital stay was nine days. Median scores of Barthel scale on the basal period, on admission and on discharge were 90, 50 and 80, respectively. The figures for Lawthon scale were 4,2 and 3 respectively. Seventy eight percent of patients lost functional capacity during hospital stay and 72% recovered their functional status on discharge. Conclusions: A great proportion of older people experience a loss of functional capacity during hospitalization. This deterioration can be reverted with an adequate geriatric management. <![CDATA[<strong>Association of loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use with suicidal behavior in adolescents</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Suicide and suicide attempts are public health problems. Their prevention requives the detection ofpredictorfactors. Aim: To determine the predictive valué of loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use on suicidal behavior in adolescents. Subjects and Methods: Suicidal behavior, Loneliness (UCLA), Impulsivity (Barratt) scales and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), were applied to 763 high school students aged 14 to 19years (49% males), livingin Chillan, Chile. Results: Nineteen percent of participants had attempted suicide and 34.3% had suicidal ideation. Loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use were directly related to suicidal behavior. These predictors explained 31 % ofthe suicidal behavior. The most important risk factor was loneliness, followed by femóle gender, impulsivity and alcohol use. Conclusions: Loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use are risk factors for suicide among adolescents. Women are at higher risk than men. <![CDATA[<strong>Vitamin D nutrition in Chilean pre-school children living in extreme latitudes</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Sunlight exposure is the main factor for adequate vitamin D (VitD) nutrition; in extreme latitudes there is an increased riskfor its deficiency. Aim: To study VitD nutritional status in pre-school children living in austral latitudes of Chile. Subjects and Methods: A blood sample was obtained from 60 pre-school healthy children (aged 2 to 5years, 24 males), attending to public day-care centers in Coyhaique (45° 35' S), during March (time 1) and September (time 2). 250HD, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatases (PA) were measured. Information about weather conditions during three months prior to the sample withdrawal was gathered. Results: Forty nine percent of children had a normal weight and 11% were overweight. Vive children with unreliable 250HD levels were excluded from analysis. At time 1, 250HD levels were 21.6 ± 14.5 ngl mh (7.9-71.1). Sixty four percent of children had valúes < 20 ng/mL (deficiency). At time 2, the figures were 21.5 ± 13.2 ng/mL (9.4-68.5) and 67.3% of children were deficient. PTH, serum calcium, phosphate and PA were normal. Prior to time 1, the UVradiation Índex (UVI) was high to extreme (91.3%), with 3.3 and 73% ofsunny and cloudy days, respectively. Mean minimal and maximal temperatures were 7 and 17.3°C respectively. Prior to time 2 the IUVwas low in 100%) ofdays; with 15.2 and 60.9 ofsunny and cloudy days, respectively. Mean minimal and maximal temperatures were 0.3 and 6.7°C respectively. No association of250HD with the other metabolicparameters was found. Conclusions: Chilean pre-school children living in austral latitudes have a high rate of vitamin D deficiency, throughout theyear, with no association with PTH, calcium, phosphate or PA. Further research is required to study vitamin D deficiency in other latitudes and magnitude of sunlight exposure. <![CDATA[From macro to micro thyroid carcinoma: records of a clinical hospital from 1991 to 2010]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased, particularly in nodules smaller than 10 mm, probably due to the growing use of routine thyroid ultrasound. There is controversy about the biological behavior of micro carcinomas and the relevance of their early detection. Aim: To characterize the clinical presentation of thyroid cancer over 20 years in an University medical center and to evaluate the differences between macro and micro carcinomas. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 1547 surgical biopsy records of thyroid cancer in our institution obtained between 1991 and 2010. Results: We observed a sustained increase in the rate of thyroidectomies for thyroid cancer (per 1000 surgical procedures) in the study period. Papillary, follicular, mixed, medullary and anaplastic carcinomas were observed in 95, 3, 2, 0.5 and 0.1% of biopsies, respectively. The incidence of tumors of less than 10 mm (micro carcinoma) also increased. Those findings were associated with a significant decrease in tumor aggressiveness, determined by a low frequency of surgical margin involvement of thyroid capsule, perithyroid tissue invasion, vascular permeation and lymph node metastases. Conclusions: The increased prevalence of thyroid cancer, especially of micro carcinomas, may reflect the greater use of diagnostic ultrasound or represent a real change in the biological behavior of this disease and our data suggest that further studies are needed to know the impact of early treatment in the outcome of those patients because of the real less histologic agressiveness of micro carcinomas. <![CDATA[<strong>Percutaneous CT-guided cutting needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions</strong>: <strong>Retrospective analysis of 153 procedures</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: CT guided percutaneous biopsy of pulmonary lesions is a widely used technique. Aim: To evaluate the yield and complication rate of CT-guided percutaneous core biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of 153 consecutive lung biopsies performed in a 7-yearperiod was undertaken. Patients and lesions characteristics were reviewed. The yield for the diagnosis of malignant and benign lesions and the complication rate were calculated. Lesion size and depth from the pleural surface were analyzed as potential predictive variables for occurrence of a false-negative diagnosis of malignancy. The final diagnosis was established by surgical biopsy of the lesion or clinical and imaging follow up. Results: The mean age of patients was 66 ± 14 years and 55% were mole. The final diagnosis of the lesion was malignant in 139 and benign in 14 cases (prevalence of malignancy 90.8%). For the diagnosis of malignancy, the overall yield ofthe biopsy was 91.5%o with a sensitivity of 90.6%>. A specific diagnosis of benign lesions was obtained in 5 out ofl4 biopsies (35%). We did not identify an association between the lesion size or depth and the rate of false-negative diagnosis of malignancy. The pneumothorax rate was 13.7%o (n = 21) and eight (38%) required drainage. The average lesion depth of patients that had a pneumothorax was significant greater than the cases without the complication. No major bleeding complications occurred. Conclusions: Percutaneous CT-guided cutting needle biopsies of pulmonary lesions have an excellent diagnostic accuracy for malignant pulmonary lesions, at a low complication rate. <![CDATA[<strong>Analysis of hospital efficiency determinants in Chile</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The knowledge of variables influencing hospital efficiency is of paramount importance to carry out initiatives of management improvement and optimization. Aim: To explore on the hospital technical efficiency factors. Material and Methods: Data from 255,439 hospital discharges from 28 hospitals from May to October 2011 were analyzed. The efficiency index developed by Santelices et al was calculated. Proxy variables of hospital practices, human resource productivity, strategic performance, financing mechanisms, geographical territory and specialization, were considered. The analysis was carried out estimating econometric models. Results: The most significant variables to explain efficiency are the length of stay adjusted by complexity, the discharges per nurse and midwife and the performance of the Hospital Balancea Score Card. Conclusions: The suggested analysis contributes to identify hospital efficiency causes. The results suggest ways to improve performance of hospitals. <![CDATA[<strong>Psychomotor development in offspring of mothers with post partum depression</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) has adverse effects on psychomotor development of the offspring. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between PPD and psychomotor development in children aged 18 months, consulting in primary care. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study with 360 infants and their mothers. Children had their psychomotor evaluation atl8 months and mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. The prevalence of both PPD and psychomotor alteration was estimated. The association between PPD and psychomotor alteration, including confounding variables, was estimated through logistic multiple regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of PPD and psychomotor alteration was 29 and 16%, respectively Mothers with PPD had twice the probability of havingan offspring with psychomotor alteration (Odds ratio = 2.0, confidence intervals = 1.07-3.68). This probability was significantly higher among single mothers or those with an unstable partner. Conclusions: PPD has a detrimental impact on psychomotor development of children. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis among a series of Turkish women</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy causes congenital malformations. Pregnant women should be screened for this infection since it is preventable and treatable. Aim: To study the sero prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women living in lzmir, Turkey. Material and Methods: A blood sample was obtained from 4651 women aged between 15 and 45years, during their first trimester of pregnancy. IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were measured using an ELISA assay. Among women with both IgG and IgM antibodies positive, an IgG avidity test was performed, using a VIDAS kit. Results: IgG antibodies were positive in 1871 (39.9%) participants. Of these, 48 (2.5%) also had positive IgM antibodies. In 41 ofthese 48 women, the IgG avidity test was performed and only one woman had a low avidity. This woman was treated with Spiramycin. Her offspring had an intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios. A chorioretinitis was diagnosed in the offspring of other woman with both antibodies positive. Conclusions: In this series, the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis was low. However, women with positive antibodies against Toxoplasma Gondii should be further studied and followed during their pregnancy.<hr/>Antecedentes: La infección por Toxoplasma gondii durante el embarazo causa malformaciones congénitas. Se debe efectuar serologíapara esta infección en mujeres embarazadas ya que es prevenible y tratable. Objetivo: Estudiar la seroprevalencia de infección por Toxoplasma gondii en mujeres embarazadas que viven en Esmirna, Turquía. Material y Métodos: Se obtuvo una muestra de sangre en 4.651 mujeres cuyas edades fluctuaban entre 15 y 45, años, durante su primer trimestre de embarazo. Los anticuerpos IgM e IgG en contra de Toxoplasma gondii se midieron por ELISA. En mujeres que tenían anticuerpos IgG e IgM positivos, un ensayo de avidez de IgG se efectuó utilizando el kit VIDAS. Resultados: Los anticuerpos IgG fueron positivos en 1.871 participantes (39,9%). De estas, 48 (2,5%) también tenían anticuerpos IgM positivos. En 41 de estas 48 mujeres, se efectuó el test de avidez y sólo una tenía una baja avidez. Esta mujer se trató con espiramicina y su producto de concepción tuvo un retardo de crecimiento intrauterino y un oligohidroamnios. Una corioretinitis se diagnosticó en el producto de concepción de otra mujer con ambos anticuerpos positivos. Conclusiones: La seroprevalencia de toxoplasmosis congénita en esta serie de pacientes fue baja, sin embargo, las mujeres con anticuerpos positivos deben ser tratadas y seguidas. <![CDATA[<strong>Comparison of propofol-based sedation regimens administered during colonoscopy</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The ideal sedative agent for endoscopic procedures should allow a rapid modification ofthe sedation level and should not have any adverse effects. Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy, safety, cost and patient satisfaction of some propofol-based sedation regimens administered during colonoscopy. Material and Methods: One hundred twenty one patients scheduled for elective outpatient colonoscopy with conscious sedation were randomized to four groups to evaluate the administration of dexmedetomidine, sufentanil, meperidine and midazolam in combination with propofol to maintain sedation during the procedure. Evaluated outcomes were efficacy, safety, cost and patient satisfaction of sedation procedures. Results: Patients receiving dexmedetomidine achieved a higher degree of sedation when compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). The lapse to recoverprotective reflexes and motor function, was significantly shorter in groups receiving dexmedetomidine or sufentanil than in groups receiving meperidine or midazolam (p < 0.05). Therewere no differences between groups in pre-sedation and post-sedation neurophysiologic performance, measured by the Trail MakingA and B tests. Conclusions: Sedation for endoscopy can be safely and effectively accomplished with low doses of propofol combined with dexmedetomidine, intranasal sufentanil, IV meperidine and IV meperidine with midazolam.<hr/>Antecedentes: El protocolo de sedación ideal para procedimientos endoscópi-cos es aquel que permita efectuar modificaciones rápidas del nivel de sedación y no tenga efectos secundarios. Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia, seguridad, costos y satisfacción del paciente con protocolos de sedación basados en propofol, durante colonoscopias. Material y Métodos: Ciento veinte pacientes programados para una colonoscopia fueron aleatorizados en cuatro grupos en que se evaluó la administración de dexmedetomidina, sufentanil, meperidina y midazolam en combinación con propofol, para mantener la sedación durante el procedimiento. Se evaluó la eficacia, seguridad, costo y satisfacción del paciente con los diferentes protocolos de sedación. Resultados: Los pacientes que recibieron dexmedetomidina, alcanzaron un mayor nivel de sedación que el resto de los grupos. El lapso necesario para recuperar reflejos y funciones motoras protectoras, fue significativamente menor en los grupos que recibieron dexmedetomidina o sufentanil comparado con los grupos que recibieron meperidina o midazolam (p < 0,05). No hubo diferencias entre los grupos en la capacidad neuro-cognitiva, medida con los Tests de Reitan A y B, antes o después de la sedación. Conclusiones: Se puede obtener una buena sedación para endoscopia combinando dosis bajas de propofol con dexmedetomidina, sufentanil intranasal, meperidina endovenosa con o sin midazolam. <![CDATA[Controversies in massive pulmonary embolism]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality. There is still a broad assortment of severity classifications for patients with PE, which affects the choice of therapies to use. The main clinical criteria for defining a PE as massive is systemic arterial hypotension, which depends on the extent of vascular obstruction and the previous cardiopulmonary status. Right ventricular dysfunction is an important pathogenic element to define the severity of patients and short term clinical prognosis. The recommended treatment is systemic thrombolysis, but in centers with experience and resources, radiological invasive therapies through catheters are useful alternatives that can be used as first choice tools in certain cases. <![CDATA[Amyloid aggregates: role in protein misfolding disorders]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Misfolding and aggregation of proteins are the main features of a group of diseases termed Protein Misfolding Disorders (PMDs). PMDs include Alzheimer's disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, among many others. The deposition of protein aggregates is the main responsible for tissue damage and the consequent clinical signs generated in such disorders. In this review, we will focus in the role of protein aggregates in these diseases and in the putative mechanisms by which they exert their toxicity. <![CDATA[<strong>Solidarity in medicine</strong>: <strong>the role of medical students and young doctors</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The descriptions of medical caring and of highly technical specialism and science utilize different vocabularies and language. Medical caring has an ancient glossary of words, gestures, and behavior which is rapidly being transformed by specialization and advances in the technology of communication. The technologic capabilities of intensive care have, for example, exceeded the human life span and forced redefinition of the meaning of being olive. There are risks for the contemporary profession as linguistic and technical evolution proceed at a faster pace than the evolution of human health and illth. The accentuation and acceleration of generational disparity between the young and the old diminishes the solidarity of the profession and the quality of care that it provides.<hr/>Las descripciones históricamente aplicadas en la atención médica y las empleadas ahora, utilizan vocabularios y lenguaje diferentes, a raíz de la especialización altamente tecnificada y científica de la medicina. La atención médica recurre a un antiguo glosario de palabras, gestos y conducta que está siendo transformado rápidamente por la especialización y los progresos en tecnología de la comunicación. Por ejemplo, los recursos tecnológicos de los cuidados intensivos han modificado las expectativas de vida y han forzado a una re-definición del significado de "estar vivo". Laprofesión médica contemporánea enfrenta riesgos mientras la evolución lingüística y tecnológica avanza con mayor velocidad que la evolución natural de la salud y la enfermedad. La acentuación y aceleración de una disparidad generacional entre los jóvenes y los mayores disminuyen la solidaridad de la profesión y la calidad de la atención que provee. <![CDATA[<strong>Private health insurance systems, constitution and the right to receive an equitable health care</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper analyzes the constitutional problems that the private health system has faced as a result of the recent decisions of the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court of Chile in defense of the right to health care and nondiscrimination. It also reviews the comparative literature on health systems that have been successful in the task of reconciling the demands of equity and efficiency in the delivery of health care in the private health sector, in accordance with the constitutional principles of equality and nondiscrimination. <![CDATA[<strong>Hemophagocytic syndrome after kidney transplant in a patient with hereditary nephritis. Report of one case</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt We report a 28-year-old male with a hereditary nephritis (Alport Syndrome) on hemodialysis for 5 years, who received a kidney graft from a deceased donor. Cyclosporine (CsA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and steroids were prescribed. In the postoperative period the patient had thrombophlebitis and diarrhea. A CT sean showed splenomegaly, ascites, bilateral pleural effusion and bowel edema. Laboratory showed hypoalbuminemia, increased C reactive protein (CRP) and panhypogammaglobulinemia. At day 32 after transplantation, an acute rejection (Banff II b) was diagnosed and treated with methylprednisolone, replacing CsA by tacrolimus. The acute rejection was controlled but six days later, high fever, pancytopenia and hyperferritinemia appeared. A bone marrow smear showed numerous histiocytes and hemophagocytosis. Hemophagocytic syndrome was diagnosed. MMF and tacrolimus were withdrawn and CsA was reinstituted. Fever fell quickly, CPR normalized at 24 hours and white blood cell count at 72 hours. Days later, the concentrations of albumin, immunoglobulins and hematological parameters normalized. The patient was discharged on day 57 after admission in good condition. <![CDATA[Cutaneous pemphigus vulgaris: A case report]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Pemphigus is an autoimmune bullous disease that involves skin and mucous membranes caused by autoantibodies against antigens on the surface of keratinocytes. We report a 30-year-old male presenting with a five months history of pruriginous alopecic and crusted lesions in the scalp, that extended posteriorly to the trunk and limbs. Mucous membranes were not involved. A skin biopsy was performed, showing extensive loss of epidermis and acantholysis. Immuno fluorescence was positive for C3 and intercellular and epidermic IgG. With the presumptive diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) without mucous involvement, the patient was treated with prednisone, observing an excellent clinical response. There are only few cases published in the literature of PV without mucous involvement. Some authors refer to this subtype of PV as "Cutaneous pemphigus vulgaris". <![CDATA[<strong>Lethargic Encephalitis</strong>: <strong>Report of one case</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Lethargic encephalitis (LE) is a Central Nervous System disorder following an upper respiratory tract infection, characterized by sleep disturbances, clinical symptoms corresponding to basal ganglia involvement and in some cases, neuropsychiatric sequelae. We report a 18-year-old mole with a history of sinusitis treated with azithromycin, two weeks before, presenting with fever, headache, confusion and myoclonus. Urine analysis was positive for cannabis. Cerebro spinal fluid analysis showed mononuclear pleiocytosis (109xmm³) and an increase in protein concentration ofl.6 g/dl. Forty eight hours after admission, the patient required mechanical ventilation and subsequently a status epilepticus appeared. Ten days later, fever, rigidity and resting tremor appeared. A magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintensities in FLALR sequence in the right insular cortex. The patient continued with extreme rigidity, catatonia and mutism. Considering the possibility ofa LE, methyl prednisolone 1 g/day was administered for five consecutive days followed by prednisone 40 mgl day, observing a dramatic improvement of rigidity and tremors. <![CDATA[<strong>The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai</strong>: <strong>physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling. <![CDATA[<i>Right thrombosis in a non-atheroesclerotic aortic arch</i>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling. <![CDATA[<b><i>Second Global Congress for Qualitative Health Research</i></b>: <b><i>What stand will Medicine take?</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling. <![CDATA[<b><i>Bereavement without farewell</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000400020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling.