Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720130008&lang=es vol. 141 num. 8 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<b>Emergencia de la cepa W135 causante de enfermedad meningocócica invasora en Chile 2012</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The epidemiologic behavior of the Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) in Chile has changed. At the end of 2011, the W135 serogroup belonging to the hypervirulent clone ST-11 emerged. It affected diverse countries of the world, after the Mecca pilgrimage in 2000. In Chile, there have been 133 IMD cases during 2012. These figures represent an incidence of 0.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, which is 30% higher than expected. Eighty eight percent of cases were confirmed by the National Reference Laboratory at the Chilean Public Health Institute. The serogroup was determined in 103 strains and 58% belonged to the W135 serogroup, surpassing for the first time the B serogroup (37%). The Metropolitan Region concentrated 80% of these cases, and the remaining 20% affected other seven regions of the country. Forty seven percent of cases corresponded to children less than 5 years of age. The predominant clinical presentation of the W135 serogroup was a sepsis in 67% of cases. The fatality ratio of IDM during 2012 was 27%, the highest in the past 20 years. With this information, the Chilean Ministry of Health decreed a sanitary alert and implemented an integrated approach to control and prevent W-135 IDM, denominated "W-135 Action Plan". <![CDATA[<strong>Terapia de resincronización en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca</strong>: <strong>experiencia acumulada de 10 años</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Multiple randomized trials support the clinical benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with heart failure (HF) and ventricular dyssynchrony. Since the year 2000 this therapy has been increasingly used in Chile. Aim: To describe the clinical characteristics and follow-up of HF patients undergoing CRT in a single Chilean university hospital during the last 10 years. Patients and Methods: All patients undergoing CRT between 2000 and 2010 in our university hospital were included. Clinical and echocardiographic data were extracted from medical records and mortality causes were obtained from the National Identification Service. Results: A total of 252 patients underwent CRT during the study period. Seventy five percent were in New York Heart Associatin (NYHA) functional class III and mean ejection fraction was 29 ± 10%. Complete left bundle branch block was present in 55% and 20% had permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Mean survival was 86% at 1 year and 82% of patients in NYHA class III-IV improved at least one functional class. Survival was poorer in patients with ischemic etiology (hazard ratio (HR) 1.48), functional class IV (HR 2.2), right bundle branch block (RBBB) (HR 3.1) and AF (HR 3.4). No survival differences were observed between patients with and without an implanted cardiodefibrillator. Conclusions: This series show good clinical outcomes, comparable to those reported in randomized trials. Predictors of worse survival included an ischemic etiology, functional class IV, RBBB and AF. Patients with a defibrillator had no better survival, which could be relevant in countries with limited health care resources. <![CDATA[<strong>Prevención secundaria post infarto agudo de miocardio en hospitales públicos</strong>: <strong>implementación y resultados de las garantías GES</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: In 2005, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was included in a universal health plan (GES) to reduce inequity in care and optimize its diagnosis and treatment. Aim: To evaluate the effect of GES in risk factor control and therapeutic management among patients with AMI. Material and Methods: A survey was conducted in 2008-2009 in six public hospitals. Patients were identified from a hospital based registry of AMI and evaluated one year later with laboratory tests and an interview. Results: The registry enrolled 534 patients with ST and non ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Of these, 416 patients aged 63 ± 12 years (25% women) were evaluated one year later. Eighty three percent were evaluated by a cardiologist and 37% by a general practitioner. Twenty two percent were evaluated by a nurse and 22% by a nutritionist. At the moment of the interview, 9% smoked, 78% were overweight or obese, 24% performed moderate or vigorous physical activity ≥ 150 min/week, 60% had systolic pressure > 130 mmHg and 63% a diastolic pressure > 80 mmHg. In 30%, LDL cholesterol was > 100 mg/dl and in 43%, triglycerides were > 150 mm/dl. Twenty two percent were diabetic and among them, 52% had a glycosilated hemoglobin > 7%. Forty five percent of non-diabetic patients had a fasting glucose > 100 mg/dl. Ninety three percent were in treatment with aspirin, 86% with statins, 66% with b-blockers, and 73% with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and 20% with clopidogrel. Conclusions: Despite the high proportion of patients in treatment with evidence-based therapy, many do not achieve the targets for risk factor control with the new health care model. <![CDATA[<strong>Obesidad y cáncer en Chile</strong>: <strong>estimación de las fracciones atribuibles poblacionales</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Obesity is a risk factor for the development of certain types of cancer. Aim: To estimate the proportion of cancers potentially attributable to obesity in men and women in Chile based on the calculation of population attributable fractions (PAF %). Material and Methods: Cancer sites studied were those where obesity is a known risk factor based on the updated World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) analysis. Namely, colorectal, endometrium, esophagus, breast, pancreas, kidney and gallbladder cancers were analyzed. Overall and specific PAFs% were calculated for cancer sites and sex from known estimates of relative risk and national prevalence of overweight and obesity. Results: The overall estimates of cancer PAF% for obesity were approximately 20%, without differences between men and women. Highest cancer PAFs% were for endometrial (47%) in women, and esophageal (35%) and pancreatic (31%) in men. The largest sex differences in PAFs% were for gallbladder (higher in women) and colorectal (higher in men). Results are closer to those reported from developed countries (USA and United Kingdom) than those from developing countries (Brasil, China). Conclusions: In Chile about 20% of all cancers could be prevented by obesity prevention and control strategies. <![CDATA[<strong>Incidencia e importancia pronóstica del deterioro de la función renal en pacientes hospitalizados con insuficiencia cardiaca</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Acute deterioration of kidney function among patients admitted to the hospital for cardiac failure is associated with an increased mortality. Aim: To investigate the association between deterioration of kidney function and mortality among patients hospitalized for cardiac failure. Material and Methods: Patients admitted for decompensated cardiac failure to 14 Chilean hospitals between 2002 and 2009 were incorporated to the study. Clinical and laboratory features were registered. Serum creatinine values on admission and discharge were determined. Hospital and long term mortality was determined requesting death certificates to the National Identification Service at the end of follow up, lasting 635 ± 581 days. Results: One thousand sixty four patients were incorporated and 1100, aged 68 ± 13 years (45% females) had information about renal function. Seventy seven percent were hypertensive and 36% were diabetic. Mean ejection fraction was 41 ± 18% and 34% had an ejection fraction over 50%. Mean admission creatinine was 1.7 ± 1.6 mg/dl and 19% had a creatinine over 2 mg/dl. Serum creatinine increased more than 0.5 mg/dl during hospitalization in 9% of general patients and in 11% of diabetics. The increase in creatinine was associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality (odds ratio (OR) 12.9, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 6.7-27.6) and long term mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3). Conclusions: The deterioration of renal function during hospitalization of patients with heart failure is a risk factor for hospital and long term mortality. <![CDATA[<strong>Embarazos exitosos en hemodiálisis crónica</strong>: <strong>experiencia de un único centro</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The frequency of pregnancies during dialysis is increasing. This condition requires changes in the dialysis schedule and nutritional approach. Aim: To report the experience in six patients with terminal kidney disease who became pregnant. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of women with terminal kidney disease in dialysis who became pregnant in a period of 27 years. Results: We recorded six successful pregnancies among women in hemodialysis treatment aged 32 ± 4 years. The mean dialysis-time per week was 19.5 ± 2.7 hours and Kt/V was 1.55 ± 0.17. The mean systolic blood pressure was 130 ± 13.3 mmHg. The mean packed cell volume of the group increased from 22.7% during pre-gestational stage to 30.2% during third trimester of pregnancy. All patients received an intensive treatment for anemia. The most common symptom of pregnancy was hyperemesis. The mean gestational age (GA) at diagnosis was 13.4 ± 4.7 weeks. All patients had preterm deliveries at a GA of 33 ± 1.7 weeks, and 66% of offspring were appropriate for gestational age. Conclusions: A multidisciplinary approach allows high rate of successful pregnancies during hemodialysis. <![CDATA[<strong>La valoración de la importancia en el autoreporte de la calidad de vida en la adultez</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Usually quality of life self-reports are standard and consider that all the areas evaluated are equally important. Aim: To explore the influence of specific domains on the overall quality of life self-assessment. Material and Methods: The brief version of the quality of life questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization (WHOQoL bref) was applied to 1229 participants aged 19 to 60 years (53% women). The questionnaire explores four domains: physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment. At the end of each domain a new question asking the participant to assess the importance of the domain, using a scale of 1 (not important) to 5 (very important), was added. The analysis of data considered the assessment of the importance of each domain made by participants. The weight of each domain was analyzed using regression equations. Results: The physical health had the best evaluation followed by the social domain. The environmental domain received the lower evaluation. Among women, social domain was the best evaluated domain and among men, the physical health domain. According to participants, physical and psychological health had the higher weight. The environmental domain had the higher weight on the overall assessment of quality of life. Conclusions: According to participants, physical and psychological health are the most important aspects that influence overall quality of life. <![CDATA[<strong>Efecto de la hidroxicloroquina sobre la sensibilidad a la insulina y el perfil de lípidos en pacientes con artritis reumatoide</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a decrease in insulin sensitivity (IS), which has been identified as an independent risk factor for the development of early atherosclerosis. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and lipid profile. Aim: To assess the effect of HCQ on IS and lipid profile in patients with RA. Material and Methods: An open clinical trial was performed in 15 patients aged between 35 and 56 years. During three months, patients received 400 mg/day of HCQ orally. Before and after the pharmacological intervention, demographic and anthropometric variables, serum glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, insulin and uric acid were measured. IS was estimated as the rate of glucose clearance per minute obtained with the insulin tolerance test (KITT). Results: Baseline and final KITT values were 4.3 ± 1.2 and 4.80 ± 1.1%/min, respectively (p = 0.03). Significant reductions in serum TC (p = 0.04) and TG (p = 0.01) were also observed. No other significant differences were observed. Conclusions: Oral administration of 400 mg/day of HCQ during three months in RA patients is associated with an improvement in IS, TC and TG. <![CDATA[<strong>¿Sirven los marcadores de riesgo no tradicionales en la diferenciación del riesgo cardiovascular en adultos jóvenes con exceso de peso?</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Recognizing cardiovascular risk in overweight adults is challenging, as they usually have a low Framingham risk score (FRAM). In these subjects, non-traditional biomarkers could improve risk stratification. Aim: To assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP) among overweight and obese subjects without metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Subjects and Methods: In 1558 asymptomatic participants (816 women, 45 ± 11 years) we measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profile, blood glucose, FRAM, usCRP and CIMT. For analytical purposes, we divided the subjects in three groups according to BMI and number of ATPIII-MetSyn risk factors (RF): 1) BMI < 25 and < 3RF, 2) BMI ≥ 25 and < 3RF and 3) BMI ≥ 25 and ≥ 3RF. Results: Participants of group 2 (BMI ≥ 25 and < 3RF) had a low FRAM (8%). Compared with participants of group 1, they had a higher CIMT (0.61 ± 0.1 and 0.57 ± 0.09 mm, respectively, p < 0.01) and usCRP (2.1 ± 2.1 and 1.5 ± 1.9 mg/L respectively, p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study shows that although subjects with overweight/obesity without MetSyn have low cardiovascular risk based on FRAM, they have higher CIMT and usCRP than their normal weight counterparts. <![CDATA[<strong>Turismo con células madre y requisitos para su uso clínico</strong>: <strong>desafíos bioéticos más allá del embrión</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Stem cells have drawn extraordinary attention from scientists and the general public due to their potential to generate effective therapies for incurable diseases. At the same time, the production of embryonic stem cells involves a serious ethical issue concerning the destruction of human embryos. Although adult stem cells and induced pluripotential cells do not pose this ethical objection, there are other bioethical challenges common to all types of stem cells related particularly to the clinical use of stem cells. Their clinical use should be based on clinical trials, and in special situations, medical innovation, both of which have particular ethical dimensions. The media has raised unfounded expectations in patients and the public about the real clinical benefits of stem cells. At the same time, the number of unregulated clinics is increasing around the world, making direct offers through Internet of unproven stem cell therapies that attract desperate patients that have not found solutions in standard medicine. This is what is called stem cells tourism. This article reviews this situation, its consequences and the need for international cooperation to establish effective regulations to prevent the exploitation of patients and to endanger the prestige of legitimate stem cell research. <![CDATA[<strong>Nuevas estrategias en el tratamiento del síndrome antifosfolípido</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es For years the mainstay of antiphospholipid syndrome treatment has been anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, but the autoimmune nature of the disease, and complications of these therapies, created the need to develop new therapeutic strategies. New therapeutic alternatives inhibit at different levels, the cascade of events leading to the pro-thrombotic state characteristic of the antiphospholipid syndrome. We conducted a literature review of these new treatments, focusing on the pathophysiological bases that support them and their possible clinical applications. <![CDATA[<strong>La <i>Revista Médica de Chile</i> en el año 2012</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country’s expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications. <![CDATA[<strong>Programa de tamizaje universal e intervención precoz (PTUIP) en hipoacusia sensorioneural bilateral congénita</strong>: <strong>Tarea pendiente desde la perspectiva de políticas públicas de salud en Chile</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Congenital hearing loss is the total or partial inability to hear sounds through the ears. It is the most common disability in newborns in Chile and worldwide, and is a permanent condition. The direct impact on children who are not adequately diagnosed is the alteration in acquisition of language and cognitive skills and a decline in their social and school insertion, jeopardizing their professional and potentially productive life. Universal screening programs for hearing loss are essential for the diagnosis, since 50% of infants with hearing loss have no known risk factor. Screening before one month of age, confirmation before 3 months, and effective intervention before 6 months, allows the development of these children as if they had normal hearing. In Chile there is a selective program of screening for infants aged less than 32 weeks or 1,500 grams, as part of Explicit Health Guarantees, but it covers only 0.9% of newborns per year. Therefore, a large majority of children remain without diagnosis. The aim of this review is to compare the situation in Chile with other countries, raising the need to move towards a universal neonatal hearing loss screening program, and propose necessary conditions in terms of justification and implementation of a universal screening public policy. <![CDATA[<strong>Trasplante alogénico de precursores hematopoyéticos de sangre de cordón umbilical de donante no emparentado</strong>: <strong>primera experiencia, en tres casos, con donantes del banco público chileno de células de cordón</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Public cord blood banks are a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients with hematological diseases who lack a family donor and need allogeneic transplantation. In June 2007 we started a cord blood bank with units donated in three maternity wards in Santiago, Chile. We report the first three transplants done with cord blood units form this bank. Cord blood units were obtained by intrauterine collection at delivery. They were depleted of plasma and red cells and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tests for total nucleated cells, CD34 cell content, viral serology, bacterial cultures and HLA A, B and DRB1 were done. Six hundred cord blood units were stored by March 2012. Three patients received allogeneic transplant with cord blood from our bank, two with high risk lymphoblastic leukemia and one with severe congenital anemia. They received conditioning regimens according to their disease and usual supportive care for unrelated donor transplantation until full hematopoietic and immune reconstitution was achieved. The three patients had early engraftment of neutrophils and platelets. The child corrected his anemia and the leukemia patients remain in complete remission. The post-transplant course was complicated with Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infection. Two patients are fully functional 24 and 33 months after transplant, the third is still receiving immunosuppression. <![CDATA[<strong>Neurofibromatosis tipo I y síndrome antifosfolípidos</strong>: <strong>Informe de un caso</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) has been only rarely reported in association with anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). We report a 38 year-old female with NF1, who developed a cervix carcinoma at the age of 30 years and was successfully treated with conization, without requiring chemotherapy or radiation. She experienced two miscarriages prior to the diagnosis of the carcinoma. When she was 38 years old, an APS was diagnosed based on repeatedly positive lupus anticoagulant tests. The patient continued to smoke and using oral contraceptives. At 38 years of age she had a myocardial infarction, despite the use of oral anticoagulation. She required coronary stenting. Aspirin and clopidrogel were indicated thereafter.<hr/>Es inusual la asociación entre neurofibromatosis tipo I (NF1) y síndrome antifosfolípidos (APS). Presentamos una paciente mujer de 38 años con un NF1 que desarrolló un cáncer cervicouterino a los 30 años y que fue tratada exitosamente con una conización, sin requerir quimioterapia o radiación. La paciente tuvo dos abortos espontáneos antes del diagnóstico del carcinoma. A los 38 años, se le diagnosticó un APS, basado en pruebas de anticoagulante lúpico que resultaron positivas en repetidas oportunidades. La paciente continuó fumando y usando contraceptivos orales y, a pesar de estar con anticoagulantes orales, tuvo un infarto agudo de miocardio a los 38 años. Se colocó un stent coronario y se indicó aspirina y clopidogrel. <![CDATA[<strong>Biopsia renal en el segundo trimestre del embarazo</strong>: <strong>Dos casos clínicos</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Kidney biopsies were performed in two women during their 21th and 24th week of pregnancy. The first patient developed an abrupt nephrotic syndrome without hypertension or kidney failure. The pathological study disclosed diffuse podocyte alterations such as those observed in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, which had a good response to steroidal treatment. The second patient had a progressive renal failure associated with non-nephrotic proteinuria. The biopsy disclosed a fibrillary glomerulopathy. <![CDATA[<strong>Charles Miller Fisher, un grande de la neurología</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es C. Miller Fisher MD, one of the great neurologists in the 20th century, died in April 2012. Born in Canada, he studied medicine at the University of Toronto. As a Canadian Navy medical doctor he participated in World War II and was a war prisoner from 1941 to 1944. He did a residency in neurology at the Montreal Neurological Institute between 1946 and 1948, and later on was a Fellow in Neurology and Neuropathology at the Boston City Hospital. In 1954 he entered the Massachusetts General Hospital as a neurologist and neuropathologist, where he remained until his retirement, in 2005. His academic career ended as Professor Emeritus at Harvard University. His area of special interest in neurology was cerebrovascular disease (CVD). In 1954 he created the first Vascular Neurology service in the world and trained many leading neurologists on this field. His scientific contributions are present in more than 250 publications, as journal articles and book chapters. Many of his articles, certainly not restricted to CVD, were seminal in neurology. Several concepts and terms that he coined are currently used in daily clinical practice. The chapters on CVD, in seven consecutive editions of Harrison´s Internal Medicine textbook, are among his highlights. His death was deeply felt by the neurological community. <![CDATA[<strong>Miasis</strong><strong> cutánea forunculosa causada por <i>Dermatobia</i><i> hominis</i></strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es C. Miller Fisher MD, one of the great neurologists in the 20th century, died in April 2012. Born in Canada, he studied medicine at the University of Toronto. As a Canadian Navy medical doctor he participated in World War II and was a war prisoner from 1941 to 1944. He did a residency in neurology at the Montreal Neurological Institute between 1946 and 1948, and later on was a Fellow in Neurology and Neuropathology at the Boston City Hospital. In 1954 he entered the Massachusetts General Hospital as a neurologist and neuropathologist, where he remained until his retirement, in 2005. His academic career ended as Professor Emeritus at Harvard University. His area of special interest in neurology was cerebrovascular disease (CVD). In 1954 he created the first Vascular Neurology service in the world and trained many leading neurologists on this field. His scientific contributions are present in more than 250 publications, as journal articles and book chapters. Many of his articles, certainly not restricted to CVD, were seminal in neurology. Several concepts and terms that he coined are currently used in daily clinical practice. The chapters on CVD, in seven consecutive editions of Harrison´s Internal Medicine textbook, are among his highlights. His death was deeply felt by the neurological community. <![CDATA[<strong>Validación en Chile de la escala de sobrecarga del cuidador de Zarit en sus versiones original y abreviada</strong>: <strong>corrección</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es C. Miller Fisher MD, one of the great neurologists in the 20th century, died in April 2012. Born in Canada, he studied medicine at the University of Toronto. As a Canadian Navy medical doctor he participated in World War II and was a war prisoner from 1941 to 1944. He did a residency in neurology at the Montreal Neurological Institute between 1946 and 1948, and later on was a Fellow in Neurology and Neuropathology at the Boston City Hospital. In 1954 he entered the Massachusetts General Hospital as a neurologist and neuropathologist, where he remained until his retirement, in 2005. His academic career ended as Professor Emeritus at Harvard University. His area of special interest in neurology was cerebrovascular disease (CVD). In 1954 he created the first Vascular Neurology service in the world and trained many leading neurologists on this field. His scientific contributions are present in more than 250 publications, as journal articles and book chapters. Many of his articles, certainly not restricted to CVD, were seminal in neurology. Several concepts and terms that he coined are currently used in daily clinical practice. The chapters on CVD, in seven consecutive editions of Harrison´s Internal Medicine textbook, are among his highlights. His death was deeply felt by the neurological community. <![CDATA[<strong>Validación en Chile de la escala de sobrecarga del cuidador de Zarit en sus versiones original y abreviada</strong>: <strong>Réplica a corrección</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es C. Miller Fisher MD, one of the great neurologists in the 20th century, died in April 2012. Born in Canada, he studied medicine at the University of Toronto. As a Canadian Navy medical doctor he participated in World War II and was a war prisoner from 1941 to 1944. He did a residency in neurology at the Montreal Neurological Institute between 1946 and 1948, and later on was a Fellow in Neurology and Neuropathology at the Boston City Hospital. In 1954 he entered the Massachusetts General Hospital as a neurologist and neuropathologist, where he remained until his retirement, in 2005. His academic career ended as Professor Emeritus at Harvard University. His area of special interest in neurology was cerebrovascular disease (CVD). In 1954 he created the first Vascular Neurology service in the world and trained many leading neurologists on this field. His scientific contributions are present in more than 250 publications, as journal articles and book chapters. Many of his articles, certainly not restricted to CVD, were seminal in neurology. Several concepts and terms that he coined are currently used in daily clinical practice. The chapters on CVD, in seven consecutive editions of Harrison´s Internal Medicine textbook, are among his highlights. His death was deeply felt by the neurological community. <![CDATA[<strong>Adherencia a tratamiento en la epilepsia</strong>: <strong>una cuestión por resolver</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es C. Miller Fisher MD, one of the great neurologists in the 20th century, died in April 2012. Born in Canada, he studied medicine at the University of Toronto. As a Canadian Navy medical doctor he participated in World War II and was a war prisoner from 1941 to 1944. He did a residency in neurology at the Montreal Neurological Institute between 1946 and 1948, and later on was a Fellow in Neurology and Neuropathology at the Boston City Hospital. In 1954 he entered the Massachusetts General Hospital as a neurologist and neuropathologist, where he remained until his retirement, in 2005. His academic career ended as Professor Emeritus at Harvard University. His area of special interest in neurology was cerebrovascular disease (CVD). In 1954 he created the first Vascular Neurology service in the world and trained many leading neurologists on this field. His scientific contributions are present in more than 250 publications, as journal articles and book chapters. Many of his articles, certainly not restricted to CVD, were seminal in neurology. Several concepts and terms that he coined are currently used in daily clinical practice. The chapters on CVD, in seven consecutive editions of Harrison´s Internal Medicine textbook, are among his highlights. His death was deeply felt by the neurological community. <![CDATA[<strong>Parasitología Humana</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872013000800022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es C. Miller Fisher MD, one of the great neurologists in the 20th century, died in April 2012. Born in Canada, he studied medicine at the University of Toronto. As a Canadian Navy medical doctor he participated in World War II and was a war prisoner from 1941 to 1944. He did a residency in neurology at the Montreal Neurological Institute between 1946 and 1948, and later on was a Fellow in Neurology and Neuropathology at the Boston City Hospital. In 1954 he entered the Massachusetts General Hospital as a neurologist and neuropathologist, where he remained until his retirement, in 2005. His academic career ended as Professor Emeritus at Harvard University. His area of special interest in neurology was cerebrovascular disease (CVD). In 1954 he created the first Vascular Neurology service in the world and trained many leading neurologists on this field. His scientific contributions are present in more than 250 publications, as journal articles and book chapters. Many of his articles, certainly not restricted to CVD, were seminal in neurology. Several concepts and terms that he coined are currently used in daily clinical practice. The chapters on CVD, in seven consecutive editions of Harrison´s Internal Medicine textbook, are among his highlights. His death was deeply felt by the neurological community.