Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720140003&lang=es vol. 142 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Geografía génica de Chile</strong>: <strong>Distribución regional de los aportes genéticos americanos, europeos y africanos</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). Aim: To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Subjects and Methods: Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. Results: The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Conclusions: Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a frst approximation to determine genetic ancestry. <![CDATA[<strong>Polimorfismos genéticos de interleuquina 6 (<i>IL6</i>), <i>IL6R</i> e <i>IL18</i></strong>: <strong>asociación con componentes del síndrome metabólico en niños chilenos con obesidad</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is highly prevalent among obese children and adolescents and is considered a predictor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is associated with an increase in circulating levels of interleukins 6 (IL6) and 18 (IL18), which in turn would depend on polymorphisms of IL6, IL6R and IL18 genes. Aim: To evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms of IL6 (rs1800795, rs1800796 and rs1800797), IL6R (rs2228145) and IL18 (rs360719, rs187238 and rs204355) and MS and/or its components in a sample of Chilean obese children. Patients and Methods: These polymorphisms were genotyped in 259 obese children aged 10 ± 2 years with a body mass index of 26.1 ± 4.1 kg/m². Sixty eight had metabolic syndrome (26.3%). The association of their alleles, genotypes and haplotypes with the MS and its components was assessed. Results: IL6, IL6R and IL18 variants showed no association with SM nor with any of the phenotypes that compose it. However, IL18 haplotypes (rs360719-rs187238-rs204355) TCT and CGT were associated with triglycerides ≤ 110 mg/dL and HDL < 40 mg/dL, respectively. Conclusions: IL6 and IL6R variants are not associated with MS or with any of its phenotypes. Although an association between IL18 haplotypes and certain MS component has been detected herein, it is necessary to replicate our findings in independent studies due to the low frequency of these allele combinations detected in our sample. <![CDATA[<strong>Complicaciones asociadas a la broncoscopía flexible</strong>: <strong>análisis de registro post-procedimiento</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Flexible bronchoscopy is a useful diagnostic tool with a relative low rate of complications. Aim: To analyze post procedure risk of complications after flexible bronchoscopy with transbronchial or bronchial biopsy. Material and Methods: The electronic database of a bronchoscopy unit at a general Hospital was analyzed. All procedures performed between 2009 and 2011 were reviewed and complications recorded. The primary outcome measure was the risk for complications de fined as the percentage of procedures complicated by hemorrhage, pneumothorax, desaturation < 80% and other complications. We used a logistic regression model to explore the association between each procedure characteristic and complication. Results: One thousand seventy nine procedures were included in the analysis. Eight percent had complications. Among these, the frequency of hemorrhage was 5.9% and pneumothorax was 0.3%. Factors associated with complications were exclusive use of topical anesthesia with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.72 (confidence intervals (CI): 1.04-2.86), regular or bad intolerance to the procedure with an OR 4.70 (CI: 3.00-7.38) and performing biopsies of the upper lobes with an OR of 1.76 (CI: 1.04-2.97). Conclusions: Exclusive use of topical anesthesia, performing biopsies of the upper lobes and procedure tolerance were risk factors associated with complications following bronchoscopic biopsies. <![CDATA[<strong>Mortalidad por suicidio en Chile</strong>: <strong>tendencias en los años 1998-2011</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Suicide is an important public health problem accounting for an important proportion of deaths in Chile. Aim: To describe trends in suicide mortality in Chile between 1998 and 2011, by year, region, sex and age. Material and Methods: A population survey study was conducted using suicide mortality data of Chile from 1998 to 2011, provided by the statistics department of the Ministry of Health, Coroners' offices and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). Age-adjusted suicide mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 habitants. Variables analyzed included year, age, sex, etiology and geographical distribution. An analysis of the average annual variation (AAV) was performed and the logarithm of the age-adjusted rates by year and region was fitted by applying linear regression models. Relative risks (RR) by sex, geographical distribution and age were also calculated. Results: The mean suicide rate in Chile, was 12.11 per 100.000 in the period 2000-2011. The rates were higher in men, with a higher AAV in women and a relative risk for men was 5.14 higher than in women. The rates were higher in the southern regions of the country. Atacama had the highest AAV. By age, the rates are consistently higher in subjects aged 40 to 59 years until 2006, when this pattern started to change. Between 2006 and 2009, subjects aged 25-39 years had the highest rates. Subjects aged 0 to 14 years, exhibit the highest AAV. Conclusions: The distribution of suicide rates by sex in Chile is similar to other countries, but it is different by age. The age range with the highest suicide rates changed over time. <![CDATA[<strong>Búsqueda del ADN del virus HTLV-1 en biopsias de pacientes con linfoma cutáneo de células T</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) infection has been associated with the pathogenesis of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL). Aim: To search for HTLV-1 DNA in skin biopsies of patients with CTCL. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using 25 biopsies of patients with CTCL. DNA was extracted from lymphoid tissue by microdissection. A nested PCR was conducted to detect HTLV-1 genome using primers for the tax region. As negative controls, four cases of superficial perivascular dermatitis were chosen. As positive controls, five cases of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATCL) were studied. Results: A positive reaction was found in 3 of 25 cases. These biopsies corresponded to a case of Mycosis Fungoides, a case of CD30 (-) T-cell lymphoma and a case of lymphomatoid papulosis. Search was negative in the four cases of superficial perivascular dermatitis and positive in four cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATCL). Conclusions: HTLV-1 DNA search in tissues is a useful tool recommended to study T-cell lymphomas. HTLV-1 infection only occurs in sporadic cases but may contribute to tumor aggressiveness and prognosis. <![CDATA[Desarrollo y validación de un algoritmo para predecir riesgo de depresión en consultantes de atención primaria en Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The reduction of major depression incidence is a public health challenge. Aim: To develop an algorithm to estimate the risk of occurrence of major depression in patients attending primary health centers (PHC). Material and Methods: Prospective cohort study of a random sample of 2832 patients attending PHC centers in Concepción, Chile, with evaluations at baseline, six and twelve months. Thirty nine known risk factors for depression were measured to build a model, using a logistic regression. The algorithm was developed in 2,133 patients not depressed at baseline and compared with risk algorithms developed in a sample of 5,216 European primary care attenders. The main outcome was the incidence of major depression in the follow-up period. Results: The cumulative incidence of depression during the 12 months follow up in Chile was 12%. Eight variables were identified. Four corresponded to the patient (gender, age, depression background and educational level) and four to patients' current situation (physical and mental health, satisfaction with their situation at home and satisfaction with the relationship with their partner). The C-Index, used to assess the discriminating power of the final model, was 0.746 (95% confidence intervals (CI = 0,707-0,785), slightly lower than the equation obtained in European (0.790 95% CI = 0.767-0.813) and Spanish attenders (0.82; 95% CI = 0.79-0.84). Conclusions: Four of the factors identified in the risk algorithm are not modifiable. The other two factors are directly associated with the primary support network (family and partner). This risk algorithm for the incidence of major depression provides a tool that can guide efforts towards design, implementation and evaluation of effectiveness of interventions to prevent major depression. <![CDATA[<strong>Concordancia de la citología por punción con aguja fina para la detección de cáncer de tiroides en pediatría</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Despite the low frequency of thyroid nodules (TN) in children, one of every four is malignant. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a high accuracy detecting thyroid cancer. Aim: To evaluate the performance of FNAC in TN in Chilean children to detect thyroid cancer. Patients and Methods: The pathological reports of 77 thyroidectomies and 103 FNAC carried out in patients aged less than 18 years, between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed. In 36 patients aged 15 ± 2 years (77% women), both the reports of the thyroidectomy and FNAC were available. The cytological specimens were reclassified based on Bethesda 2010. The histology was classified as benign (nodular hyperplasia and follicular adenoma, n = 18), or malignant (papillary, follicular and medullar carcinoma, n = 18). The concordance of the cytology with the final biopsy report was calculated. Results: FNAC classified 13 specimens as definitively benign and 13 as definitively malignant. Among these, these concordances with the pathological study of the biopsy was 100%. Of six cytology tests considered "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" by FNAC, four were benign (67%), and two malignant (33%). Of four cytology tests considered "suggestive of carcinoma" by FNAC, one was benign (25%), and three malignant (75%). Conclusions: Among the studied children, there was a good concordance between FNAC and surgical biopsies. Therefore a FNAC should be carried out when malignancy is suspected in pediatric patients with a TN. <![CDATA[<strong>Logros más alla de los objetivos</strong>: <strong>evaluación cualitativa de un programa de formación en educación médica</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: In medical education there has been increasing emphasis on faculty development programs aimed at the professionalization of teaching and increasing students' learning. However, these programs have been shown to have an impact beyond improvement in teaching skills. The medical school of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (EMUC) has been running a faculty development program (DEM) since 2000. Aim: To explore the perception of graduates on the effects of having participated in DEM on their development as teachers and clinicians. Material and Methods: Using an exploratory, descriptive and qualitative design, the 79 teachers who graduated from DEM from 2004-2008 were sent a questionnaire containing three open questions. Their answers were analyzed using the Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis of Glaser and Strauss by four researchers. Results: Faculty development, becoming a better clinician, personal development, appreciation of the value of teaching and strengthening of the academic community were the five categories that emerged from the answers. Graduates felt that, besides learning new educational skills, they changed their attitude towards teaching. DEM was perceived as facilitating self-awareness and refection about the graduates' role as doctors and teachers. The graduates also valued meeting other faculty. Conclusions: Faculty development programs can have an impact far beyond the learning objectives. The planning and design of programs contributes to their wider impact. This should be taken into consideration in the design, planning, and evaluation of faculty development programs. Care should be taken to protect time for participation, refection and for interaction with other academics. <![CDATA[<strong>Síndrome aórtico agudo</strong>: <strong>Revisión de la literatura y actualización del tema</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term that describes interrelated aortic emergencies with similar clinical characteristics and challenges. These are aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IH), and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU). The incidence of AAS is three cases per 100.000 persons per year. Diverse genetic disorders and acquired conditions have been related to the pathogenesis of this disease. Clinical features of patients with any of the three conditions comprising AAS are very similar. A high degree of clinical suspicion and imaging studies are necessary for an accurate diagnosis. Prognosis is clearly related to underlying diagnosis and appropriate surgical repair, in the case of proximal involvement of the aorta. Involvement of distal segments of the aorta may require medical or endovascular therapy according to the presence of complications. After hospital discharge, patients require lifelong follow-up. <![CDATA[<strong>Sistema endocanabinoide y desarrollo de esteatosis hepática</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The endocannabinoid system (SEC) is an important modulator of several metabolic functions. This system is composed by cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 (RCB1 and RCB2), their endogenous ligands, known as endocannabinoids, and the enzymes involved in their synthesis and degradation. A deregulated SEC originates metabolic alterations in several tissues, resulting in the typical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Liver steatosis of different origins constitutes a physiopathological condition where an altered hepatic SEC is observed. In this condition, there is an increased expression of RCB1 and/or higher endocannabinoid levels in different hepatic cells, which may exert an autocrine/paracrine hyperstimulation of RCB1/RCB2. Activation of RCB1 stimulate the expression of several hepatocyte lipogenic factors, thus leading to increased de novo fatty acids synthesis and consequently to an abnormal accumulation of triglycerides. The effect of RCB2 activity on hepatic function is still controversial because, on one side its stimulation has an interesting protective effect on alcoholic liver disease while, on the other, it may enhance the development of hepatic steatosis in experimental models of diet-induced obesity. In this review we discuss the proposed mechanisms by which SEC is involved in the etiology of hepatic steatosis, as well as the therapeutic possibilities involving peripheral RCB1/RCB2 antagonism/agonism, for the treatment of this condition. <![CDATA[<strong>La relación entre la medicina y los proveedores médicos</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the last decades, many voices from academic medicine are questioning the relationship between the pharmaceutical industry or other medical suppliers and physicians. Conflict of interest has thus become a major issue of concern in medicine and is becoming increasingly important for medical journals and clinical work. Conflicts of interest may emerge in the daily practice of medicine, in medical and pharmacological research, in the process of publication of medical journals and in the dissemination of public and private medical information, such as conferences, lectures, books, pamphlets, monographs, etc. The credibility of physicians has been hampered in recent years by the proliferating connections between them and medical suppliers. The public seems to be increasingly skeptical of clinical medicine, since corporate actions placing profit over public health are usual. Research centers and projects as well as medical journals are considered an extension of the marketing arm of pharmaceutical companies. This undermines the credibility of medical practice, research work and pharmaceutical information, submitted to journals and later included in meta-analysis, influencing therapeutic guidelines. In the meantime, while disclosure has become standard practice in North America, it is not widely used in Latin-America and Europe. If independent researchers are financed by agencies not related to the industry, the problems caused by the increasing financial ties between the pharmaceutical industry and researchers could be overcome, avoiding conflicts of interest. Better disclosure policies and financial tie regulations are also urgently needed. <![CDATA[<strong>Recomendaciones del Comité de Ética de la Sociedad Chilena de Nefrología para el manejo de los problemas ético-clínicos de pacientes adultos con enfermedad renal crónica terminal</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es There are different approaches to treat patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and conservative medical management. The choice of the best therapy for each patient, needs both clinical and ethical skills. The Ethics Committee of the Chilean Society of Nephrology has elaborated recommendations to help health workers to deal with the ethical and clinical problems related to patients suffering ESRD. Its goal is to guide, at a national level, the effective use of minimal standards in the treatment and care of patients with ESRD, including appropriate care and information for patients, therapy selection, management of difficult cases and potential conflicts. <![CDATA[<strong>Efecto del enfoque de autorregulación del aprendizaje en la enseñanza de conceptos científicos en estudiantes universitarios en ciencias de la salud</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: In health sciences, the predominant teaching methodology is traditional and emphasizes conveying knowledge. Nonetheless, new abilities must be taught now. This change shifts the prominence from professor to student and incorporates a concept called self-regulated learning, which involves the professor as a mediator and incorporates guidelines that facilitate learning diverse skills. Aim: To compare the effects of two teaching methodologies on the learning of key scientific concepts among health science students. Material and Methods: Two subgroups of equally complex concepts were randomly chosen to be taught either using traditional or self-regulation methodology. For the self-regulation methodology, two groups were formed. One learned only through self-regulation guidelines and the other learned through classes where the professor was a mediator. One hundred thirty seven freshman students from medicine, physical therapy, and nursing careers participated voluntarily in the study. Results: Self-regulation methodology impacted the learning process of scientific concepts in a positive way and showed significant differences with traditional teaching. The sole use of self-regulation guidelines alone generated similar results, compared to those obtained by students who attended lectures. Conclusions: Self-regulated learning would improve in learning efficiency and would reduce face-to-face class time. <![CDATA[<strong>Estenosis subglótica y granulomatosis con poliangeítis (Wegener) en dos casos</strong>: <strong>Report of two cases</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) or Wegener's disease is characterized by a granulomatous vasculitis of the upper and lower airways and kidney. It involves the lower respiratory tract causing subglottic tracheal stenosis, which occurs in approximately 22% of patients. We report two females aged 40 and 52 years, admitted to the hospital with a subglottic tracheal stenosis. Their symptoms and management are reviewed. The frst patient responded to rituximab. The second patient required a tracheostomy. <![CDATA[<strong>Neurotoxicidad secundaria a metronidazol</strong>: <strong>un efecto adverso reversible. Caso clínico</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Metronidazole can cause adverse effects both in the central and peripheral nervous system. We report a 34-year-old female who presented a reversible cerebellar syndrome and peripheral neuropathy as an adverse effect associated with the use of metronidazole. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense T2 and FLAIR bilateral symmetrical cerebellar lesions, without contrast enhancement or mass effect, isointense in diffusion-weighted imaging and hypointense in apparent diffusion coefficient sequences. Also, electrophysiological evaluation was consistent with axonal polyneuropathy. She had received metronidazole for a liver abscess during 49 days. After discontinuation of metronidazole, she had rapid regression of cerebellar symptoms and normalization of MRI, with subsequent disappearance of peripheral symptoms. The brain MRI, electromyography and nerve conduction studies performed at 35 months later showed complete resolution of the lesions. Although metronidazole neurotoxicity is a rare event, it must be borne in mind because the prognosis is usually favorable after stopping the drug. <![CDATA[<strong>Disección coronaria espontánea post parto</strong>: <strong>reporte de un caso clínico y revisión de la literatura</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Most cases occur in women during the peripartum period, most likely influenced by hormonal changes, hemodynamic stress and modifications in the immune system during pregnancy. The pathogenesis of coronary artery dissection is unknown, hence numerous theories have been postulated such as pregnancy-related conditions, the presence of connective tissue disorders, trauma, etc. The clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic patients to the whole spectrum of acute coronary syndrome manifestations. The management of these patients requires a multidisciplinary approach, with two options: medical therapy or an invasive approach, with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The choice of treatment options depends on the hemodynamic status of the patient, the extension of the dissection and the myocardial territory at risk. In this case report we present a 38-year-old female who had a coronary artery dissection seven days postpartum. Coronary catheterization showed dissection of the left main coronary artery that extended until the circumflex artery. An intra-aortic balloon pump was installed and the patient then underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, with satisfactory results. <![CDATA[<strong>Dr. Raúl Etcheverry Barucchi (1909-2014)</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Professor Raúl B. Etcheverry, M.D., was a founder of Chilean Hematology back in the 1940's and a practicing physician and teacher until an advanced age. Being a superb clinician, he was admired by his ability to unveil from the most common to the most difficult diagnosis of blood disorders and neoplasms by examining blood smears and cytology samples. He trained in Hematology a large number of physicians and technicians coming from several countries in Latin America as well as from Chile. Besides medicine, he conducted seminal studies to unveil ethnic characteristics of the original inhabitants of Chile identifying blood groups and other genetic markers in mummies and in current living descendants, from Northern and Southern Chile and from Easter Island. He was a prominent scholar that was awarded high titles and distinctions from the University of Chile, the Chilean Academy of Medicine, the Chilean Government, and several hematological societies from Chile and other countries. After 104 years of fruitful life, he passed away leaving a vast number of disciples and admirers. <![CDATA[<b>Fondo solidario de medicamentos</b>: <b>¿representa un buen uso de los recursos?</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Professor Raúl B. Etcheverry, M.D., was a founder of Chilean Hematology back in the 1940's and a practicing physician and teacher until an advanced age. Being a superb clinician, he was admired by his ability to unveil from the most common to the most difficult diagnosis of blood disorders and neoplasms by examining blood smears and cytology samples. He trained in Hematology a large number of physicians and technicians coming from several countries in Latin America as well as from Chile. Besides medicine, he conducted seminal studies to unveil ethnic characteristics of the original inhabitants of Chile identifying blood groups and other genetic markers in mummies and in current living descendants, from Northern and Southern Chile and from Easter Island. He was a prominent scholar that was awarded high titles and distinctions from the University of Chile, the Chilean Academy of Medicine, the Chilean Government, and several hematological societies from Chile and other countries. After 104 years of fruitful life, he passed away leaving a vast number of disciples and admirers. <![CDATA[<b>Interacción para no olvidar entre meropenem y ácido valproico</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Professor Raúl B. Etcheverry, M.D., was a founder of Chilean Hematology back in the 1940's and a practicing physician and teacher until an advanced age. Being a superb clinician, he was admired by his ability to unveil from the most common to the most difficult diagnosis of blood disorders and neoplasms by examining blood smears and cytology samples. He trained in Hematology a large number of physicians and technicians coming from several countries in Latin America as well as from Chile. Besides medicine, he conducted seminal studies to unveil ethnic characteristics of the original inhabitants of Chile identifying blood groups and other genetic markers in mummies and in current living descendants, from Northern and Southern Chile and from Easter Island. He was a prominent scholar that was awarded high titles and distinctions from the University of Chile, the Chilean Academy of Medicine, the Chilean Government, and several hematological societies from Chile and other countries. After 104 years of fruitful life, he passed away leaving a vast number of disciples and admirers. <![CDATA[<b>Cultura de publicación</b>: <b>realidades diferentes</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Professor Raúl B. Etcheverry, M.D., was a founder of Chilean Hematology back in the 1940's and a practicing physician and teacher until an advanced age. Being a superb clinician, he was admired by his ability to unveil from the most common to the most difficult diagnosis of blood disorders and neoplasms by examining blood smears and cytology samples. He trained in Hematology a large number of physicians and technicians coming from several countries in Latin America as well as from Chile. Besides medicine, he conducted seminal studies to unveil ethnic characteristics of the original inhabitants of Chile identifying blood groups and other genetic markers in mummies and in current living descendants, from Northern and Southern Chile and from Easter Island. He was a prominent scholar that was awarded high titles and distinctions from the University of Chile, the Chilean Academy of Medicine, the Chilean Government, and several hematological societies from Chile and other countries. After 104 years of fruitful life, he passed away leaving a vast number of disciples and admirers. <![CDATA[<strong>Mortalidad por enfermedad de Parkinson en población chilena</strong>: <strong>una condición subvalorada</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Professor Raúl B. Etcheverry, M.D., was a founder of Chilean Hematology back in the 1940's and a practicing physician and teacher until an advanced age. Being a superb clinician, he was admired by his ability to unveil from the most common to the most difficult diagnosis of blood disorders and neoplasms by examining blood smears and cytology samples. He trained in Hematology a large number of physicians and technicians coming from several countries in Latin America as well as from Chile. Besides medicine, he conducted seminal studies to unveil ethnic characteristics of the original inhabitants of Chile identifying blood groups and other genetic markers in mummies and in current living descendants, from Northern and Southern Chile and from Easter Island. He was a prominent scholar that was awarded high titles and distinctions from the University of Chile, the Chilean Academy of Medicine, the Chilean Government, and several hematological societies from Chile and other countries. After 104 years of fruitful life, he passed away leaving a vast number of disciples and admirers. <![CDATA[<strong>Creación del Comité de Nefrología Diagnóstica e Intervencionista de la Sociedad Chilena de Nefrología</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872014000300022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Professor Raúl B. Etcheverry, M.D., was a founder of Chilean Hematology back in the 1940's and a practicing physician and teacher until an advanced age. Being a superb clinician, he was admired by his ability to unveil from the most common to the most difficult diagnosis of blood disorders and neoplasms by examining blood smears and cytology samples. He trained in Hematology a large number of physicians and technicians coming from several countries in Latin America as well as from Chile. Besides medicine, he conducted seminal studies to unveil ethnic characteristics of the original inhabitants of Chile identifying blood groups and other genetic markers in mummies and in current living descendants, from Northern and Southern Chile and from Easter Island. He was a prominent scholar that was awarded high titles and distinctions from the University of Chile, the Chilean Academy of Medicine, the Chilean Government, and several hematological societies from Chile and other countries. After 104 years of fruitful life, he passed away leaving a vast number of disciples and admirers.