Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> vol. 142 num. 11 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Long term results of mitral balloon valvuloplasty</strong>]]> Background: Mitral balloon valvuloplasty (MBV) is the therapy of choice for the treatment of symptomatic mitral stenosis with suitable anatomy. Although its short and mid-term results are favorable, there is a paucity of information about long-term follow-up. Aim: To assess the late results of MBV. Material and Methods: A cohort of 225 patients aged 8 to 20 years who were subjected to a MBV from 1989 to 2001, was studied. All variables at the time of the procedure, short and long-term results and major events during follow-up (new mitral intervention and mortality) were recorded. Uni and multivariate analysis were used to assess prognosis. Results: The mean follow-up lapse was 13.5 years (range 8 to 20 years). During this period, 88 patients (39.1%) remained event-free and in acceptable functional capacity. Eight percent died, 8% required a second MBV and 43.5% required a surgical mitral valve replacement. A post-procedural area equal or greater to 1.9 cm² was associated with a greater likelihood of free-event survival (log rank test: p = 0.02/Cox proportional regression model: coefficient 0.54, p = 0.04). Conclusions: MBV is effective, although there is a high chance of new interventions in the long-term follow-up. A larger post-procedure mitral area is associated with a better prognosis. <![CDATA[<strong>Association of quality of life perception with sleeping patterns in Chilean older people</strong>]]> Background: An adequate sleeping pattern recovers physical and mental wellbeing and improves mood. Aim: To determine the association between quality of life and quantity of sleep in older people living in Santiago and Viña del Mar, Chile. Material and Methods: The Spanish versions of the Health Promoting Lifestyles survey and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were answered by 975 non-disabled participants aged 70.7 ± 7.4 years (61% females). Results: Older adults who slept < 7.0 or &gt; 8.5 hours (h) per night were at higher risk of having lower quality of life scores for all sub-domains, compared with those that slept 7.0 to 8.5 h per night. Conclusions: A normal sleep pattern in older adults is associated with a better quality of life perception. <![CDATA[<strong>Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among teenage offenders</strong>]]> Background: There has been a significant number of adolescents admitted to National Youth Service of Chile (SENAME) detention centers in recent years, specifically since the promulgation of a law reform on juveniles’ penal responsibility for people aged 14 to 18 years (2006). Aim: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adolescent male offenders aged between 14 and 17 years. Material and Methods: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Kids and Adolescents (MINI-KID) was applied to 489 adolescents admitted to detention centers, to determine the presence of psychiatric disorders. (Hypo) maniac episodes, eating disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, tic disorders, and psychotic disorders were excluded. Furthermore, for purposes of analysis, 23 cases that used a substance of abuse or had signs of consumption the day of the interview were excluded. Results: Eighty six percent of respondents had at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common were substance use disorders (76%). Among these, marijuana dependence disorder had the higher frequency (51%). Disruptive behavior disorders had also a high prevalence (38%), followed by anxiety disorders (27%), attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (26%), and affective disorders (21%). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among teenage offenders which could undermine rehabilitation. <![CDATA[<strong>Vitamin D levels in older healthy Chilean adults and their association with functional performance</strong>]]> Background: People over 60 years old are at risk of Vitamin D deficiency, which can affect functional performance, since this vitamin is involved in muscle function and protein synthesis. Aim: To measure 25OH vitamin D levels in healthy older people from Santiago de Chile, and evaluate their relationship with functional performance. Subjects and Methods: Healthy subjects aged 60 years or more and living in the community were invited to participate. People with chronic diseases, cognitive impairment, physical disability, smokers and those consuming more than three medications per day were excluded. Hand grip and gait speed were measured and a blood sample was obtained to measure 25OH vitamin D by radioimmunoanalysis. Results: One hundred and four participants aged 60 to 98 years (55% females) were studied. Mean vitamin D levels were 17.3 ± 6.1 ng/mL. Females had lower levels than males (15.6 ± 5.8 and 19.2 ± 6.0 ng/mL respectively p < 0.01). Eighty three percent of females and 55.3% of males had values below 20 ng/mL (the cutoff point for deficiency). Only 3.5% of females and 8.5% of males had values of 30 ng/ml or higher. There was a significant correlation between vitamin D levels, gait speed and grip strength (r = 0.32 and 0.34 respectively, p < 0.01), especially in women over 74 years. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is almost universal in healthy adults over 60 years living in Santiago de Chile, especially in women. This deficiency is associated with a deranged functional performance and is a potentially modifiable risk factor for disability. <![CDATA[<strong>Correlation between aPTT and antifactor Xa to determine therapeutic ranges for unfractionated heparin</strong>]]> Background: The therapeutic range (TR) of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) for unfractionated heparin (UFH) dosing was established in the 1970 decade. Since then aPTT determination has changed. Current TR may be sub or supra-therapeutic depending on the reagents of the test, and therefore, responsible for complications of therapy. Aim: To establish the TR for UFH dosing in our institution using antifactor Xa analysis as reference standard. Material and Methods: After obtaining an informed consent, 43 blood samples were obtained for aPTT determination and antifactor Xa assay in 23 patients treated with intravenous UFH. Samples were processed at Emergency and Hemostasis Labs. We excluded patients receiving other anticoagulants, with thrombophilia, pregnancy or liver disease. Results: Mean aPTT values in the Hemostasis and Emergency labs ​​were 57.1 ± 18.9 and 56.6 ± 18.3 seconds, respectively (p = 0.77). The squared correlation coefficients between aPTT and antifactor Xa at hemostasis and emergency labs were R2 0.5 and 0.45 respectively, p < 0.001. Using a linear regression analysis, therapeutic aPTT range values ​​in our laboratory were established between 50 and 80 seconds, corresponding to antifactor Xa values of 0.3 to 0.7 IU/mL. Conclusions: According to current recommendations, validation of aPTT determination with reference techniques should be done in every institution. <![CDATA[<strong>Nutritional status and postoperative complications in patients with digestive cancer</strong>]]> Background: Risk of malnutrition is elevated among oncologic patients, and this increases postoperative morbidity and mortality. Aim: To study the association between nutritional status and postoperative outcomes in a group of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Patients and Methods: We studied 129 patients with diagnosis of digestive cancer, previous to potentially curative surgery. Nutritional status was evaluated through anthropometric measures, Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), dietary intake recalls and routine biochemical parameters. Functional performance was assessed by the Karnofsky index (KI). Cancer stage was classified according to TNM4. During the postoperative period, complications, length of stay at the critical care ward and duration of hospitalization were registered. Thirty days after discharge, patients were contacted, and the appearance of new complications was listed. Results: According to SGA 14.7% of patients were classified as well nourished (A), 57.3% as moderately undernourished or at risk of malnutrition (B) and 27.9% as severely malnourished (C). The incidence of total complications was 25.5%. Nutritional status was not associated with cancer stage. The frequency of complications among patients classified as A, B and C were 5.5, 25.3 and 37.1% respectively (p = 0.03). Conclusions: We detected a high frequency of malnutrition in this group of patients. Overall the frequency of postoperative complications was low, however malnourished patients exhibited a higher rate of surgical complications. <![CDATA[<strong>KRAS gene somatic mutations in Chilean patients with colorectal cancer</strong>]]> Background: The molecular testing of KRAS mutation status in metastatic colorectal cancer patients is mandatory to identify patients eligible for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy. Aim: To report the frequency of KRAS gene mutations in Chilean patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Material and Methods: A cohort of 262 Chilean patients with CRC aged 26 to 90 years (53% males), was studied. KRAS mutation status was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and correlated with clinicopathological data. Results: Ninety-eight patients (37%) were positive for KRAS mutations. G12D was the most common mutation with a frequency of 36.7%, followed by G12V (25.5%), G13D (17.3%), G12A (7.1%), G12C (6.1%), G12S (5.1%) and G12R (2%). The frequency of the mutation in left, right colon and rectal tumors was 37.8, 32.6 and 44.9%, respectively. Among tumors with mutations, 86.7% were well or moderately differentiated tumors and the rest were poorly differentiated. No significant associations between KRAS gene mutations and other clinicopathological features of the tumor were observed. Conclusions: The frequencies of KRAS mutations reported in this study are similar to frequencies reported for European and North-American populations, lower than in a Spanish study and higher than in a Peruvian study. <![CDATA[<strong>Psychometric properties of the quality of life questionnaire health related KIDSCREEN-27 in Chilean adolescents</strong>]]> Background: KIDSCREEN-52, which assesses health related quality of life in adolescents, has been adapted and validated in Chile showing excellent psychometric properties. There is a shorter version of the instrument, whose psychometric properties must be assessed. Aim: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the instrument KIDSCREEN-27 in Chilean adolescents. Material and Methods: A secondary analysis of the database obtained for the adaptation and validation of KIDSCREEN-52. Results: The reliability, calculated through Cronbach’s alpha, for the entire instrument (five dimensions) was 0.89. For physical well-being, psychological well-being, autonomy and relationship with parents and peer social support dimensions, scores were higher than 0.75 while for school environment, the score was 0.69. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the indices obtained to assess the goodness of fit in this study were a χ2 (314) = 10521.4, a Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.064 and a Comparative Fit index = 0.96. KIDSCREEN-27 scores were higher among men in the physical well-being, psychological well-being, autonomy and relationship with parents dimensions and among women in social support and peers and school environment dimensions. Scores were higher in younger age groups. Conclusions: The Chilean version of KIDSCREEN-27 instrument has adequate reliability and validity. <![CDATA[<strong>Relationship between self-directed learning with learning styles and strategies in medical students</strong>]]> Background: Self-directed learning (SDL) skills are particularly important in medical education, considering that physicians should be able to regulate their own learning experiences. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between learning styles and strategies and self-directed learning in medical students. Material and Methods: One hundred ninety nine first year medical students (120 males) participated in the study. Preparation for Independent Learning (EPAI) scale was used to assess self-direction. Schmeck learning strategies scale and Honey and Alonso (CHAEA) scales were used to evaluate learning styles and strategies. Results: Theoretical learning style and deep processing learning strategy had positive correlations with self-direct learning. Conclusions: Medical students with theoretical styles and low retention of facts are those with greater ability to self-direct their learning. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between learning styles and strategies with SDL in medical students. The acquired knowledge will allow the adjustment of teaching strategies to encourage SDL. <![CDATA[<strong>Identification of risk factors for congenital malformations</strong>]]> Background: The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. Aim: To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Patients and Methods: Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Results: Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother’s age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Conclusions: Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity. <![CDATA[<strong>Prevalence of obesity among Chilean women in childbearing ages</strong>]]> Background: Women in childbearing ages (WCBA) represent a strategic intervention group to reverse the global trend of increasing obesity. Aim: To conduct a review of studies reporting obesity prevalence in WCBA in Chile in the last 25 years. Material and Methods: To describe obesity prevalence, we used three approaches, namely qualitative review of studies describing obesity prevalence in WCBA and a comparative study of the prevalence of obesity, overweight, abdominal and morbid obesity in WCBA from 2003 and 2009-10 National Health Surveys (ENS). Finally, nutrition status trends of pregnant women in the period 1987-2013 were plotted. Results: According to ENS, obesity prevalence exceeded 20% and excess weight 50%, both in 2003 and 2009-10 surveys. We found seven population studies, being difficult to compare them due to the heterogeneity of obesity definitions, design, and populations. Population studies showed that the prevalence of obesity increases along with age. The higher prevalence of obesity in WCBA aged 20 to 43 years was found in the city of San Carlos in 2007 (35.5%). The lowest was found in female university students, ranging from 0% to 5.9%. Obesity in pregnant women increased from 12.9% to 32.2% in the period 1987-2004 and from 20.3% to 26.3% in the period 2005-2013. Conclusions: There is a high and increasing prevalence of obesity among women in childbearing age, whether pregnant or not-pregnant. <![CDATA[<strong>A glossary for discussion about abortion</strong>]]> Abortion and its diverse possible legal regulations is one of the major and toughest social controversies. This debate is even more problematic due to biases, prejudgments, different ideologies, beliefs, religious doctrines and political pressures. Chile has recently begun a new national discussion with an evident confusion, both in juridical and clinical terminology, which makes very difficult to achieve the necessary plural debate for a social and political consensus. The authors structured an academic collaborative project to create a glossary as a contribution for a discussion based on clearly defined notions about the different terms used in the abortion debate. Twenty-two concepts were selected and their definitions were reviewed and discussed by more than 50 different specialists. The final version of this glossary in Spanish language is presented. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Assessment of hidden curriculum components by medical students</i></strong>]]> Background: Hidden curriculum refers to the unwritten, unofficial, and often unintended lessons, values, and perspectives that students learn at the university, which influences the acquisition of professional skills. Aim: To analyze the perception about the influence of the hidden curriculum in the education of medical students at the Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Material and Methods: Qualitative investigation with case study approach. Seventeen graduated medical students were selected by probability sampling. A semi-structured interview was used to collect the information and a content analysis was applied. Results: Forty seven percent of participants recognized having fulfilled their academic expectations. As favorable factors for academic achievement the students underlined clinical practice, access to patients and to clinical fields. As negative factors, they identified the lack of commitment, educational support and over-specialization of their mentors. Conclusions: The results show the strengths and weaknesses of the educational environment of undergraduated medical students. This information should be used to modify teaching environments. <![CDATA[<strong>Diego Rivera</strong>: <strong>a great master and a didactic and discerning medical historian</strong>]]> Diego Rivera is one of the artistic giants of the 20th century. His many original creations included landscapes, portraits and large murals created in both Mexico and the United States. Rivera ventured into many styles-cubism, naturalism and narrative realism-with great success. Rivera’s murals build on those of the Renaissance, pre-historic and colonial civilizations of Mexico. Biological and medical topics and their history form an important concern in Rivera’s work, present in many of his murals in a highly informative and creative manner. His two History of Cardiology murals present an original and comprehensive account of the developments of this medical specialty from pre-historic to modern times. His History of Medicine in Mexico (The people demands health) mural is a creatively and vigorously fashioned and highly dynamic and synthetic vision of the relationships between pre-historic and modern medicine in Mexico and its social foundations. Medical topics such as vaccines and vaccination, embryology and surgery are inventively and accurately presented in the large mural, Detroit Industry. The trigger and impetus for the concern of Rivera for these topics of life and death, and the exceedingly ground-breaking way he presents them, appear to stem from his rational materialism, his concern for collective wellbeing, his belief in progress through scientific developments and political action and his commitment to understand Mexican and American history. <![CDATA[<strong>Cardiac magnetic resonance in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia</strong>: <strong>Report of two cases</strong>]]> Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is an inherited condition characterized by replacement of normal myocardium by fatty or fibro-fatty tissue, which mainly affects the right ventricle. The most frequent form of presentation is ventricular tachycardia or sudden death, whose origin is considered to be a product of fibrous or fatty infiltration of the myocardium. This structural damage can be detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MR). We report two patients with ventricular tachycardia due to arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. A 49 year-old female with a history of ventricular tachycardia. EKG showed epsilon waves and a prolonged QTc. Echocardiogram showed right ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. MR showed right ventricular fatty infiltration. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was installed to the patient. A 37 year-old male was admitted for recurrent syncope. On admission a ventricular tachycardia was detected. An echocardiogram showed right ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. MR showed a large zone of fibrosis in the right ventricle. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was also installed. <![CDATA[<strong>Bilateral renal vein thrombosis and acute renal failure due to inferior vena cava filter thrombosis. Report of one case</strong>]]> Bilateral renal vein thrombosis is an unusual etiology of acute renal failure and usually is associated with nephrotic syndrome. We report a 77-year-old man, consulting in the emergency room for anuria that appeared 24 hours after a syncope. The patient was carrier of an inferior vena cava filter prophylactically installed 17 months earlier and was not receiving anticoagulation. Serum creatinine on admission was 5.45 mg/dl and blood urea nitrogen was 54 mg/dl. Computed tomography and Doppler ultrasonography showed an extensive thrombosis of inferior vena cava and both renal veins. Heparin therapy was started with a rapid recovery of renal function and diuresis. <![CDATA[<strong>Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking a Hughes Stovin syndrome. Report of one case</strong>]]> Pulmonary artery sarcoma is an uncommon entity with high mortality. Its clinical presentation is usually indistinguishable from pulmonary embolism, which leads to a significant delay in diagnosis. Hughes-Stovin syndrome is characterized by venous thrombosis and aneurysms of the pulmonary or bronchial artery. We report a 59 year-old female with a history of recurrent pulmonary embolism. In the last thromboembolic episode a pulmonary artery aneurysm was found on a CT scan. The patient was operated performing a left inferior lobectomy. The patient died five days after surgery and the pathological examination of the surgical piece revealed a pulmonary artery sarcoma. <![CDATA[<strong>Purple urine bag syndrome</strong>: <strong>Report of one case</strong>]]> Purple urine bag syndrome is an uncommon but particularly striking phenomenon observed in people with urinary catheters and co-existent urinary tract infections. A chemical reaction between plastic and certain bacterial enzymes results in an intense purple urine color. We report a 72 year-old male with a cystostomy. A purple coloration of his urinary drainage bag and tubing was noted in the context of a urinary tract infection caused by Citrobacter freundii. <![CDATA[<strong>Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)</strong>: <strong>A diagnostic challenge</strong>]]> Purple urine bag syndrome is an uncommon but particularly striking phenomenon observed in people with urinary catheters and co-existent urinary tract infections. A chemical reaction between plastic and certain bacterial enzymes results in an intense purple urine color. We report a 72 year-old male with a cystostomy. A purple coloration of his urinary drainage bag and tubing was noted in the context of a urinary tract infection caused by Citrobacter freundii. <![CDATA[<strong>Undergraduate medical research</strong>: <strong>what is going on in Chile?</strong>]]> Purple urine bag syndrome is an uncommon but particularly striking phenomenon observed in people with urinary catheters and co-existent urinary tract infections. A chemical reaction between plastic and certain bacterial enzymes results in an intense purple urine color. We report a 72 year-old male with a cystostomy. A purple coloration of his urinary drainage bag and tubing was noted in the context of a urinary tract infection caused by Citrobacter freundii.