Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> vol. 143 num. 9 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>El ácido nicotínico aumenta el transporte celular de colesterol de las lipoproteínas de alta densidad en pacientes con hipoalfalipoproteinemia</b>]]> Background: Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. Aim: To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. Material and Methods: In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Results: Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Conclusions: Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia. <![CDATA[<b>Insuficiencia renal en pacientes cardiológicos</b>: <b>buscar para encontrar</b>]]> Background: Chronic kidney disease is a major health problem since it is associated with a high cardiovascular risk, total morbidity and mortality, increasing prevalence and high cost treatment. Aim: To assess the frequency of chronic kidney disease among patients consulting in a cardiology clinic. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of 649 patients attended at a cardiology clinic. Demographic, clinical, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and laboratory variables were registered. Patients were considered to have a kidney failure when their estimated glomerular filtration rate was < 60 ml/min/1.73 m² according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Kidney failure was considered chronic if this alteration lasted ≥ 3 months and hidden when serum creatinine levels were normal. Results: The frequency of kidney failure was 20.8% (28.4% in patients ≥ 65 years old). The mean age of patients with the disease was 71.5 ± 9.1 years and 52% were women. Eighty seven percent were in stage 3, 10% in stage 4 and 3% in stage 5. Among patients with kidney failure, in 114 (84%) it was chronic and in 28%, hidden. The latter was observed almost exclusively in women with creatinine levels of approximately 1 mg/dl. Hypertension (Odds ratio (OR) 4.2), age (OR 1.1), ventricular ejection fraction (OR 0.97) and low hemoglobin (OR 0.735) were the risk factors for kidney failure detected in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The frequency of kidney failure (chronic or hidden) was high in this group of cardiologic patients. Most patients had a mild to moderate failure and the risk factors were hypertension, age, low ventricular ejection fraction and low hemoglobin levels. <![CDATA[<b>Incidencia de la injuria renal aguda en unidad de paciente crítico y su mortalidad a 30 días y un año</b>]]> Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) increases morbidity, mortality and hospital stay in critical patients units (CPU). Aim: To determine the incidence and mortality of AKI in CPU. Material and Methods: Review of electronic medical records of 1,769 patients aged 61 ± 20 years (47% males) discharged from a CPU during one year. Acute Kidney Injury diagnosis and severity was established using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Results: A history of hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus was present in 44 and 22% of patients, respectively. APACHE II and SOFA scores were 14.6 ± 6.8 and 3.6 ± 2.1 respectively. AKI incidence was 28.9% (stage I, 16.7%, stage II, 5.3% and stage III, 6.9%). Mortality during the first 30 days and during the first year was 8.1 and 20.0% respectively. Patients with stage III AKI had the highest mortality (23.8 and 40.2% at 30 days and one year respectively). Compared with patients without AKI, the Odds ratio for mortality at 30 days and one year of patients with AKI stage III was 3.7 and 2.5, respectively. Conclusions: Thirty percent of patients admitted to UPC develop an AKI, which influences 30 days and one year mortality. <![CDATA[<b>Tratamiento endoscópico en la pancreatitis crónica</b>: <b>seguimiento a largo plazo</b>]]> Background: Intraductal stones, ductal abnormalities and pancreatic pseudocysts are part of chronic pancreatitis (CP). The goal of treatment is pain relief, resolution of local complications and relapse prevention. Endoscopic therapy (ET) can be considered in those who do not respond to medical treatment. Aim: To evaluate the indication, immediate and long-term results of ET in CP patients. Patients and Methods: Review of a database of patients with CP analyzing results of ET in 18 patients aged 16 to 60 years (13 males). Demographics, etiology, endoscopic technique, indication for treatment, pain relief, relapses and complications were recorded. Results: The etiology of CP was alcohol consumption in 5, idiopathic in 11, hereditary in one and autoimmune in one case. The follow-up period was 6 months to 14 years. Seven patients had diabetes mellitus type 3c and eight had moderate to severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Pancreatic papillotomy was performed in all patients, with removal of some stones, without attempting a complete clearance of the pancreatic duct. In addition, a 7-10 French stent was placed in the main pancreatic duct in 15 patients with varying permanence (months to years). The stent was changed guided by recurrence of clinical symptoms. During the follow-up period, 10 patients remained asymptomatic and in three, pain or relapse were significantly reduced. Stenting failed in one patient for technical reasons. Two patients were operated. There were neither immediate nor late complications from ET. Conclusions: Long-lasting improvement of CP was observed in 13 of 18 patients treated with ET, without complications associated with the procedure. <![CDATA[<strong>Análisis de variabilidad del ritmo cardiaco y su relación con la sensibilidad insulínica en pacientes obesos y con sobrepeso</strong>]]> Background: Heart rate variability analysis provides quantitative information about vagal and sympathetic modulation of cardiac function. Aim: To analyze the relationship between heart rate variability and insulin resistance in obese patients. Material and Methods: Male participants were studied, divided in 10 obese subjects aged 27 ± 2 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 31.2 ± 1.3 kg/m², 15 overweight subjects aged 24 ± 3 years with a BMI of 26.7 ± 1.5 kg/m² and 14 normal weight subjects aged 21 ± 2 years with a BMI of 22.5 ± 1.3 kg/m². Resting heart rate variability was measured in a period of 5 minutes. A spectral analysis was done measuring the low frequency/high frequency ratio (LF/HF). A non- linear analysis was carried out measuring the standard deviation of the instantaneous variation of RR intervals (SD1) and α-1 or a fractal analysis of RR interval complexity. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure blood glucose and insulin and calculate the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results: Among obese subjects HOMA-IR, LF/HF, α-1 and SD1 values were 2.6 ± 2.1, 2.4 ± 1.8, 1.2 ± 0.06 and 22.5 ± 10 respectively. The figures for normal weight subjects were 0.5 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.2, 0.9 ± 0.3 and 26 ± 7.8 respectively. Conclusions: There is an association between spectral and fractal values of heart rate variability and HOMA-IR. These results may indicate a predominance of sympathetic control of heart rate among obese subjects. <![CDATA[<b>Impacto del Programa de manejo de la obesidad <i>Bright Bodies</i> aplicado a niños y adolescentes chilenos</b>]]> Background: Yale University’s Bright Bodies Program consists on a lifestyle intervention, in areas such as nutrition and exercise, while focusing on behavior modification and family support. Aim: To evaluate the impact of the Program in Chilean children and adolescents with obesity who participated in the Program during 8 months. Material and Methods: The weight management Program was carried out during 8 months and consisted in weekly sessions directed by dietitians or psychologists and exercise sessions twice per week in charge of physical education teachers. The family component was based on sessions for parents or caregivers to achieve the same goals of children activities. Results: Twenty eight obese children aged 9.5 ± 2 years completed the eight months of intervention. There was a significant 5% reduction of body mass index (BMI), a 15% reduction of BMI z score and a 2.9% reduction of waist circumference. Bioelectrical impedance showed a 9% reduction of percentage body fat and a 7% increase in lean body mass. Blood pressure, blood glucose, total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly, without changes in HOMA-IR. The frequency of metabolic syndrome decreased from 36% at baseline to 18% at the end of the intervention. A 43% reduction in caloric intake and an improvement in physical condition was also observed. Conclusions: The Bright Bodies Program produced significant and positive changes on anthropometric and metabolic parameters in this group of children. <![CDATA[<b>Validación del índice de bienestar personal (PWI) en usuarios vulnerables de servicios de salud en Santiago, Chile</b>]]> Background: Personal well-being calculates quality of life in terms of the necessary conditions required to live well. Aim: To validate the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in a representative sample of vulnerable users of the public health system in Santiago, Chile. Material and Methods. A probabilistic and multistage sample consisting of 400 individuals aged 44 ± 18 years (61% females) belonging to the lower income group of the National Health Fund (FONASA), residents of Gran Santiago was surveyed. Internal consistency and correlation between items and scale were examined. Structure was analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The seven-item PWI is a good indicator of subjective well-being in the population under study, considering internal consistency, factor loadings, relation with overall life satisfaction and goodness of fit. The indicators mostly associated with personal well-being are the socioeconomic level followed by relationships with the community, health conditions and achievements. Conclusions: The 7-item version of the PWI is suitable for application in vulnerable health service users. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluación de un programa de perfeccionamiento docente implementado en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Finis Terrae</b>]]> Background: Since 2010, the Faculty of Medicine at Finis Terrae University implemented a training program aiming to train health professionals in effective educational practices. Aim: To evaluate the effect of training in teachers who are in charge of planning courses, conducting classes and learning assessment. Material and Methods: Quality of planning, lecture performance and academic performance of students were evaluated in 55 teachers prior and after attending the training course on teaching methodologies and in 47 teachers not attending the course. Results: The percentage of trained teachers complying with the aforementioned indicators was significantly higher than those without training (p < 0.01). There were significant differences in favor of the group of teachers who attended and passed the Diploma. Trained teachers had significantly higher students’ approval rate. (Odds ratio 4.5, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The teaching Diploma in Health Sciences improved the planning, teaching and academic performance of teachers. <![CDATA[<b>Efectores celulares de la respuesta inflamatoria en la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica</b>]]> Approximately 3 million people in the world die every year as a consequence of COPD, which is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to noxious particles and gases. This inflammatory pattern causes pathological changes leading to a narrowing of small airways and destruction of lung parenchyma, also known as emphysema. Classically, these changes were associated to macrophages and neutrophils, although T CD8+ lymphocytes were latter added to the equation to explain the origin of emphysematous lesions. However, in recent years, multiple evidences have arisen indicating that inflammatory response in COPD is much more complex. These findings point to a key role for mast cells, dendritic cells, T CD4+ and B cells. The aim of this article is to review such evidence and report what is known so far about those cells involved in the inflammatory response in COPD. <![CDATA[<b>Síndrome hemofagocítico adquirido</b>: <b>reporte de casos de cuatro pacientes adultos tratados con protocolo HLH 94-04 y revisión de la literatura</b>]]> Hemophagocytic syndrome is a severe condition of excessive immune activation that has a high mortality in the absence of treatment. The syndrome is classified as primary if associated with congenital or hereditary problems, or secondary/acquired if associated with infectious, autoimmune or oncology diseases. We report four adult cases of the syndrome, one with viral, two with autoimmune and one with idiopathic causes who were successfully treated with HLH 94-04 chemotherapy protocol. Our experience shows that a high index of suspicion, early diagnosis and an opportune therapy are essential in the treatment of this disease. <![CDATA[<b>Financiamiento de la salud mental en Chile</b>: <b>una deuda pendiente</b>]]> In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world’s average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile. <![CDATA[<b>Recuerdos de un Maestro</b>: <b>el Profesor Dr. Ernesto Medina Lois (1925-2013)</b>]]> Seldom, in the history of Chilean medicine, there has been such a unique parallelism between the professional development of a person and that of a discipline as it has been the case of Professor Ernesto L. Medina and Public Health in Chile. Dr. Medina’s undergraduate (University of Chile) and postgraduate (Harvard School of Public Health) studies coincided with the foundation of the University of Chile School of Public Health by an agreement among the University and two governmental health care providers, and also with the foundation of the Chilean National Health Service. His research covered the epidemiology of non- infectious diseases in the adult, such as cancer, their socio economic impact, the importance of early detection, treatment and surveillance, as well as the epidemiology of other chronic diseases, accidents and new epidemics. As Director of the School of Public Health for 25 years, he promoted the development of disciplines and courses addressed to health and other care-providers in order to improve their knowledge and expertise as statisticians, epidemiologists, administrators, budget officers. An example of his innovative look at medical education was the creation of post graduate training in the basic clinical specialties combined with public health, in order to have specialists able to undertake both the clinical and administrative duties at the primary care clinics. These programs ran in parallel with the rural internships financed by the Kellogg Foundation at the School of Medicine. Enumerating the distinctions and prizes awarded to Professor Medina would be too long for the purpose of this tribute, and selecting just a few would run the risk of being unfair. Still, there is one: the "Orden de la Cruz del Sur" that deserves the exception given its long existence and the fact that it was awarded to a physician "for distinguished achievements in Public Health". <![CDATA[<b>La inhibición a participar y su nexo con percibir una tutoría diferente</b>]]> Background: Verbal interactions are paramount to develop cognitive and social skills of students taught using problem based learning in small group tutorials. Responses to a questionnaire showed that 27% of second year medical students did not feel free to participate in their groups Aim: To explore if these students may have different perceptions respect to their peers, regarding the functioning of their tutorials. Material and Methods: The answer to the item "feel free to participate" was the criterion to allocate students in two groups, study (n = 25) and control (n = 66). The means of the perceptions were compared between groups in the 15 items’ questionnaire. Results: Students in the study group had different perceptions in eight of the items. These students enjoyed and considered interesting the topics addressed in the tutorials less frequently. Also they did not study all learning issues, did not always understand the case and foresaw less opportunities to participate in their groups. Conclusions: Quiet students perceived tutorials different than their more active peers. Those differences concerned motivation and a mixture of cognitive (individual) and social (rest of the group) strategies that were not conducive to build a suitable learning environment for those students in their respective tutorial groups. <![CDATA[<b>Cobertura de la estrategia preventiva de cáncer gástrico en Chile</b>: <b>resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010</b>]]> Background: In Chile, gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of cancer related deaths. The current screening strategy consists of an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) for people aged 40 years or more with epigastric pain. Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic coverage of the use of UGE for early detection of GC in Chile. Material and Methods: As part of the digestive module of the 2009-10 National Health Survey, 5293 adults over 15 years were asked about the presence of epigastric pain, possible upper gastrointestinal bleeding (PUGB), use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs), family history of GC and having performed an UGE. Results: Persistent epigastric pain was observed in 3.4% of the population. PUGB signs were observed in 3.3% of the population. The prevalence of PPIs and H2RAs use was 4.3% and 2.2% respectively, reaching 21.6% in people aged 70 years and older. Life span prevalence of UGE was 18.3%, with differences by region, health insurance and educational level. UGE coverage in people aged 40 years or older with and without persistent epigastric pain was 14.4% and 3.2% respectively (Odds ratio 4.8, p < 0.01). The prevalence of UGE was similar among people with or without PUGB or family history of CG. Conclusions: The estimated coverage of the current GC prevention strategy in Chile is 14.4%, evaluated at a population level. Further studies are required to determine the impact of this strategy on early GC diagnosis and mortality. <![CDATA[<b>Vasculitis de grandes vasos en paciente con vasculitis ANCA (+)</b>: <b>Caso clínico</b>]]> Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis in systemic vasculitides usually have anti-neuthrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). However, vasculitides of large vessels such as Takayasu’s and giant cell (temporal) arteritis do not. Exceptionally ANCA(+) small vessel vasculitides are associated with large vessel vasculitis. It may be a coincidence or both vasculitides have a common pathogenesis. We report a 30 years old woman on hemodialysis due to a chronic glomerulonephritis ANCA(+) diagnosed nine years ago. Eight years later, she presented with an aortitis with severe stenosis of distal aorta and vasculitis of left subclavian artery. She was treated with adrenal steroids and cyclophosphamide. During the ensuing five years she has been stable and without signs of reactivation of the disease. <![CDATA[<b>Síndrome mitocondrial no sindrómico con fallas de múltiples sistemas. Presentación de un caso</b>]]> Non-syndromic, multi-organ mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are frequently missed if treating physicians are not aware of them. We report a 85 years old Caucasian male, referred for tonic-clonic seizures, presenting with a plethora of abnormalities, including neurodermitis, atopic dermatitis, diabetes, hypertension, renal insufficiency, non-specific colitis, urine bladder lithiasis, bilateral cataracts, atrial fibrillation, diverticulosis, polyneuropathy, vitamin-D-deficiency, renal cysts, left anterior hemi-block, right bundle branch block, pulmonary artery hypertension, and heart failure. Neurological investigations revealed ptosis, quadriparesis, fasciculations, dysarthria, dysdiadochokinesia, tremor, hyperkinesia, ataxia, leukoencephalopathy, and basal ganglia calcification. Based upon this combination of abnormalities a non-syndromic mitochondrial multi-organ disorder syndrome (MIMODS, encephalo-myo-cardiomyopathy) was diagnosed.<hr/>Las alteraciones mitocondriales no sindrómicas y mutisistémicas pueden ser pasadas por alto si no se está consciente de su existencia. Presentamos un hombre de 85 años, referido por convulsiones tónico clónicas, que presentaba una plétora de anomalías tales como neurodermatitis, dermatitis atópica, diabetes, hipertensión, insuficiencia renal, colitis no específica, litiasis vesical, cataratas bilaterales, fibrilación auricular, diverticulosis, polineuropatía, deficiencia de vitamina D, quistes renales, hemibloqueo izquierdo anterior y bloqueo de rama derecha, hipertensión pulmonar e insuficiencia cardíaca. El estudio neurológico reveló la presencia de ptosis, cuadriparesia, fasciculaciones, disartria, disdiadocoquinesia, temblor, hiperquinesia, ataxia, leucoencefalopatía y calcificación de ganglios basales. Basados en estos hallazgos, se diagnosticó un síndrome mitocondrial no sindrómico con fallas de múltiples sistemas. <![CDATA[<strong>Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 con tendencia a la cetosis</strong>: <strong>Caso clínico</strong>]]> Ketosis prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) is presently a well-defined clinical entity, characterized by a debut with severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis similar to the presenting form of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). However, it appears in subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) phenotype. This situation is caused by an acute, reversible dysfunction of the beta cell in individuals with insulin resistance. Once the acute stage subsides, patients behave as having a DM2 and do not require insulin treatment. They should be kept on a diet and oral hypoglycemic drugs due to their susceptibility to have recurrent acute ketotic decompensations. <![CDATA[<b>Confiabilidad en el punto de corte</b>: <b>re-análisis de Alvarado y colaboradores</b>]]> Ketosis prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) is presently a well-defined clinical entity, characterized by a debut with severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis similar to the presenting form of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). However, it appears in subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) phenotype. This situation is caused by an acute, reversible dysfunction of the beta cell in individuals with insulin resistance. Once the acute stage subsides, patients behave as having a DM2 and do not require insulin treatment. They should be kept on a diet and oral hypoglycemic drugs due to their susceptibility to have recurrent acute ketotic decompensations. <![CDATA[<strong>Ataxia espinocerebelosa tipo 3 (enfermedad de Machado-Joseph) y vareniclina</strong>]]> Ketosis prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) is presently a well-defined clinical entity, characterized by a debut with severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis similar to the presenting form of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). However, it appears in subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) phenotype. This situation is caused by an acute, reversible dysfunction of the beta cell in individuals with insulin resistance. Once the acute stage subsides, patients behave as having a DM2 and do not require insulin treatment. They should be kept on a diet and oral hypoglycemic drugs due to their susceptibility to have recurrent acute ketotic decompensations. <![CDATA[<b>Nueva forma de adquirir la especialidad en Medicina Interna, en Polonia</b>]]> Ketosis prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) is presently a well-defined clinical entity, characterized by a debut with severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis similar to the presenting form of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). However, it appears in subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) phenotype. This situation is caused by an acute, reversible dysfunction of the beta cell in individuals with insulin resistance. Once the acute stage subsides, patients behave as having a DM2 and do not require insulin treatment. They should be kept on a diet and oral hypoglycemic drugs due to their susceptibility to have recurrent acute ketotic decompensations.