Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720150010&lang=pt vol. 143 num. 10 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<strong>Mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral insufficiency</strong>: <strong>likelihood of success, early and-long term results at 20 years</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The 2014 Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Valvular Heart Disease require to know the probability of success and operative mortality of Mitral Valve Repair (MVR) for Degenerative Mitral Insufficiency (DMI) at a given institution. Aim: To assess the probability of success, operative mortality and long-term results of MVR for DMI. Patients and Methods: The database of the Cardiovascular Surgery Service was reviewed for the period December 1991 to December 2013. Long-term survival information was obtained from death certificate records of the Chilean Identification Service. Results: One hundred forty seven patients with DMI were identified, all operated by one author (RZ). In 28 (19%) the mitral valve was replaced, including three patients in whom a MVR was intended without success. A successful MVR was performed in 119 patients (81%). The probability of a successful MVR was 97.5% (119 of 122). Prolapsed posterior leaflet was present in 81% and annulus dilatation in 60% of cases. The most frequent surgical procedures were quadrilateral resection (83%) and chordal transfer (13%). A mitral annuloplasty was performed in 92% of cases. Operative mortality was 0.8%. At the end of a 9.9 (0 - 22.7) years follow-up, 87 patients (73%) were alive and mean survival was 16.9 years. Survival rates at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years were 91%, 78%, 71% and 50%, respectively. Six patients were re-operated, due to mitral valve dysfunction in three. Mean re-operation free survival was 21.4 years. Echocardiographic follow-up was 75% completed at an average of 64 months; 84% of cases had no or only 1+ mitral regurgitation. Conclusions: In our experience, MVR for DMI had an operative mortality below 1% and a probability of success greater than 95%, with excellent long-term results. <![CDATA[<strong>The harm to others from drinking</strong>: <strong>A population study</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Alcohol can harm both drinkers and their human environment. Most of research in Chile has focused on the drinker. This work focuses on the damage to others. Governmental expenditures due to drinking are estimated to quadruple the income earned through taxation. Aim: To report the results of a population survey conducted in Chile in 2013 to assess the harm done to others from drinking by a known or unknown drinker. Material and Methods: A household survey of a sample of 1500 subjects living in urban areas, predominantly over 50.000 inhabitants, was conducted by trained interviewers. Results: A significant number of respondents reported that the effect of alcohol consumption by third parties was somewhat (18.7%) or very negative (14.8%). The most frequent negative effects were verbal abuse (37.4%), being bullied (17.4%), feeling fearful at home or in a private meeting (19.6%) and family problems (16.9%). Conclusions: About one third of Chileans surveyed have suffered negative effects due to alcohol consumption of a known or unknown drinker. This finding signals the need of designing public policies addressed to minimize or prevent collateral effects of drinking. <![CDATA[<strong>Association between serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms and depression</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Serotonin plays a central role regulating mood and on the development of depressive disorders. Aim: To study whether 5HTTLPR functional polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene or the Monoamine oxidase A gene (uMAOA) were risk markers for depression. Material and Methods: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was applied to 1,062 consultants in primary health care centers aged between 18 and 75 years to establish the diagnosis of depression. A sample of saliva was obtained for DNA extraction and genetic analyses. Results: No association between the presence of depressive disorders and 5HTTLPR (ss) or uMAOA (3/3) risk genotypes was found. Psychological abuse and the presence of two or more life events were found to be predictors of depression in the studied sample. Conclusions: In this study, 5HTTLPR and uMAOA polymorphisms were not risk factors for depression. However, psychological abuse and the presence of two or more life events were risk factors for depressive disorders. <![CDATA[<strong>Hemoglobin variants in Colombian patients referred to discard hemoglobinopathies</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Oxygen transport is altered in hemoglobinopathies. Aim: To study the distribution of hemoglobinopathies in Andean subjects without African ancestry. Material and Methods: We analyzed blood samples of 1,407 subjects aged 18 to 59 years (58% females), living in the central Andean region of Colombia, referred to discard hemoglobinopathies. The frequency and type of hemoglobinopathy was established by capillary and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: The frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 34.5% and higher among females. The structural variants found were: AS-heterozygous hemoglobin (8.1%), homozygous SS (3.7%), heterozygous SC (2.2%), AC heterozygotes (0.5%) and heterozygous AE (0.3%). Quantitative variants found were Hb A-Beta thalassemia (13.91%) and Hb H (0.06%), Beta-thalassemia heterozygotes C (0.88%), S-Beta thalassemia heterozygotes (6.07%) and compound heterozygous SC/Beta thalassemia (0.25%), with a persistence of fetal hemoglobin 0. Composite thalassemia was also found in 31%. All techniques showed good correlation and capillary electrophoresis demonstrated a greater detection of hemoglobin variants. Conclusions: The frequency of hemoglobin variants in the analyzed population was high, which is an important public health indicator. The most common hemoglobin variant was HbA/Increased structural Hb A2 and the mos frequent structural hemoglobinopathy was sickle cell trait. Capillary electrophoresis can discern any Hb variants present in the population. <![CDATA[<strong>Results of acute myeloid leukemia treatment</strong><strong>. </strong><strong>Analysis of 63 patients between 2010-2014</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, emphasizing its high recurrence rate despite hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Aim: To report the results of AML treatment at the Catholic University of Chile Clinical Hospital. Patients and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with AML. Results: 63 patients, median age 55.4 years (range:16-89), treated between 2010 and 2014. Admission laboratory values showed (median values): leukocytes 45.989/mm³, hemoglobin 9.1 g/dl, platelets 75.548/mm³, peripheral blood blasts 38% and bone marrow blasts 74%. According to cytogenetic risk classification we observed the following groups: favorable 8% (n = 5), intermediate 51% (n = 32), unfavorable 13% (n = 8) and unknown 28% (n = 17). Seventy five percent of patients received induction chemotherapy and 25% palliative care. Median survival of treated and palliative care patients was 27.3 and 1 month respectively. Induction chemotherapy (IC) mortality (ICM) was 4.2%. Seventy percent (n = 33) of patients who received IC had complete response (CR) with a 3-year relapse free survival (RFS) of 25% and overall survival (OS) of 31%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that achievement of CR, cytogenetic risk group and receiving consolidation chemotherapy were significantly associated with better RFS and OS. Conclusions: AML treatment with standard chemotherapy in our center achieves similar results to what has been described in international series regarding induction rates and ICM, however RFS and OS are still very low, especially in intermediate and high cytogenetic risk groups. <![CDATA[<strong>Endoscopic submucosal dissection in early gastric cancer</strong>: <strong>Experience in 16 patients</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a minimally invasive procedure that allows curative treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) in selected patients. Aim: To report our initial experience with ESD. Material and Methods: Analysis of prospective data from 16 patients aged 61 to 84 years, who underwent ESD between December 2011 and June 2014. Tumor type, operative time, hospitalization length, oncologic outcomes, complications and short-term follow up were registered. Results: En-block resection was achieved in all cases. The median operative time was 135 min (range: 50-320 min). Specimens' median size was 3.5 cm (range: 3-10). All the resections were R0. In 14 patients ESD was considered curative. In two patients, ESD was considered potentially non-curative due to the presence pathological risk factors for lymph-node metastases in the biopsy specimen. Both patients underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy with lymph-node dissection. There was one case of gastric wall perforation that was repaired by laparoscopic suture. There was no mortality. The median follow-up time was 15 months (range: 2-30 months). Conclusions: ESD is a feasible and safe procedure in our institution with good results in this initial experience. <![CDATA[<strong>Work activity of medical graduates at the University of Chile</strong>: <strong>Analysis per campus and graduation year</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The University promotes practices and values that influence their students in the pursuit of their occupational interests. Aim: To determine working activity features of medical graduates from the University of Chile and their relationship with undergraduate characteristics. Material and Methods: Medical graduates of the University of Chile were invited to complete a survey using a virtual server. The survey collected demographic, socioeconomic, work and guild characteristics. Undergraduate data, as campus and graduation years were obtained. Results: The survey was completed by 333 physicians (167 men) aged 29 ± 2 years, graduated from 2007 to 2010. Ninety four percent had a paid work, 59% were employed in public hospitals and 28% in primary care health centers. The predominant type of work activity was performed in the public health service (55%), while 17% worked in private health services. Activity in public health services or primary care were significantly associated with the pursuit of undergraduate clinical activities in specific campuses of the University. Conclusions: The employment rate of medical graduates was high. Differences observed by graduation campus and type of work may be due to the modeling that students receive from teachers. <![CDATA[<strong>CEACLIN, an instrument suited to identify medical students´ strategies to learn in pre-clerkship years</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Upon the beginning of pre-clerkship years, medical students must develop strategies to learn from experience and to improve their relational skills to communicate with patients. Aim: To develop an instrument to identify the strategies used by medical students to learn in clinical contexts. Material and Methods: Using a Delfi technique to reach consensus, a national panel of students and clinical teachers from 15 Chilean medical schools analyzed an 80-item questionnaire built from perceptions of Chilean students and teachers from one medical school. After two Delfi rounds and a pilot application, a 48-item questionnaire was obtained. Its reliability and construct validity were assessed by Cronbach alpha coefficient and factor analysis, respectively, on the base of an application to 336 medical students. Results: The questionnaire developed, named CEACLIN, is highly reliable (α= 0.84). Its inner structure is made of eleven factors: Autonomy, Solving doubts and problems, Searching and organizing information, Proactivity, Reaching to others, Paying attention and emotions, Searching for trust, Evading burden, Coping with burden, Motivation and Postponing the personal life. All together, these factors account for 47.4 % of the variance. Conclusions: CEACLIN is a valid, reliable and easy to use instrument suited to identify students´ strategies to learn in pre-clerkship years. Many of its items allude to concepts of theories of experiential learning and motivation. We hope that CEACLIN will be of value to medical students and clinical teachers to improve the learning and teaching of clinical reasoning and communication skills. <![CDATA[<strong>Characterization of pesticide exposures reported between 2006 and 2013 to a poison information center in Chile</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Pesticides are widely used to increase crop yields and vector control. However, both acute and chronic exposure have health consequences. There is paucity of information about the global occurrence of pesticide poisonings. Aim: To characterize the reports of pesticide exposures received by a University Poison Information Center. Material and Methods: All pesticide exposures reported in Chile between 2006 and 2013 were analyzed. A data-collection sheet provided by the International Programme on Chemical Safety of the World Health Organization, was used to collect information. Results: In the study period, 13,181 reports were analyzed. The main age groups exposed were preschoolers and adults. Sixty one percent of exposures occurred accidentally and 24.8% were suicide attempts. Exposures to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors was reported in 29.3% of cases, to superwarfarin rodenticides in 28.5% and to pyrethroids in 24.0%. An increased risk of suicide attempts with pesticides was observed among women, when compared with men (odds ratio: 1.5; 95% confidence intervals: 1.4-1.6; p < 0.001). The risk was higher among teenage girls. Conclusions: The amount of cases under acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor exposure, the most toxic pesticides currently in use should be highlighted. Workers should be educated and all cases should be reported to take actions aiming at reducing these events. <![CDATA[<strong>Translation and cultural adaptation of the Composite Physical Function for its use in Chile</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Aging is directly related with loss of physical independency. Composite Physical Function questionnaire (CPF) assess, throw 12 items, a range of daily life activities in order to determine dependency levels in elderly. However, there is not a Spanish version of this instrument. Aim: To translate and culturally adapt the CPF to Spanish for its use in Chilean elderly. Method: Standardized international methodology was used in this study, which consisted in double direct translation to Spanish, harmonization of versions and back-translation to English. Acceptability and familiarity of the obtained version was analyzed using probing and paraphrasing methods using a sample of 20 older adults aged from 65 to 80 years old. Results: All items were clear and understandable, although minor adaptations needed to be done in order to improve the understandability of two items. These adaptations consisted in adding information in brackets at the end of the sentence. Conclusion: Spanish version of the CPF questionnaire was obtained to its use in Chile. This questionnaire has been proved to be understandable and adapted to its use in Chilean older adults. Its ease of use makes this questionnaire potentially useful in future researches and surveys. <![CDATA[<strong>Molecular diagnosis as a strategy for differential diagnosis and at early ages of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), is a haploinsufficient and multisystemic disease, caused by inherited or sporadic mutations in the NF1 gene. Its incidence is one in 2,500 to 3,000 individuals, it has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, high clinical variability, complete penetrance and age-dependent complications. Neurofibromin is the product of the NF1 gene and is believed to act as a tumor suppressor since the loss of its function has been associated with benign and malignant tumors in neural crest-derived tissues. Only two correlations between clinical phenotype and mutant alleles in the NF1 gene have been observed. The established criteria for disease diagnosis are very efficient in adults and children older than 3 years of age, but not for children under this age. Mutational analysis is therefore recommended to confirm the disease in young children with a negative family history. A pathogenic mutation in the NF1 should be added to the list of diagnostic criteria. Mutational analysis is also recommended for differential diagnosis and for prenatal or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, taking into consideration the family history and the type of method to be applied. Molecular studies of this disease using different complimentary molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools have characterized NF1 gene mutations at both the DNA and mRNA levels, increasing the mutational spectrum. Consequently, about 1,289 defects have been reported to date, mainly nonsense/missense mutations, deletions and splice site defects. <![CDATA[<strong>Presumed consent and reciprocity as means to increase organ availability for transplantation</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Chile became the third country in the world (after Israel and Singapore) to introduce the rule of reciprocity to receive an allograft. This means that if an individual opts for not being an organ donor, loses priority to receive a transplant. Despite the difficulties associated with its implementation, the recent Chilean reform that also incorporated the presumed consent, should be studied by those countries that are trying to overcome the severe lack of organ availability for transplantation. <![CDATA[<strong>Rethinking the selection of medical students, considering non-cognitive skills</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In Chile the only requirement to study medicine is to obtain an academic achievement score over a certain cutoff value. However, the literature states that this type of selection is insufficient, since the medical profession requires cognitive and non-cognitive skills. These abilities are associated with better adaptation and academic success, as well as less dropping out. Therefore, those skills should be considered in the selection process to assure that the education goals are met. The aim of this study was to review the existing literature regarding the selection and evaluation criteria for students who are applying to medical schools. It was evident that Chilean medical schools need to establish appropriate criteria to ensure a more inclusive and fair admission. They need to design a system of admission with solid evidence of validity and reliability, complementary to the current form of student selection. This system should be considered common to all schools of medicine and, in turn, consider the sensibilities of the particular mission of each school, since academic, cognitive, inter- and intrapersonal aspects may vary among them. <![CDATA[<strong>Smoking among undergraduate university students</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Smoking is one of the major Public Health problems worldwide. Aim: To study the frequency of tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of a Chilean university. Material and Methods: An opinion survey was sent by e-mail to all undergraduate students of a university, registering gender, age, study years, study area, smoking behavior, motivation (reason for smoking), intention to quit and tobacco law perception. Results: 1,008 (57% females) out of 11,679 surveys were answered back. Prevalence of active smoking among respondents was 36%, without association with gender, age or years of study. However, students from scientific areas had a lower prevalence. Seventy seven percent of smokers manifested the intention to quit the habit or have started quitting already. Ninety six percent were acquainted with the tobacco law and by 73% agreed with it. Conclusions: Smoking is highly prevalent among university students. It is necessary to develop strategies for smoking cessation within universities that may prevent or reduce tobacco smoking among students. <![CDATA[<strong>Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma</strong>: <strong>Report of one case</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is within the spectrum of cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. It presents as localized or multifocal tumors or plaques and carries an excellent long-term prognosis even in cases with regional and/or ipsilateral lymph node involvement or in cases of recurrent disease. We report a 34 year-old female with a thigh lesion. Skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PCALCL. The patient was strictly monitored but no treatment was instituted and the tumor regressed spontaneously. After 24 months of follow-up the patient remains free of disease without new lesions. <![CDATA[<strong>Are the consultant strategy and health objectives aligned with the reality of population ageing?</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is within the spectrum of cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. It presents as localized or multifocal tumors or plaques and carries an excellent long-term prognosis even in cases with regional and/or ipsilateral lymph node involvement or in cases of recurrent disease. We report a 34 year-old female with a thigh lesion. Skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PCALCL. The patient was strictly monitored but no treatment was instituted and the tumor regressed spontaneously. After 24 months of follow-up the patient remains free of disease without new lesions. <![CDATA[<strong>How many undergraduate medical students are involved in medical research?</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is within the spectrum of cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. It presents as localized or multifocal tumors or plaques and carries an excellent long-term prognosis even in cases with regional and/or ipsilateral lymph node involvement or in cases of recurrent disease. We report a 34 year-old female with a thigh lesion. Skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PCALCL. The patient was strictly monitored but no treatment was instituted and the tumor regressed spontaneously. After 24 months of follow-up the patient remains free of disease without new lesions. <![CDATA[<strong>How many undergraduate medical students are involved in medical research? A reply</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is within the spectrum of cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. It presents as localized or multifocal tumors or plaques and carries an excellent long-term prognosis even in cases with regional and/or ipsilateral lymph node involvement or in cases of recurrent disease. We report a 34 year-old female with a thigh lesion. Skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PCALCL. The patient was strictly monitored but no treatment was instituted and the tumor regressed spontaneously. After 24 months of follow-up the patient remains free of disease without new lesions. <![CDATA[<strong>Obese but malnourished</strong>: <strong>a serious problem in Latin America</strong>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872015001000019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is within the spectrum of cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. It presents as localized or multifocal tumors or plaques and carries an excellent long-term prognosis even in cases with regional and/or ipsilateral lymph node involvement or in cases of recurrent disease. We report a 34 year-old female with a thigh lesion. Skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PCALCL. The patient was strictly monitored but no treatment was instituted and the tumor regressed spontaneously. After 24 months of follow-up the patient remains free of disease without new lesions.