Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> vol. 145 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Caracterización de pacientes con cáncer colorrectal esporádico basado en la nueva subclasificación molecular de consenso</strong>]]> Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an heterogeneous disease. Three carcinogenic pathways determine its molecular profile: microsatellite instability (MSI), chromosomal instability (CIN) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Based on the new molecular classification, four consensus CRC molecular subtypes (CMS) are established, which are related to clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of the tumor. Aim: To classify Chilean patients with sporadic CRC according to the new consensus molecular subtypes of carcinogenic pathways. Material and Methods: Prospective analytical study of 53 patients with a mean age of 70 years (55% males) with CRC, operated at a private clinic, without neoadjuvant treatment. From normal and tumor tissue DNA of each patient, CIN, MSI and CIMP were analyzed. Combining these variables, tumors were classified as CMS1/MSI-immune, CMS2/canonical, CMS3/metabolic and CMS4/mesenchymal. Results: CMS1 tumors (19%) were located in the right colon, were in early stages, had MMR complex deficiencies and 67% had an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene. CMS2 tumors (31%) were located in the left colon, had moderate differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, lymphatic and mucin. CMS3 tumors (29%) were also left-sided, with absence of vascular and lymphatic invasion, and 29% had an activating mutation of the KRAS oncogene. CMS4 tumors (21%) showed advanced stages and presence of metastases. Conclusions: This new molecular classification contributes to understanding the heterogeneity of tumors. It is possible to differentiate molecular subgroups of a single pathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, opening the door to personalized medicine. <![CDATA[<strong>Diabetes Gestacional</strong>: <strong>asociación con grupo ABO</strong>]]> Background: ABO and Rhesus blood systems are associated with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2). Gestational Diabetes (GDM) is a model to study DM. Aim: To study the association between GDM and ABO and Rhesus groups. Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed in 1,078 women who gave birth to a singleton in Talca Regional Hospital, Chile, during 2008. We analyzed personal, obstetric, medical data and ABO and Rh blood groups. Results: GDM was diagnosed in 6.6% of women. Age and body mass index were significantly associated with GDM. There were no differences in Rh blood groups (p = 0.604), while ABO groups were different between GDM and controls. B antigen was present in 3% of GDM women and in 10.8% of controls (p = 0.037), with an odds ratio of 0.25 after adjusting for other associated risk factors (p = 0.06). Conclusions: ABO group is suggested as a possible protector marker for GDM. <![CDATA[<strong>Caracterización de pacientes controlados por enfermedad de Basedow Graves en un hospital universitario</strong>]]> Background: Basedow Graves disease (BGD) is the leading cause of hyperthyroidism. The characteristics of patients seen at a university hospital may differ from those described in the general population. Aim: To describe the clinical features of patients with BGD seen at a university hospital. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of all patients seen at our hospital between 2009 and 2014 with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis, hyperthyroidism or BGD. Clinical features, laboratory results and treatments were recorded. Results: We reviewed clinical records of 272 patients; 15 had to be excluded due to incomplete data. BGD was present in 77.9% (n = 212). The mean age of the latter was 42 years (range 10-81) and 76% were women. Ninety six percent were hyperthyroid at diagnosis and thyroid stimulating hormone was below 0.1 mIU/L in all patients. Median free thyroxin and triiodothyronine levels were 3.26 ng/dl and 3.16 ng/ml, respectively. Thyrotropin-receptor antibodies were positive in 98.5% and 85.7% had positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Graves orbitopathy (GO) was clinically present in 55% of patients. Of this group, 47% had an active GO, 26% had a moderate to severe disease and 7.8% had sight-threatening GO. As treatment, 26% received radioiodine, 44% anti-thyroid drugs exclusively, 28% underwent thyroidectomy and 2% did not require therapy. Conclusions: In this group of patients, we observed a greater frequency of severe eye disease and a high rate of surgical management. This finding could be explained by referral to highly qualified surgical and ophthalmological teams. <![CDATA[<strong>De la anestesia a la seguridad de la atención</strong>: <strong>experiencia de 6 años en el análisis de reportes de incidentes en un hospital universitario</strong>]]> Background: Incident reporting is an effective strategy used to enhance patient safety. An incident is an event that could eventually result in harm to a patient. Aim: To classify and analyze incidents reported by an Anesthesiology division at a University hospital in Chile. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the reported incidents registered in our institutional database from January 2008 to January 2014. They were classified according to three variables proposed by the World Health Organization system to determine the type of incident and patients’ potential harm. Results: There were 297 reports registered. Etiologic classification according to the WHO system showed that 29% (n = 85) were related with management, 20% (59) with drugs, 20% (59) with medical devices, 16% (48) with procedures and 15% (46) with human factors. Seventy two percent (58) of incidents caused low or moderate harm and 28% (22) resulted in a severe adverse event or death. Conclusions: Our analysis highlights that a high rate of incidents are associated with management, the leading cause of reports in our center. Due to the low incident report rate in our country, it is difficult to perform appropriate comparisons with other centers. In the future, local incident reporting systems should be improved. <![CDATA[<strong>Frecuencia de riesgo de desnutrición según la Escala de Tamizado para Desnutrición (MST) en un servicio de Medicina Interna</strong>]]> Background: On admission, 30 to 50% of hospitalized patients have some degree of malnutrition, which is associated with longer length of stay, higher rates of complications, mortality and greater costs. Aim: To determine the frequency of screening for risk of malnutrition in medical records and assess the usefulness of the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST). Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we searched for malnutrition screening in medical records, and we applied the MST tool to hospitalized patients at the Internal Medicine Wards of San Ignacio University Hospital. Results: Of 295 patients included, none had been screened for malnutrition since hospital admission. Sixty one percent were at nutritional risk, with a higher prevalence among patients with HIV (85.7%), cancer (77.5%) and pneumonia. A positive MST result was associated with a 3.2 days increase in length of hospital stay (p = 0.024). Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition risk in hospitalized patients is high, but its screening is inadequate and it is underdiagnosed. The MST tool is simple, fast, low-cost, and has a good diagnostic performance. <![CDATA[<strong>El sedentarismo se asocia a un incremento de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y metabólicos independiente de los niveles de actividad física</strong>]]> Background: Sedentary behavior is a main risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Aim: To investigate the association between sedentary behavior and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods: We assessed 322 participants aged between 18 to 65 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured with accelerometers (Actigraph®). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentage of body fat, diet and blood markers (glucose, lipid profile, insulin and HOMA-IR) were measured with standardized protocols. Results: Thirty four percent of participants were physically inactive and spent on average 8.7 h/day on sedentary activities. Per one hour increase in sedentary behavior there were significant adverse changes in glucose (4.79 mg/dl), insulin (2.73 pmol/l), HOMA-IR (0.75), BMI (0.69 kg/m²), waist circumference (1.95 cm), fat mass (1.03%), total cholesterol (9.73 mg/dl), HDL-cholesterol (-3.50 mg/dl), LDL-cholesterol (10.7 mg/dl) and triglycerides (12.4 mg/dl). These findings were independent of main confounding factors including total physical activity, dietary factors, BMI and socio-demographics. Conclusions: The detrimental effect of sedentary behaviors on cardiometabolic and obesity-related traits is independent of physical activity levels. Therefore, reducing sedentary time should be targeted in the population apart from increasing their physical activity levels. <![CDATA[<strong>Evolución del protocolo de trombolisis endovenosa en ataque cerebrovascular isquémico agudo</strong>]]> Background: Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator) is the standard pharmacological treatment in acute ischemic stroke (AIS), reducing disability in patients. Aim: To report the results a thrombolysis protocol during four years in a regional public hospital. Material and Methods: Data from 106 consecutive patients aged 68 ± 13 years (57% men) who were treated with IVT, from May 2012 until April 2016, was analyzed. Results: The median door-to-needle time was 80 minutes (interquartile range = 57-113). The median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores on admission and at discharge were was 11.5 and 5 points respectively. At discharge, 27% of hospitalized patients had a favorable outcome (n = 99), defined as having 0 to 1 points in the modified Rankin scale. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and mortality rates were 5.7 and 13.1%, respectively. The thrombolysis rate rose from 0.7% in 2012 to 6% in 2016. Conclusions: The implementation of 24/7 neurology shifts in the Emergency Department allowed us to increase the amount and quality of IVT in our hospital, as measured by the rate of thrombolysis and by process indicators such as door-to-needle time. <![CDATA[<strong><i>Mindfulness</i></strong><strong> y promoción de la salud mental en adolescentes</strong>: <strong>efectos de una intervención en el contexto educativo</strong>]]> Background: Mindfulness has been conceptualized as paying attention to present moment experience in a non-judgmental manner, and the practice of developing that skill. Aim: To determine the impact of a mindfulness-based intervention on negative emotional states of anxiety, stress, and depression in Chilean high schoolers. Material and Methods: Eighty-eight teenagers aged 13 ± 0.6 years (46 females) were randomly assigned to a mindfulness group or a control (41 and 47, respectively). The mindfulness intervention consisted in eight weekly 45-minute sessions. A depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) was applied at baseline, after the intervention, and at three and six-month follow-up. Results: There was a significant reduction in anxiety, depression, and general symptomatology in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, these changes were not sustained at follow-up. Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest the feasibility and effectiveness of a mindfulness intervention in Chilean schools as a strategy to reduce negative emotional states and prevent risk factors in adolescent population groups. <![CDATA[<strong>Farmacogenómica como herramienta fundamental para la medicina personalizada</strong>: <strong>aplicaciones en la práctica clínica</strong>]]> Pharmacogenomics is an emergent field aimed at tailoring pharmacological therapy. Genetic polymorphisms can modify the expression and function of enzymes and proteins involved in drug metabolism, affecting absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion as well as the drug-target interaction. Therefore, the presence of allelic variants will classify people as poor, extensive or rapid/ultra rapid metabolizers, modifying drug efficacy and safety. In this work, the state of art in relation to this discipline is presented and the genetic variants of enzymes that are involved in drug pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics are described. The effects of these variants on the therapeutic response to drugs used in our country are also discussed. <![CDATA[<strong>Dieta mediterránea y sus efectos benéficos en la prevención de la enfermedad de Alzheimer</strong>]]> Type 2 diabetes and obesity are possible risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and these can be modified by physical activity and changes in dietary patterns, such as switching to a Mediterranean diet. This diet includes fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish and moderate wine intake. These foods provide vitamins, polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids. This diet should be able to reduce oxidative stress. The inflammatory response is also reduced by unsaturated fatty acids, resulting in a lower expression and a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Cardiovascular protection is related to the actions of polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids on the vascular endothelium. The Mediterranean diet also can improve cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. These beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet should have a role in Alzheimer’s disease prevention. <![CDATA[<strong>Paul Cézanne, el solitario padre de la pintura moderna</strong>]]> Paul Cézanne is an acknowledged pioneer of modern painting. His work was poorly recognized during most of his solitary life. He progressively withdrew from people and society during his life, in part due to his introverted personality and a supreme effort to obtain a unique form of expression of his art, in which nature and its inner secrets played a pivotal role. In this review, we discuss aspects of his life and art, his pathological personal relationships and how they influenced his transcendental work. <![CDATA[<strong>Efectividad de la simulación en la educación médica desde la perspectiva de seguridad de pacientes</strong>]]> We herein review the association between patients’ safety and simulation methods for medical education. This evidence should help to change the present paradigm in medical education, where there is still reticence towards this education method. A total of 20 papers on the subject were reviewed. Ninety percent of these articles conclude that simulation contributes to patient safety, 5% conclude that the evidence is uncertain and 5% conclude that the effects will be seen in the next decade. Thus, the majority of papers support the use of simulation in medical education as a method that improves patients’ safety. <![CDATA[<strong>Carcinoma vesicular de células en anillo de sello: diseminación poco frecuente</strong>: <strong>Reporte de un caso con tomografía computada por emisión de positrones con fluor 18-deoxiglucosa</strong>]]> Signet ring gallbladder carcinoma is a rare aggressive variant of mucinous adenocarcinoma with poor prognosis. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with Fluor18 deoxyglucose (F18-FDG) is a useful tool in the staging of gallbladder cancer. We report a 68 years old man with a surgically resected acute cholecystitis, whose biopsy was positive for signet ring cell gallbladder carcinoma. During surgery, locoregional lymph nodes, liver or peritoneal involvement were not detected. A PET/CT was performed for staging, finding multiple hypermetabolic lytic bone lesions. Percutaneous biopsy of a pelvis bone lesion, confirmed a metastasis of the tumor. In this case, the staging with PET/CT allowed the diagnosis of unsuspected bone metastases and was a useful tool for deciding the best site of biopsy for histologic confirmation. <![CDATA[<strong>Tríada de Carney. </strong><strong>Una rara asociación de tumores infrecuentes</strong>: <strong>Caso clínico</strong>]]> Carney described a disorder characterized by the presence of several uncommon tumors which were pulmonary chondromas, gastric sarcomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas. We report a 14 year-old girl in whom multiple gastric tumors were discovered during a study of an iron deficiency anemia and was subjected to a partial gastrectomy. At 25 years of age, she developed several pulmonary chondromas and at 33 years, a mediastinal tumor with features of an extra-adrenal paraganglioma was found. At 35 years of age, a total gastrectomy was performed to remove a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with excision of peritoneal and lymph node metastasis. One year later, the patient died due to liver failure secondary to liver metastases. <![CDATA[<strong>Experiencia local con natalizumab en pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn refractaria a anti-TNF</strong>: <strong>Casos clínicos</strong>]]> Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) agents have dramatically changed the management of Crohn’s Disease (CD). However, a significant number of these patients do not respond at all or cease to respond to antibodies against TNF. In this clinical situation, the options include intensification of anti-TNF therapy by either increasing the dose or by shortening the administration interval, the use of a second anti-TNF or medications with a different mechanism of action. Among the later, Natalizumab, a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody against α4β1 and α4β7 integrins, is safe and effective in inducing and maintaining remission in active CD patient’s refractory to anti-TNF. In spite of this, Natalizumab use has been limited because of an increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalophaty which results from reactivation of the John Cunningham (JC) virus. However, the presence of antibodies against JC virus in serum can be used to reduce the risk for this complication. We report three patients with Crohn’s disease refractory to treatment with infliximab, who responded successfully to the use of Natalizumab. <![CDATA[<strong>Ruptura pieloureteral espontánea bilateral durante un urotac</strong>: <strong>Caso clínico</strong>]]> Spontaneous rupture of the urinary excretory system is a rare condition. It is mainly associated with obstruction of the excretory system and is usually unilateral. We report a 58 years old male who, during the performance of a computed tomography of the urinary system, felt an intense lumbar pain. A bilateral rupture at the level of the fornix was found. The patient had an uneventful evolution thereafter. Fifteen days later a new computed tomography showed indemnity of the urinary excretory system. <![CDATA[<strong>Vinculando la investigación científica con la formación de pregrado en carreras de la salud</strong>]]> Spontaneous rupture of the urinary excretory system is a rare condition. It is mainly associated with obstruction of the excretory system and is usually unilateral. We report a 58 years old male who, during the performance of a computed tomography of the urinary system, felt an intense lumbar pain. A bilateral rupture at the level of the fornix was found. The patient had an uneventful evolution thereafter. Fifteen days later a new computed tomography showed indemnity of the urinary excretory system.