Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720180002&lang=pt vol. 146 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography. Experience in 465 examinations]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200141&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography or “contrast mammography” has a better cost effectiveness than breast magnetic resonance for confirmation of suspicious lesions detected on breast screening programs. Aim: To report the experience of a single center in Santiago. Material and Methods: All patients referred for contrast mammography between July 2015 and October 2017 were studied. We recorded the patient risk factors for breast cancer. In 85 patients with suspicious lesions, biopsy results were available. Results: We analyzed 465 contrast mammographies. The most common clinical indications were suspicion of cancer and previous inconclusive studies. Mass type lesions were detected in 33% of the studies. Non-mass-type lesions were observed in 10% of cases and findings compatible with papillomatosis in 2%. Fifty five percent of the studies had no visible lesions. In the 85 patients with a pathological study of the biopsy, the sensitivity of the contrast mammography was 100%, with a diagnostic accuracy of 85%, positive and negative predictive values of 82 and 100% respectively. Conclusions: Contrast mammography can be of great use for the assessment of patients with an altered conventional mammography, before indicating a magnetic resonance imaging or a percutaneous biopsy. <![CDATA[Smoking promotes exacerbated inflammatory features in dendritic cells of Chilean rheumatoid arthritis patients]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200150&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Background: The dual potential to promote tolerance or inflammation when facing self-antigens makes dendritic cells (DCs) fundamental players in autoimmunity. There is an association between smoking and DCs maturation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, ethnicity is a key factor in autoimmune disorders. Aim: To evaluate phenotypic and functional alterations of DCs obtained from Chilean patients with RA as compared to healthy controls (HC). In second term, to compare the inflammatory behaviour of DCs between smoker and non-smoker patients. Material and Methods: Monocyte-derived DCs and T-cells were obtained from blood samples isolated from 30 HC and 32 RA-patients, 14 of which were currently smokers and 18 non-smokers. Several maturation surface markers were evaluated in DCs, including HLA-DR, CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. Furthermore, autologous co-cultures of DCs and T-cells were carried out and then T-cell proliferation, and expansion of Th1, Th17 and Tregs were analysed. Results: Compared with HC, RA-patients displayed increased HLA-DR expression in DCs, which was manifested mainly in patients with moderate-to- high disease activity scores (DAS28). Furthermore, RA-patients presented a stronger Th17-expansion and a correlation between DAS28 and Th1-expansion. Both effects were mainly observed in patients in remission or with a low DAS28. Moreover, smoker RA-patients displayed enhanced HLA-DR and CD83 expression in DCs as well as an exacerbated Th17-expansion and a correlation between DAS28 and Th1-expansion. Conclusions: These findings suggest that smoking enhances the inflammatory behaviour of DCs and the consequent Th1 and Th17-mediated response in patients with RA<hr/> Introducción: El potencial dual que poseen para promover tolerancia o inflamación ante antígenos propios, hace de las células dendríticas (CDs) actores fundamentales en el desarrollo de autoinmunidad. Existe una asociación entre fumar y la maduración de las CDs en pacientes con artritis reumatoide (AR). No obstante, la etnicidad es un factor clave a considerar en desórdenes autoinmunes. Objetivos: Comparar las alteraciones fenotípicas y funcionales de las CDs obtenidas desde pacientes Chilenos con AR y controles sanos (CS). Además, analizamos las diferencias en el comportamiento inflamatorio que existe entre las CDs obtenidas de pacientes fumadores y CS. Materiales y Métodos: Se obtuvieron CDs derivadas de monocitos y células T desde muestras de sangre aisladas de 30 CS y 32 pacientes con AR, 14 de los cuales eran fumadores y 18 no fumadores. Se evaluaron marcadores de maduración en la superficie de las CDs: HLA-DR, CD40, CD80, CD83 y CD86. Además, se realizaron co-cultivos autólogos de células T y CDs, analizando la proliferación de células T, y la expansión de células Th1, Th17 y Tregs. Resultados: En comparación con los CS, los pacientes AR mostraron un aumento de la expresión de HLA-DR en las CDs, principalmente en los individuos con DAS28 moderado-alto. Los pacientes con AR presentaron una mayor expansión de células Th17 y una correlación entre el DAS28 y la expansión de células Th1, ambos efectos manifestados principalmente en los individuos con un DAS28 bajo o en remisión. Además, los pacientes con AR fumadores mostraron un aumento en la expresión de HLA-DR y CD83 en las CDs y una expansión de células Th17 exacerbada así como una correlación entre el DAS28 y la expansión de células Th1. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que fumar favorece el comportamiento inflamatorio de las CDs y en consecuencia la inducción de respuestas mediadas por células Th1 y Th17 en los pacientes Chilenos con AR. <![CDATA[Evaluation of clinical communication skills in medical students with simulated patients]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200160&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Communication skills are not learnt innately. It is therefore necessary to both train and evaluate medical students in this area. Aim: To evaluate communication skills of fourth-year medical students with the use of a simulated patient (SP). Material and Methods: Four clinical scenarios (CS) for clinical interviews with simulated patients were designed: chronic and acute diseases, difficult and functional patients. Each student performed the four CS, and his communication skills were evaluated using our own questionnaire as agreed with the SP. The questionnaire included items on verbal and nonverbal communication, warmth, respect, specificity, assertiveness and empathy (rated from 0 to 10). The response variable was the arithmetic mean of the scores on each item. All students received a detailed evaluation report. Results: Sixty one students (32 men) performing 244 interviews, were evaluated. The overall mean score was 7.87 (4.62 to 9.03). The highest scores were for respect and specificity (7.57 and 7.15 respectively). The lowest were for empathy and nonverbal communication (6.44 and 6.84 respectively). The CS evaluations were 7.87 (chronic disease), 7.02 (difficult patient), 6.46 (acute disease) and 6.14 (functional pathology). Women had higher overall scores compared to men (7.26 and 6.51 respectively; p &lt; 0.01) and a significantly higher score in all communication variables (p &lt; 0.01). Conclusions: The overall assessment in clinical communication with SP is satisfactory although there is room for improvement, especially in empathy and nonverbal communication. Women had significantly higher scores than men. <![CDATA[Pattern of smoking and socioeconomic status in two cohorts of young adults]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200168&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: One in five deaths that occur in Chile can be attributed to smoking whose prevalence remains high, despite interventions aimed at reducing it. Aim: To compare the prevalence of smoking and its intensity among young adults born 15 years apart and determine their association with socioeconomic status (SES). Material and Methods: Two cohorts of young adults living in the Valparaiso Region of Chile were evaluated in the third decade of life. Cohort 1 was evaluated between 2000 and 2002 (n = 1232) and cohort 2 between 2014 and 2017 (n = 1078). Results: In cohort 1, 57.5% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 54.6-58.7) of the subjects reported smoking, with a median of 3 (Interquartile range (ICR:1-6) cigarettes/day. This percentage fell to 40.2% (CI: 37.5-43.1) with a similar median in cohort 2. Analyzing cohort 2, the odds ratio (OR) for smoking was 2.24 (CI 1.48-3.38) in the medium SES, compared with the medium high SES. The figures for low medium and low SES were 2.72 (CI: 1.85-3.99) and 3.01 (1.85-4.88). Similarly, in this cohort there was a significantly higher risk of being a heavy smoker in lower SES. No associations between smoking or its intensity and SES were observed in cohort 1. Conclusions: Smoking behavior has decreased among young adults evaluated at the same age in two generational cohorts in the third decade of life. In the most recent cohort analyzed, smoking and its intensity increase along with a decrease in SES. <![CDATA[Acquired aplastic anemia. Experience in a public hospital]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200175&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: The first line treatment for patients &lt; 40 years old with aplastic anemia (AA) is allogeneic HLA-identical sibling donor transplantation (SCT). Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with a combination of Thymoglobuline (ATG) and cyclosporine is used for older patients or those without a donor. Five year overall survival (OS) for both therapies is &gt; 70%. Aim: To report the experience with SCT and ATG for AA in a public hospital. Patients and Methods: AA was diagnosed in 42 patients between 1998 and 2016, according to Camitta criteria. Thirty eight (90%) received treatment, 7 (18%) under 40 years old received SCT, and 31 (82%) IST. The rest were not treated. OS was calculated from date of diagnosis until last control, death or loss from follow up. Results: Complete or partial hematologic response, was obtained in 71% and 58% of cases with SCT and IS, respectively. Five year OS was 71% and 55% with SCT and IST, respectively. No difference in response was observed between horse and rabbit ATG. Conclusions: SCT from an HLA-identical sibling donor had a high response rate and survival. IST instead, had a lower response and survival, due to an initial high mortality rate. <![CDATA[Outcome of surgery for Crohn's colitis. Review of 28 cases]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200183&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Exclusive involvement of the colon or rectum in Crohn's disease, called Crohn's colitis, (CC) occurs in about 25% of these patients. Aim: To analyze early surgical results and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for CC. Material and Methods: Review of a prospective database, identifying patients with Crohn's disease operated between 2003 and 2015 and excluding those with ileocecal disease. We analyzed demographic data, pre and postoperative pharmacological treatment, operations, morbidity and the need for a second bowel resection at follow-up. Results: We reviewed data from 28 patients aged 17 to 72 years (15 men). Twenty-seven (96.4%) had previous pharmacological treatment, 11 received monoclonal antibodies. The most common indications for surgical treatment were failure of medical treatment in 15 cases, acute severe colitis in 12 and anemia/malnutrition in eight. Total colectomy was performed in 17 (61%) patients, proctocolectomy in 8 (29%) and segmental colectomies in 3 (11%). Sixteen (57%) were operated laparoscopically. Major postoperative complications were observed in 5 (18%). Four needed a reintervention. There was no operative mortality. During a 55 months median follow-up of 27 patients, seven (26%) required a second bowel resection, one of them for recurrence. Nineteen (70%) patients had an ostomy, which was permanent in 11. Fifteen patients are without medical treatment. Conclusions: Most of the reviewed patients required total colectomy for the control of the disease with a low surgical morbidity. Two-thirds required an ileostomy, which became permanent in half of them. <![CDATA[Reliability of an automatic monitor for blood pressure measurement]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200190&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background A correct blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential for the diagnosis and control of high BP. Aim: To evaluate the agreement and repeatability of BP measurements with the OMRON HEM-7320-LA device compared to a mercury sphygmomanometer. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study comparing BP measurements made by two randomly selected trained nurses and an automatic oscillometric device. The mercurial sphygmomanometer was connected to the automated device via a “T” type connector and a dual-head stethoscope was used, allowing simultaneous measurements. The results were analyzed with one-factor analysis of variance, Bland-Altman's test, repeatability coefficient (RC), and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: Forty-nine participants aged 56 ± 19 years were included. Nineteen had hypertension (38%). We did not observe a significant difference in either systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) pressure measurements between the observers and the device. The mean difference was −0.09 mmHg (95% confidence intervals (CI)-0.9 to 0.7) for SBP and −0.9 mmHg (95% CI −1.7 to −0.13) for DBP. The RC for SBP (6.2, 5.2 and 5.8 mmHg) and DBP (4.7, 4.2 y 5.2 mmHg) was similar between the observers and the device. The ICC for SBP was 0.990 (95% CI 0.983 to 0.995, p &lt; 0.01) and 0.986 (95% CI 0.977 to 0.991, p &lt; 0.01) for DBP. Conclusions: There was a high level of agreement and similar measurement repeatability in the measurements performed by the automatic device and the mercurial sphygmomanometer. No differences in BP measurements were observed. <![CDATA[Thoracic trauma. Experience of three decades]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200196&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Trauma is the leading cause of death in young patients and thoracic trauma (TT) is responsible for 25-35% of trauma deaths. Aim: To describe and compare features, trauma severity indexes and morbidity of patients admitted for TT in the past three decades. Material and Methods: Review of a TT database, operative notes and medical records of patients. These were separated by decade of admission (1981-1990, 1991-2000, 2001-2010). TT characteristics were compared. Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS-T) and Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) were calculated. Results: A total of 3,068 TT were reviewed. In the 1981-1990 period, 604 cases of TT were registered (19.7%), in the 1991-2000 period, 1,070 cases (34.9%) and in the 2001-2010 period, 1,394 cases (45.4%) (p &lt; 0.05). The ages of patients in each of these periods were 34.9 ± 15.5, 33.9 ± 16.2 and 35.7 ± 18.2 years respectively (p &lt; 0.05). The proportion of patients aged 65 years or more were 6.6, 7.7 and 10.1% respectively, the proportion of females was 6.1, 9.4 and 12.0%, respectively. The causing agents per decade were knife wounds in 51.5, 61.1 and 60.0% of cases respectively, firearms in 2.5, 3.3 and 5.0% of cases respectively, multiple trauma in 13.9, 14.5 and 9.0% respectively and morbidity in 18.7, 19.7 and 11.7%, respectively. The ISS per decade was 11.9 ± 6.5, 12.9 ± 6.9 and 10.4 ± 6.8 respectively. No significant difference were found in mortality (1.5, 3.0, 2.0% respectively) or TRISS score (2.7, 3.2 and 3.8% respectively). Conclusions: An increase in the number of hospital admission for TT has occurred in the last three decades, with an increase in the proportion of admissions of subjects aged 65 years or more, females and with firearm injuries. <![CDATA[Predatory journals: a new threat to scientific publications]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200206&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The goal of the Open Access movement is to promote free access to scientific literature. From its creation in the nineties it has been a fundamental support to the democratization of knowledge. In the last years, however, a new fraud model has been detected: journals that use open access publications as “Predatory Journals”, which do not fulfill minimal quality standards and profit with the model. To inform the Latin American community about such editorial malpractice, we have reviewed the literature about this issue, aiming to explain what predatory journals are, how to detect them and how they contact authors. One of this article's main conclusion is that students, academics and researchers need to develop skills to recognize this or any other kinds of publication fraud. <![CDATA[Workplace violence among health care workers]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200213&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this review is to describe and to analyze scientific reports about occupational violence in the health area. A systematic review of the literature on Academic Search Complete (EBSCO Host), Medline, Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science was performed and 23 articles were selected for analysis. Most studies are quantitative, measuring workplace violence and its consequences, including multi-stratum samples. They mainly measure psychological and external violence and their subjects are hospital workers. Violence is conceived as coming from organizational dimensions. Facilitators of violence are related to the nature of the job and the most commonly studied consequences are related to mental health. The main consequences of the phenomenon are depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and work stress. The nature of the job as a facilitator of violence relates primarily to the place of work and to the profession. Most of the studies are carried out with multi-stratum samples and combine workers from different services. However, studies in psychiatric services and with nursing staff are also common. <![CDATA[Exposure to nitrates in drinking water and its association with thyroid gland dysfunction]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200223&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Nitrate exposure may be associated with thyroid gland dysfunction. Aim: To review the available evidence about the relationship between nitrates in drinking water and thyroid gland dysfunction. Material and Methods: A wide search was performed using Medline, Cochrane, Lilacs, IBECS and Scielo databases using pertinent keywords, finding a total of 66 related studies. After filtering and in depth reviewing, a total of 12 studies were included in this review. Results: The main results reveal the importance of this ion for human health, finding evidence both in animals and human beings that suggest pathological changes in the gland as its relationship with the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism, and potentially cancer of the thyroid gland. In Chile, nitrate is not considered a critical contaminant so its regular measuring and control is not enforced. Conclusions: In light of the present review we believe that there is evidence to consider nitrate as a critical contaminant whose measurement, registration and correct implementation of valid policies would have a direct benefit for the population of this country. Without this information, it is not possible to quantify the damage to human health, especially in vulnerable groups residing in areas at greatest risk of exposure. <![CDATA[A collaborative objective structured clinical examination for title revalidation by foreign medical graduates in Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200232&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Background: Title revalidation of foreign medical graduates to practice medicine in Chile is a complex and expensive process. According to the legislation they are required to approve the Unique National Exam of Medical Knowledge (EUNACOM), which has a theoretical and a practical section. Aim: To demonstrate that a collaborative and standardized examination of the practical section of EUNACOM is more effective and efficient than traditional practical examinations. Material and Methods: The faculties of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile, University of Chile and University of Concepción were associated to implement an examination proposal, framed in the legislation. The EUNACOM board supported and funded the initiative which consisted in the implementation of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) for each basic specialty of medicine, applied to 40 designated candidates. This format was selected because of the wide experience and evidence at the international level in the certification of medical professionals. Results: A collaborative and standardized OSCE reduces to less than half the time spent by examiners, providing more evidence of validity, reliability and objectivity. It also allows to visualize the real costs per applicant, which proved to be higher than those currently charged by EUNACOM, but comparatively lower than the examination used in the United States. Conclusions: A collaborative OSCE responds to the ethical principle of justice by being more valid, reliable, objective and cost efficient. <![CDATA[Renal involvement in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitides. Recommendations of the Chilean Societies of Nephrology and Rheumatology]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200241&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Renal involvement is a frequent complication in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)associated vasculitides, adding morbidity and mortality, such as chronic kidney disease and the need for renal replacement therapy. With the aim of reaching a consensus on relevant issues regarding the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with these diseases, the Chilean Societies of Nephrology and Rheumatology formed a working group that, based on a critical review of the available literature and their experience, raised and answered consensually a set of questions relevant to the subject. This document includes aspects related to the clinical diagnosis, the histological characteristics, the therapeutic alternatives to induce and maintain the remission of the disease, relapse surveillance strategies and complementary therapies. <![CDATA[<em>Neisseria meningitidis</em> pneumonia. A case report]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200249&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Few cases of bacteremic pneumonia by Neisseria meningitidis (NM) have been described worldwide; mostly in elderly patients or those with comorbidities. They appear clinically indistinguishable from other acute infectious pneumoniae, that do not develope the syndrome of meningococcemia. We report a 17-years-old male, without prior medical history, consulting in the emergency department with a 7-day history of productive cough, right pleural pain, fever and dyspnea. He was admitted to the ICU due to septic shock and respiratory distress. He was managed with vasoactive drugs and prone positioning ventilation for 48 hours. Chest radiography showed a right superior lobe condensation. The electrocardiogram and echocardiogram suggested septic myocarditis. Blood cultures demonstrated the presence of serogroup W135-NM. A lumbar puncture ruled out meningitis, and a 10-day ceftriaxone therapy was completed favorably. <![CDATA[Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Report of two cases treated with Eculizumab]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200254&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a type of thrombotic microangiopathy where organic damage predominates in the kidney. Atypical HUS (aHUS) is a rare disease that affects young adults and causes terminal chronic renal failure ending in dialysis, in most cases. It also recurs after kidney transplantation. aHUS is associated with genetic defects of the alternative complement pathway or its activation by other factors such as drugs, autoimmune diseases, infections, malignant hypertension and ischemia-reperfusion. We report two women aged 17 and 25 years old with catastrophic aHUS. In both cases, complement amplifying factors (drugs and infections) were added and acted on a genetic vulnerability to precipitate complement activation and produce aHUS. Both patients developed terminal renal failure and had to undergo hemodialysis. Fortunately, after a broad etiological study, it was possible to make the diagnosis of aHUS and start treatment with Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that changed the natural history of aHUS. It inhibits complement activity controlling microangiopathy and preventing the development of end-stage renal disease. It also improves the success rate in kidney transplantation. In the case of our patients, both discontinued dialysis after chronic treatment with Eculizumab. <![CDATA[Extracorporeal cardiopulmonay resuscitation: case report on an out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200260&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCA) is highly lethal. Although overall survival is increasing, hospital discharge with good neurological prognosis remains low and highly variable. In some countries, protocols are being implemented, which include techniques in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, allowing a better neurological prognosis for those patients who undergo an OHCA. Following these new techniques and the incorporation of these new protocols already accepted in the guidelines of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation, we report a 54 years old male who presented an OHCA and received advanced cardiopulmonary by a professional team in situ. He was transferred to the emergency department, where optimal advanced resuscitation was continued, until the connection to extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support, with the aim of reestablishing blood flow, a technique known as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR: extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). The patient was discharged from the hospital 25 days later. <![CDATA[Interpreting an atypical clinical case: the timing of events determines the diagnosis and impacts the prognosis of non-Hodgkin lymphomas]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200266&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCA) is highly lethal. Although overall survival is increasing, hospital discharge with good neurological prognosis remains low and highly variable. In some countries, protocols are being implemented, which include techniques in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, allowing a better neurological prognosis for those patients who undergo an OHCA. Following these new techniques and the incorporation of these new protocols already accepted in the guidelines of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation, we report a 54 years old male who presented an OHCA and received advanced cardiopulmonary by a professional team in situ. He was transferred to the emergency department, where optimal advanced resuscitation was continued, until the connection to extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support, with the aim of reestablishing blood flow, a technique known as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR: extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). The patient was discharged from the hospital 25 days later. <![CDATA[Measures of association in a study of risk factors associated with the development of hypertension in Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200267&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCA) is highly lethal. Although overall survival is increasing, hospital discharge with good neurological prognosis remains low and highly variable. In some countries, protocols are being implemented, which include techniques in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, allowing a better neurological prognosis for those patients who undergo an OHCA. Following these new techniques and the incorporation of these new protocols already accepted in the guidelines of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation, we report a 54 years old male who presented an OHCA and received advanced cardiopulmonary by a professional team in situ. He was transferred to the emergency department, where optimal advanced resuscitation was continued, until the connection to extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support, with the aim of reestablishing blood flow, a technique known as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR: extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). The patient was discharged from the hospital 25 days later. <![CDATA[Proposal to use of an abbreviated mini mental examination to detect dementia in older people]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872018000200269&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCA) is highly lethal. Although overall survival is increasing, hospital discharge with good neurological prognosis remains low and highly variable. In some countries, protocols are being implemented, which include techniques in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, allowing a better neurological prognosis for those patients who undergo an OHCA. Following these new techniques and the incorporation of these new protocols already accepted in the guidelines of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation, we report a 54 years old male who presented an OHCA and received advanced cardiopulmonary by a professional team in situ. He was transferred to the emergency department, where optimal advanced resuscitation was continued, until the connection to extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support, with the aim of reestablishing blood flow, a technique known as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR: extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). The patient was discharged from the hospital 25 days later.