Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> vol. 147 num. 5 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Change in the diagnostic threshold of arterial hypertension in Latin America]]> <![CDATA[Changes in the prevalence of hypertension in Peru using the new guideline of the American College of Cardiology]]> Introduction and Objective: There is little evidence in Latin America about the impact of the ACC/AHA 2017 guideline. Taking as reference the JNC 7 guideline, the objective of our study is to estimate changes in the prevalence of arterial hypertension (HBP) according to socio-demographic characteristics and geographic regions, applying the criteria of the new ACC / AHA guide 2017. Methods: Cross-sectional study of the Demographic and Family Health Survey conducted in Peru in 2017. Standardized weighted hypertension prevalence’s were estimated for the WHO population according to both guidelines, and absolute differences with 95% CI. Results: We included 30,682 people aged 18 years and over, with an average age of 42.3 years, 51.1% women. The standardized prevalence of HBP for 2017 according to JNC 7 was 14.4% (95% CI: 13.8-15.1) and according to ACC / AHA 2017 it was 32.9% (95% CI: 32.0-33.7), so the prevalence increase is 18.5 percentage points, being higher in males than females (24.2 vs 12.9 respectively). In people with obesity and / or who consume tobacco, the increases were higher (24.3 and 24.1 percentage points respectively). In the regions of Tacna, Ica and Metropolitan Lima, the increase, in comparison with the JNC 7 guidelines, overcome the national average (22.4, 20.7 and 20.4, percentage points, respectively). Conclusions: Considering the context of a Latin American country and knowing the epidemiology of hypertension in Peru, the potential adoption of the ACC/AHA 2017 guidelines for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of hypertension should be accompanied by an evaluation of the impact at the individual, system and social level. <![CDATA[Impact of HER2 receptor status on axillary nodal burden in patients with non-luminal A invasive ductal breast carcinoma]]> ABSTRACT Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women. Aim: To assess the impact of HER2 status on axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST) both at diagnosis and during the 4-year postoperative period. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively included 375 women with an early clinical stage of non-luminal IDC-NST who between 2007 and 2013 underwent breast surgery at a clinical hospital. They were divided into phenotype-based groups: HR+HER2-, HR+HER2+, HR-HER2+ and HR-HER2-. Only patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) macrometastases underwent ALN dissection. If &gt; 3 ALNs were positive, radiotherapy was delivered. All patients were treated with chemotherapy, HER2+ BC patients received trastuzumab, and hormone receptor (HR)-positive BC patients received hormonal therapy. Results: Larger tumor size, higher grade, HR+, HER2+ status, and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) were predictive for ALN metastases at diagnosis. The poorest overall, disease-free, and distant recurrence-free survival (OS, DFS, DRFS) were found in the HR-HER2- group, while the poorest locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was observed in HR-HER2+ and HR-HER2- groups. HER2 status was not predictor of survival. Conclusions: HER2+ status was predictive for ALN involvement at diagnosis but had no effect on 4-year LRFS in these patients.<hr/> Antecedentes: El cáncer de mama es el tumor maligno más común en mujeres. Objetivo: Conocer el impacto del estado HER2 sobre el compromiso ganglionar axilar al momento del diagnóstico y durante los primeros cuatro años después de la cirugía en mujeres con carcinoma ductal invasivo de tipo no especial (IDC-NST). Pacientes y Métodos: Incluimos retrospectivamente a 375 mujeres en etapas clínicas iniciales de IDC-NST que fueron operadas en un hospital clínico. Ellas se dividieron en grupos de acuerdo al fenotipo: HR+HER2-, HR+HER2+, HR-HER2+y HR-HER2-. La disección de ganglios axilares se efectuó solo en las pacientes con macrometástasis en el ganglio centinela. Si había más de tres ganglios comprometidos, se efectuó radioterapia. Todas las pacientes se trataron con quimioterapia. Las pacientes HER2+ recibieron trastuzumab y las pacientes HR+ recibieron hormonoterapia. Resultados: Tumores más grandes, de mayor grado de malignidad, HR+, HER2+ y la invasión linfovascular fueron predictivos de la presencia de metástasis axilares al momento del diagnóstico. La sobrevida más baja se observó en pacientes HR-HER2+. La sobrevida libre de recurrencia locorregional más baja, se observó en pacientes HR-HER2+ y HR-HER2-. HER2 no fue predictor de sobrevida. Conclusiones: En estas mujeres, HER2+fue predictor de la presencia de compromiso ganglionar axilar al momento del diagnóstico pero no de la sobrevida a cuatro años. <![CDATA[Radionuclide synoviorthesis in hemophilia: experience in 107 patients]]> Background: In patients with hemophilia, radionuclide synoviorthesis, or the intra-articular injection of a radionuclide to decrease the synovial hypertrophy tissue, aims to decrease or avoid hemarthrosis. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of radionuclide synoviorthesis in hemophilia. Material and Methods: Observational retrospective study of the evolution of 107 male patients aged 3 to 54 years who were subjected to radionuclide synoviorthesis between 2007 and 2015. Results: Of 164 treated joints, in 65% treatment was successful, (defined as zero to two hemarthroses and absence of synovitis during the follow up period), in 17% it was partially successful (defined as two or less hemarthroses, but persistence of the synovitis) and failed in 18% of the procedures. No important complications were recorded. Conclusions: Radionuclide synoviorthesis has an overall 82% success rate, is minimally invasive, can be used at any age and is inexpensive We recommend its implementation in Chilean hemophilia treatment centers. <![CDATA[Gestational diabetes adherence to treatment and metabolic control]]> Background: Adherence to treatment is a large obstacle in the management of chronic diseases. Aim: To evaluate therapeutic adherence and its relationship with glycemic control in patients with gestational diabetes using two types of treatment. Material and Methods: The Measurement of Treatment Adherence (MAT) questionnaire was applied to 93 patients with gestational diabetes. Fifty-two used metformin 41 were treated with insulin. Obstetric and socio-demographic data were collected. Results: A higher therapeutic adherence was associated with a better glycemic control. Women with a higher education level had a better adherence to treatment. The adherence and metabolic control were higher in women treated with metformin. Conclusions: Therapeutic adherence is an important factor for adequate glycemic control. <![CDATA[Depressive symptomatology and psychological well-being among Chilean university students]]> Background: Quality of life and psychological well-being are readily hampered by depression. The changes that students face during college life impact their psychological health and well-being, including the emergence of mental health problems like depression Aim: To determine the relationship between depressive symptoms, sociodemographic parameters and psychological well-being in undergraduate university students. Material and Methods: Five hundred eighty university students of both sexes, from the Metropolitan and IX Regions of Chile answered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-IA) and the Ryff's psychological well-being scale. Results: Twenty eight percent of respondents had clinically significant depressive symptoms, and these were more frequent in women. There was an inverse and statistically significant relationship between psychological well-being and depressive symptoms. This fact was especially marked in dimensions of autonomy, positive relationships with others and purpose in life. Conclusions: There is a high frequency of depressive symptoms among these students. We discuss whether psychological well-being and depressive symptomatology represent two extremes within a continuum or they are two independent dimensions that can account for differential causal mechanisms linked to mental health and illness. <![CDATA[Development of a tool to conduct family studies in primary health care]]> Background: The Family and Community Health Model (MAIS) establishes the continuity of care as an essential principle. The Family Study, as a clinical strategy, allows to have sufficient and timely information and knowledge about users of health care services, facilitates their accompaniment and is a source of information to improve the quality of care and the management of health centers. Aim: To develop a tool to conduct family studies, devised by experts in Primary Health Care. Material and Methods: Using a qualitative method, an electronic Delphi was conducted on 24 experts on primary health care. Afterwards, the content validation was carried out with the participation of judges. Results: The resulting tool considers two levels of family assessment. It allows to distinguish those families that would benefit from interventions of greater complexity than those derived from the usual care of health centers. Conclusions: The tool to perform family studies responds to the informational and continuity component of Continuity of Patient Care principle. It may be a proposal for the continuous improvement of Chilean primary care. <![CDATA[Perceptions and attitudes of Chilean primary care physicians toward clinical practice guidelines]]> Background: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) promote better quality and equity in health care and potentially they could improve patients’ outcomes. However, their implementation is hindered by a number of factors including some related to health care professionals. Aim: To assess the perceptions and attitudes of primary care physicians regarding CPGs developed by the Chilean Ministry of Health in the context of the Health Sector Reform. Material and Methods: An adaptation of the survey “Knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards Clinical Practice Guidelines” was sent to 1,264 primary care physicians in Chile and answered completely by 354. The analysis assessed the attitudes towards CPG, their use in primary care and their relationship with socio demographic features of respondents. Results: Eighty two percent of respondents reviewed the flowcharts of the guidelines, 85% consulted their online version. The classification of evidence levels and the strength of recommendations generated a high level of confidence with the guidelines in 70 and 64% of respondents. Eighty five percent considered that CPG could help to standardize clinical practice. The most relevant barrier hindering CPG use was the lack of a brief, simple and easy to access format in 63% of respondents. The three dimensions of the theory of planned behavior (attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) were associated with a greater frequency of guideline use. A higher age and not being Chilean were associated with a lower frequency of use. Conclusions: The identified factors associated with CPG use should be considered in future guideline design. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index in Chilean patients with rheumatoid arthritis]]> ABSTRACT Background: The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQDI) is one of the main instruments used to evaluate functional status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Aim: To assess the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of HAQDI in Chilean RA population. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was applied to 98 patients with RA aged 44 ± 12 years (90% women). Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha statistic for internal consistency. Construct validity was assessed by comparing total HAQDI value and eight HAQDI domains with multiple parameters of disease activity. Discriminant validity was evaluated by classifying disease activity in low, medium or high and evaluating HAQDI value in each category. Floor and ceiling effects were evaluated. To assess construct validity, principal components analysis was performed using varimax rotation. Results: There were no issues in the comprehensibility of the questionnaire. Mean HAQDI score was 1.57 ± 0.66. Standardized Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.883. Correlations between Chilean HAQ domains had a p value less than 0.001, and values ranged from 0.317 to 0.597. Activity parameters, DAS 28 and CDAI were significantly correlated with HAQDI domains. Mean HAQDI values were 0.98 ± 0.59,1.45 ± 0.57, and 1.90 ± 0.56 for mild, moderate and severe disease activity. A principal components analysis identified two factors that accounted for 70.0% of total variability. Conclusions: This study shows that the Spanish version of HAQDI is reliable and valid and can be used in Chilean patients with RA.<hr/> Antecedentes: El Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index es uno de los principales instrumentos utilizados para evaluar incapacidad funcional en la artritis reumatoide (AR). Objetivo: Evaluar la fiabilidad y validez del HAQDI en la población chilena con AR. Material y Método: El cuestionario fue respondido por 98 pacientes con AR de 44 ± 12 años de edad (90% mujeres). La confiabilidad se evaluó usando la estadística alfa de Cronbach. La validez de constructo se evaluó comparando el valor total de HAQDI y de cada uno de sus dominios con múltiples parámetros de actividad de la enfermedad. La validez discriminante se evaluó clasificando la actividad de la enfermedad en bajo, medio o alto y evaluando el valor de HAQDI en cada categoría. Se determinaron efectos de piso y techo. Se realizó un análisis factorial utilizando rotación de varimax. Resultados: El valor promedio del HAQDI fue de 1,57 ± 0.66. El alfa estandarizado de Cronbach fue 0,883. Las correlaciones entre dominios de HAQDI tuvieron un valor p &lt; 0,001 con valores entre 0,317 y 0,597. Los parámetros de actividad se correlacionaron significativamente con los dominios HAQDI. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el puntaje de HAQDI en relación con los grados de actividad de la enfermedad. Los valores medios de HAQDI fueron 0,98 ± 0,59, 1,45 ± 0,57 y 1,90 ± 0,56 para actividad leve, moderada y severa, respectivamente. El análisis de componentes principales identificó dos factores que representaron el 70.0% de la variabilidad total. Conclusiones: La versión española de HAQDI es confiable y válida en pacientes chilenos con AR. <![CDATA[Mindfulness and the clinical relationship: steps to a resilience in medicine]]> Medical resilience is a dynamic capacity, which has the potential to improve the well-being of physicians and to enhance the quality of the clinical relationship. Strategies to promote resilience are important to achieve a sustainable medical practice and improve patient care. Mindfulness training has demonstrated to be an effective tool to promote resilience in physicians. This paper contextualizes the place of mindfulness in medical practice and describes the ways through which it can contribute to resilience in medicine. The concept of mindfulness, its relationship with health practice is reviewed and the benefits of the practice of mindfulness in the clinical relationship are described. We suggest that the benefits achieved through a mindfulness-based medical practice are mediated by two axes. One is the nonspecific and specific effect of mindfulness-based practices and the other is the integration of explicit and implicit knowledge of clinical practice. We conclude that medical practice that integrates mindfulness can contribute to the challenge of achieving greater levels of individual, staff and institutional resilience. There is a need to have continuing mindfulness training programs for health professionals and to integrate this concept in the curriculum of health care professionals. <![CDATA[Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function]]> Creatine supplements may transitorily rise serum creatinine levels and mimic a kidney disease. If its use is associated with a high protein diet, the resulting increase in blood urea nitrogen will increase the confusion. Since clinical laboratories usually inform the estimated glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine, its elevation may lead to over diagnose a chronic renal failure, with the inherent personal and public health consequences. Creatine supplements are safe and do not cause renal disease. Reports of kidney damage associated with its use are scanty. However, creatine supplements should not be used in people with chronic renal disease or using potentially nephrotoxic medications. <![CDATA[Health care of people with visual or hearing disabilities]]> Visual or hearing disabilities account for 20% of people reporting some sort of disability. We performed a literature review about the interaction that people with visual or hearing disabilities have with the health care system. We found that these people report a lower quality of life and have a higher frequency of physical and psychological ailments. They also have difficulties to obtain an adequate health care and report a paucity of trained professionals to take care of them. <![CDATA[A good use of Spanish in medical manuscripts]]> Wording problems are common in medical literature. The essence of any scientific work is to be understandable. A correct writing technique allows to communicate with the reader in an easy and accessible way, without disregarding proper grammatical and orthographic rules. This work is an updated guideline for the proper writing of biomedical manuscripts in Spanish. It avoids cumbersome grammatical explanations, aiming to become a simple material available for quick consultation. <![CDATA[Calculating the risk of acquiring measles of chileans traveling abroad]]> Background: There is always a risk of importing infectious diseases when travelling abroad. Aim: To estimate the effective risk of a Chilean of acquiring measles during a travel by countries where measles outbreaks have been reported, considering the present level of immunity in the country. Material and Methods: Previously established mathematical models using differential equations were applied to calculate the risk of acquiring measles of people traveling to endemic areas. Results: The probability of acquiring measles of a voyager is 8.11 x 10-8. Conclusions: These estimations help decision making about preventive measures for travelers to endemic measles areas. <![CDATA[Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Report of one case]]> Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is an uncommon autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of 27-sterol-hydroxylase that results in an accumulation of cholestanol in the central nervous system, eyes, tendons, and blood vessels. We report a 22-year-old woman with a history of cataract surgery at the age of 14, cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis at the age of 17 and chronic diarrhea, who presented with a six months period of gait instability and frequent falls. Physical examination revealed a bilateral pyramidal and cerebellar syndrome, with no visible tendon xanthomas. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed an increase of the signal intensity on the T2-weighted images in periventricular cerebral white matter, dentate nuclei and spinal cord. With a high suspicion of CXT, a genetic study was conducted identifying a pathogenic variant in the CYP27A1 gene. There is considerable variation in clinical characteristics and age of onset of this disease, including absence of tendon xanthomas, delaying the diagnosis. Early recognition and chronic chenodeoxycholic acid therapy can improve outcome and quality of life. <![CDATA[Reversed halo sign as an unusual manifestation of cryptogenic organized pneumonia. Report of one case]]> We report a 64 years old female admitted with fever, cough, dyspnea and lung opacities in the chest X ray. A chest tomography scan (CTS) showed multiple-bilateral ring-shaped opacities and the reversed halo sign (RHS). The patient did not improve with antimicrobial therapy (AT). Infection and rheumatologic causes were excluded, therefore Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) was suspected with compatible percutaneous biopsy. Systemic steroids were started with a good clinical response. The patient was discharged four weeks after admission in good general conditions and practically no lungs opacities. <![CDATA[Autoimmune pancreatitis associated with diabetes mellitus. Report of one case]]> Autoimmune pancreatitis is uncommon, responds to steroids and is usually associated with diabetes mellitus. We report a 73 year-old male who, two months after a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, presented with obstructive jaundice and weight loss. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of an autoimmune pancreatitis and serum IgG4 was 339 mg/dl (normal range 3-201). The patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day with a good clinical and laboratory response. During outpatient care, the dose of prednisone was tapered. <![CDATA[Chilean medicinal plants: From ethnobotanical knowledge to therapeutic effects and adverse reactions]]> Autoimmune pancreatitis is uncommon, responds to steroids and is usually associated with diabetes mellitus. We report a 73 year-old male who, two months after a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, presented with obstructive jaundice and weight loss. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of an autoimmune pancreatitis and serum IgG4 was 339 mg/dl (normal range 3-201). The patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day with a good clinical and laboratory response. During outpatient care, the dose of prednisone was tapered. <![CDATA[mTOR inhibitors, autophagia and Cancer: looking forward to a universal financial coverage]]> Autoimmune pancreatitis is uncommon, responds to steroids and is usually associated with diabetes mellitus. We report a 73 year-old male who, two months after a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, presented with obstructive jaundice and weight loss. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of an autoimmune pancreatitis and serum IgG4 was 339 mg/dl (normal range 3-201). The patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day with a good clinical and laboratory response. During outpatient care, the dose of prednisone was tapered.