Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista médica de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0034-988720200010&lang=es vol. 148 num. 10 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[Manifestaciones clínicas y predictores de gravedad en pacientes adultos con infección respiratoria aguda por coronavirus SARS-CoV-2]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001387&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan city and spread rapidly throughout China and the world. Aim: To describe the clinical features, risk factors, and predictors of hospitalization in adult patients treated for acute respiratory infections associated with coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Material and Methods: Descriptive prospective study of ambulatory and hospitalized adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 attended between April 1 and May 31, 2020. Clinical features, chronic comorbidities and demographic data were recorded, and patients were followed for two months as outpatients. Results: We assessed 1,022 adults aged 41 ± 14 years (50% men) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. One-third had comorbidities, specially hypertension (12.5%), hypothyroidism (6.6%), asthma (5.4%) and diabetes (4.5%). Hospital admission was required in 11%, 5.2% were admitted to critical care unit and 0.9% were connected to mechanical ventilation. Common symptoms included fatigue (55.4%), fever (52.5%), headache (68.6%), anosmia/dysgeusia (53.2%), dry cough (53.4%), dyspnea (27.4%) and diarrhea (35.5%). One third of patients reported persistence of symptoms at one-month follow-up, specially fatigue, cough and dyspnea. In the multivariate analysis, age, fever, cough, dyspnea and immunosuppression were associated with hospitalization and ICU admission. Age, male sex and moderate-severe dyspnea were associated with requirement of mechanical ventilation. The main predictors of prolonged clinical course were female sex, presence of comorbidities, history of dyspnea, cough, myalgia and abdominal pain. Conclusions: Clinical features of COVID-19 were highly unspecific. Prediction models for severity, will help medical decision making at the primary care setting. <![CDATA[Prevalencia de colecistolitiasis y cáncer de vesícula en una población rural aymara de Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001398&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The prevalence of cholelithiasis and gallbladder cancer may be different across ethnic groups. Aim: To study the prevalence of cholelithiasis and gallbladder cancer among Aymara individuals. Material and Methods: An abdominal ultrasound was carried out in a sample of 182 Aymara women aged 46 ± 16 years and 76 Aymara men aged 55 ± 16 years. In addition, the histopathological reports of both patients with a history of previous cholecystectomy and those operated after the study were reviewed. Results: Ultrasound was normal in 150 participants (58%), 76 had cholelithiasis (30%) and 32 (12%) had a history of cholecystectomy. Pathological reports of the excised gallbladder were available for 106 cases and showed a chronic cholecystitis in 98% of cases. Gallbladder cancer was not reported. Conclusions: There is a 42% prevalence of cholelithiasis and no gallbladder cancer in this sample of Aymara population. <![CDATA[Valor de la resonancia magnética cardíaca para el diagnóstico diferencial en pacientes con sospecha de infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST y arterias coronarias normales]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001406&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Patients hospitalized with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who have normal coronary arteries (CAs) on invasive coronary angiography (ICA) may have an AMI or another acute cardiac disease that mimics it. Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) for diagnosing conditions resembling AMI with normal CAs. Material and Methods: We studied 424 consecutive patients admitted with suspected STEMI who underwent ICA. Those with normal CAs underwent CMRI involving cine-CMRI sequences to evaluate segmental wall motion, T2-weighted short-tau inversion-recovery imaging to detect oedema and delayed contrast enhancement (DCE) after gadolinium administration to identify necrosis/fibrosis. Patients with previous myocardial infarction were excluded. Results: Twenty-six patients (6.1%) had normal CAs. Definitive diagnosis after CMRI was acute myocarditis in 11 patients (42.3%) whose DCE was localized in the subepicardium or intramyocardially but not in the endocardium, AMI in nine patients (34.6%) who had subendocardial or transmural DCE, and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) in six patients (23.1%), whose CMRI showed regional contractility abnormalities of the left ventricle and myocardial oedema but not DCE. Conclusions: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging allows a precise diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. <![CDATA[Prevalencia de fragilidad en personas mayores de Chile: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2016-2017]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001418&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The assessment of frailty among older people could help to reduce its social and health burden. Aim: To determine and characterize the prevalence of frailty in Chilean older adults. Material and Methods: We studied 233 participants, aged &gt; 60 years, participating in the Chilean National Health Survey 2016-2017. Frailty was assessed using modified Fried criteria. Thus, people classified as frail should meet at least 3 out of the 5 criteria (low strength, low physical activity, low body mass index, slow walking pace and tiredness). Results: The prevalence of frailty was 10.9% (7.7% for men and 14.1% for women). The prevalence of pre-frailty was 59.0% whereas 30.1% of participants were classified as robust. At the age of 80 years 58 and 62% of men and women were frail, respectively. These figures increased to 90 and 87% at the age of 90 years. The prevalence of pre-frailty increased from 43 to 92.1% among men and from 76% and 78% among women from the ages of 60 to 90 years, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of frailty increased markedly with age. It is important to implement prevention strategies to allow an early identification of high-risk individuals. <![CDATA[Retención de competencias procedimentales en estudiantes de medicina posterior a un entrenamiento mediante un modelo de simulación (EPROBA)]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001427&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Boot camps are used to acquire skills in simple surgical procedures, such as sutures, in a short period of time. Aim: To assess the retention of the procedural skills of medical students who participated in a simulation-based suture workshop. Material and Methods: One hundred five medical students were trained using the EPROBA methodology (Entrenamiento PROcedimental BAsico), with prior informed consent. The instrument “Objective Structured Assessment Of Technical Skills” (OSATS) was applied prior to and after the workshop, and during retention module, which was carried out between three and four months after the suture workshop. Participants were classified according to the level of previous knowledge in sutures. Results: The students showed significant improvement in their scores after the workshop (improvement from 12.9 to 28.5 points, p &lt; 0.001). No significant differences were found between scores after the workshop and those obtained in the retention module (28.5 to 28.1 points, respectively, p = 0.235). No difference in scores were observed when retention was evaluated according to previous knowledge levels. Conclusions: Simulation programs are useful for the acquisition of procedural skills which are retained over time. <![CDATA[Validación y generación de ecuaciones para estimar masa grasa corporal en adultos chilenos, formuladas a partir de bioimpedanciometría, en un amplio rango de edad e índice de masa corporal]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001435&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Equations for the evaluation of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) with Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were formulated in Caucasian populations. International recommendations suggest that population-specific equations should be formulated. Aim: To validate an equation previously formulated in Chileans adults and compare it to a new equation generated on an independent sample. Material and Methods: In 108 adult volunteers aged 38.1±14.1 years (44% males), with a body mass index (BMI) of 25.1± 4.1 kg/m2, body composition was measured by BIA (Bodystat) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA: Lunar Prodigy). Body composition estimated using Schifferli equation and BIA were compared with DEXA, by the Bland-Altman method and simple linear regression. Results: FFM and FM measured by DXA were 45.2 ± 9.8 kg and 29.6 ± 11.7 % respectively. Resistance was 467.7 ± 76.3 ohm. Schifferli equation and BIA significantly overestimated FFM by 7.3 and 7.4 kg, respectively. The error was higher for high levels of FFM (slope β &lt; 1, p &lt; 0.01). Both equations underestimated FM measured by DXA (averages of 7.5 and 7.8%, respectively, p &lt; 0.01), without a differential bias for Schifferli equation, but with a bias in low levels of FM measured with BIA (slope β &lt; 1, p &lt; 0.01). Estimation biases could be eliminated using the regression coefficients. Conclusions: Both equations behave similarly and have biases, although less with Schifferli. Statistically correcting for biases, the new adjusted equations provide clinically valid estimates of FFM and FM. Equations should not only be population-specific, but also device-specific. <![CDATA[Dotaciones, skillmix e indicadores laborales de enfermería en Hospitales Públicos chilenos]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001444&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: International evidence shows that there are organizational factors and nurse job outcomes that may negatively affect healthcare quality. Aim: To measure and analyze associations between nurse organizational factors, such as staffing ratios and skill mix, and job outcomes in public hospitals in Chile. Material and Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study of 1,855 registered nurses working in medical-surgical units in 37 public hospitals was conducted. Data collection followed the RN4CAST research protocol. Inferential analyses used logistic regression models. Results: The survey was answered by 1,395 registered nurses in 34 hospitals. The average staffing ratio was 14 patients-per-nurse, and the average skill mix was 31% registered nurses. Of all nurses, 35% reported burnout, 22% were dissatisfied, and 33% intended to leave. Being burned out increased by 9 and 6% the odds of being dissatisfied and the intent to leave, respectively (Odds ratio (OR) 1.09, p &lt; 0.01 and 1.06, p &lt; 0.01). Being dissatisfied increased by five times the odds of intent to leave (OR 5.19, p &lt; 0.01). Conclusions: Staffing levels, burnout, and intent to leave warrant healthcare and governmental authorities’ attention. All these factors may be threatening healthcare quality and safety. <![CDATA[Escala de autoeficacia general: reevaluación de su evidencia de confiabilidad y validez en Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001452&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: Self-efficacy is a psychological variable closely related to healthy behaviors. One of the most widely used instruments to measure this variable is the general self-efficacy scale (GSES). In Chile, the only psychometric study of this scale has important analytical limitations. Aim: To assess reliability and validity of GSES in a large Chilean sample. Material and Methods: The GSES and a self-esteem scale were applied to 2995 participants aged 11 to 76 years (60% women). Results: The scale showed optimal levels of homogeneity and internal consistency. The exploratory factor analysis and the parallel analysis suggested a one-dimensional internal structure. However, this model showed a mediocre fit in the confirmatory factor analysis due to the residual correlation between a pair of items with high semantic similarity. A one-dimensional model specifying this residual correlation attained an acceptable fit in a new confirmatory factor analysis. The new model reached strict invariance according to sex, and partial strict invariance according to age. The latent factor of the GSES showed a positive association with the latent factor of a self-esteem scale. Conclusions: The GSES is an adequate scale to measure general self-efficacy in the Chilean population and allows unbiased comparisons based on sex or age. <![CDATA[¿Aprender Medicina a distancia?: percepción de estudiantes confinados por la pandemia COVID-19]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001461&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Background: The suspension of face-to-face teaching activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic forced an abrupt transition to distance learning in Spanish universities. Aim: To know how medical students value distance learning in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: Undergraduate medical students from first to fifth year in Barcelona (Spain) were invited to answer an anonymous online survey about their perceptions and level of satisfaction with virtual learning. Results: Of 483 students invited to the survey, 244 (50.5%) answered it. Respondents from the first and second year rated distance learning as acceptable (mean 3.1) on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. Those from third to fifth years rated distance learning as unsatisfactory (mean 2.7). The best evaluated aspects were synchronous lectures (3.9) and lectures based on cases (3.4). The worst evaluated issues were motivation (2.3), interaction with faculty (2.1), and additional workload (0.7). Conclusions: The perceptions expressed by these students reinforce the importance of facilitating communication, motivation and participation of students in distance learning in Medicine. <![CDATA[Infección por SARS-CoV-2. Una nueva enfermedad endotelial trombo-inflamatoria]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001467&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Coronavirus disease 19 is characterized by an intense inflammatory response and a high incidence of thrombotic events. Autopsy studies show severe endothelial injury associated with thrombosis of the alveolar capillaries of the lungs and other organs. In the pathophysiology of this disease endothelial injury and dysfunction, inflammation and thrombosis are key factors for the development of severe phenotypes. Therefore, we should consider this entity as a systemic endothelial disease in which an obstructive microvascular syndrome secondary to an intense thrombo-inflammatory response leads to acute respiratory insufficiency and multiorgan failure. Heparin is an excellent drug to treat Covid-19 patients due to its anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and endothelial effects. Clinical guidelines agree that the use of heparin thromboprophylaxis is a component of Covid-19 coagulopathy treatment, even though the dose and duration of treatments are not well defined. <![CDATA[Asociación entre enfermedad de von Willebrand y angiodisplasia: ¿casualidad o causalidad?]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001475&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Von Willebrand factor (vWf) is a fundamental multimeric plasma glycoprotein in the coagulation process. Its function is to mediate platelet adhesion and to stabilize circulating factor VIII. A functional or quantitative alteration of vWf gives rise to von Willebrand disease (vWD). The association between vWD and angiodysplasia was described in 1967, but it was only until 2011 that Starke et al demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo role of vWf in angiogenesis. Congenital or acquired vWf deficiency, especially of high molecular weight multimeters, not only favors bleeding, but also contributes to increased angiogenesis in these patients. The treatment should be focused both on the control of the acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding, with vWf replacement therapy and local endoscopic treatment, as well as on the prevention of the progression of angiodysplasia and future bleeding. There are different published therapeutic approaches using vWf replacement that are not effective in all patients. Recently, angiogenesis inhibitor medications have been used. <![CDATA[Ética de la Salud Pública: propuesta sobre los principios fundamentales que guían las responsabilidades éticas del estado en el contexto pandemia COVID-19]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001481&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that the number of cases of COVID-19 multiplied by 13 outside China, with a threefold increase in the number of affected countries. The WHO expressed its concern about the alarming levels of spread and severity of the outbreak, declaring the pandemic. This pandemic context is generating a social pact that seeks to ensure collective protection over individual freedoms. To meet the challenge, Governments must make decisions based on the principles that govern the State- These should consider the differences and particularities of those affected, without diverting attention from collective social protection. The following is a proposal on the ethical principles that should guide a State that makes decisions in public health emergencies. <![CDATA[Cáncer en Chile y en el mundo: una mirada actual y su futuro escenario epidemiológico]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001489&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Cancer is a chronic non-communicable disease associated with a high mortality burden. The prevalence of cancer is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, this scenario will be worse in low and middle-income countries such as Chile, where 70% of cancer deaths occur. The aim of this review was to assess the epidemiological scenario of cancer and its projection for the Chilean population. In Chile, 53,365 new cases of cancer were diagnosed in 2018, led by prostate, colorectal, breast, stomach, lung and gallbladder cancer. From 1986 to 2016, cancer increased by 109%. When we reviewed mortality by sex, stomach and prostate cancer were responsible for more than 30% of cancer deaths among men. However, for women the first three places were occupied by breast, colorectal and lung cancer, as in the rest of the world. Considering that 40% of cancers are related to unhealthy lifestyles, working on the prevention of modifiable risk factors represents an opportunity for the creation of public health policies that allow changes at the environmental and individual level. <![CDATA[Análisis del subsidio a la demanda para atención de salud y su relación con los <em>holdings</em> de empresas en Chile. Modalidad libre elección en prestadores privados (2000-2018)]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001496&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This work analyzes the demand subsidies to access health care and their relationship with large private corporations in Chile, through the transfer of public funds through the modality of freedom of choice (MLE) from 2000 to 2018. Therefore, we analyzed the expansion of the health market and the strengthening of health care corporations, identifying the distribution of resources according to type of health provider. We reviewed the annual reports of private health care corporations. We also analyzed billing data according to the provider through the freedom of choice modality from the year 2000 to the year 2018. We identified an increasing transformation of medical work from free exercise to become dependent on private health corporations, and an increase in public dependence on private providers to meet health demands. There is a growing capture of public funds by these holdings, using the strategy of increasing provider property concentration and a trans nationalization of the health market in Chile. <![CDATA[Actualización en el uso del PET/CT en sarcoma de Ewing, a propósito de un caso]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001504&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The use of positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for adult cancer patients is widespread, however, its use in pediatric patients is limited by fear of radiation, monetary cost and lack of awareness of its greater sensitivity in the evaluation of some types of tumors. Ewing's sarcoma is one of the primary pediatric malignancies in which PET/CT with 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has demonstrated greater sensitivity in the evaluation of bone metastases compared to scintigraphy, as well as in the evaluation of treatment response. We report a 13 years old female consulting for retrosternal pain. A chest CT scan showed an infiltrating mass originating in the sternum. A biopsy confirmed the presence of an Ewing sarcoma. The tumor was staged with PET/CT which showed multiple bone lesions not visible in previous studies. <![CDATA[Importancia del electrocardiograma en el diagnóstico del infarto agudo al miocardio por obstrucción del tronco común de arteria coronaria izquierda]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001508&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Acute myocardial infarction caused by thrombosis of left main coronary artery generate acute cardiac failure, cardiogenic shock and death. Along with the clinical history, the electrocardiogram (EKG) is the most useful tool for its recognition and timely management. Classically the EKG shows ST elevation &gt; 1 mm in aVR or V1 with ST depression in the other leads. Urgent coronary angiography with percutaneous coronary angioplasty using drug eluting stents is recommended when the diagnosis is made. We report two cases to exemplify the clinical presentation, EKG and angiographic findings and therapeutic approach. <![CDATA[Isquemia de extremidades inferiores secundaria a arteritis de la arteria temporal]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001513&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission. <![CDATA[Un instrumento de medición y diferentes grupos: ¿cuándo podemos hacer comparaciones válidas?]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001518&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission. <![CDATA[Argumentos éticos a favor y en contra de la participación del profesional médico en la muerte asistida]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001520&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission. <![CDATA[La relevancia de los Servicios de Emergencias en la donación: el ejemplo de España]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001521&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission. <![CDATA[Dr. Vicente Izquierdo Sanfuentes: pionero de la medicina, la biología experimental y la entomología chilenas]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001523&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission. <![CDATA[Aspectos complementarios sobre “artículos de revisión”]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001525&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission. <![CDATA[Congresos virtuales: una nueva realidad, producto de la pandemia COVID-19]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001527&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission. <![CDATA[COVID-19 y Síndrome de Fragilidad: importancia de su diagnóstico en Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001528&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission. <![CDATA[Mínima intervención en Odontología: ¿una moda emergente en tiempos de pandemia?]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001530&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission. <![CDATA[Rehabilitación post COVID-19: un desafío vigente]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001531&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission. <![CDATA[Relaciones interpersonales y desenlaces en salud durante la pandemia por COVID-19]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872020001001533&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Giant cell arteritis is more common in women older than 60 years, is associated with systemic inflammation symptoms and mainly involves the aortic arch and cranial arteries, specially the temporal artery. Symptomatic lower extremity arterial stenosis or occlusion is uncommon and can lead to limb loss. We report a 73-year-old woman presenting with a one-month history of lower extremity intermittent claudication of sudden onset. She also complained of fever, malaise, headache and weight loss. A non-invasive vascular study showed moderate femoral popliteal occlusive disease, with and abnormal ankle-brachial index (0.68 and 0.83 on right and left sides, respectively). An angio-computed tomography showed thickening of the aortic wall and severe stenosis in both superficial femoral arteries. Steroidal treatment was started, and a temporal artery biopsy was performed confirming giant cell arteritis. Six weeks after steroid therapy the patient had a complete remission of symptoms. A serologic exacerbation was subsequently treated with a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor Tocilizumab, obtaining long time remission.