Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Parasitología al día]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0716-072020000003&lang=pt vol. 24 num. 3-4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[MANTAINED IN CULTURE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A MICROSPORIDIAN (<I>Encephalitozoon hellem</I>) ISOLATED FROM AIDS PATIENT WITH NEUMONIA]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt We report the identification to the species level of a microsporidian isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage of an AIDS patient in Spain. Characterization of the isolate was performed by: 1) morphological methods using optical and electron microscopy; 2) immunological methods such as immunofluorescence assay (IIF) and immunoblot (WB) using specific antiserum and, 3) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific primers designed on the coding region of the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene. Ultrastructural features allowed the identification of the isolate as belonging to the Encephalitozoon genus. Species identification as Encephalitozoon hellem was achieved by IIF and WB using polyc lonal rabbit serum anti-E. hellem (CDC:0291:V213), as well as, by PCR using EHELF/EHELR species-specific primers. The isolate has been named EHVS-96 and has been maintained for 3 years in Vero-E6 monolayers. This is the first isolation in culture and characterization of E. hellem in Spain.<hr/>Comunicamos la identificación, a nivel de especie, de un microsporidio aislado en cultivo celular a partir de un lavado broncoalveolar de un paciente con Sida y neumonía. La caracterización del aislado se realizó mediante: 1) estudio morfológico utilizando métodos de microscopía óptica y electrónica, 2) estudio inmunológico con antisueros específicos, inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) e inmunoblot (WB) y 3) estudio molecular tras reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) con iniciadores especie-específicos diseñados a partir de la región que codifica la subunidad menor del ARN ribosomal. Las características ultraestructurales del aislado permitieron su identificación en el género Encephalitozoon. La identificación específica del microsporidio como Encephalito-zoon hellem se realizó mediante IFI y WB, empleando suero policlonal de conejo anti-E. hellem (CDC:0291:V213), y mediante la amplificación por PCR del fragmento diagnóstico utilizando el par de iniciadores EHELF/EHELR específicos para esta especie. El aislado ha sido denominado EHVS-96 y se mantiene en cultivo continuo en células Vero-E6. Este es el primer aislamiento en cultivo y caracterización de E. hellem en España. <![CDATA[BLOOD AND CULTURE TRYPOMASTIGOTES FORMS OF <I>Trypanosomacruzi</I> Y.: II PATHOLOGY OF CHAGAS' DISEASE IN BALB/C MICE]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The histopathology and humoral response of BALB/c mice survivors after the infection with blood and culture forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated. The animals studied included those that survived the acute form of infection denominated Susceptible and those in which the parasite presence was detected only after an immune-suppresive treatment with cyclophosphamide called Less Susceptible. The autopsy of the animals revealed in all of them different grades of dilation of the colon while the miocardium was apparently of normal size. The histopathological studies of the gastrointestinal tract revealed miositis, miolisis and destruction of the mioenteric plexus. These alterations increased in intensity along the tract being slight to moderate from the cardias to the small intestine and intense in colon and rectum. Parasites were detected in only three cases. Pancreas alterations conducted to the loss of the gland architecture and consisted of intense oedema and inter-spaced inflamatore infiltrated between acinous cell and necrosis of the Langerhans' Islets. The histologic changes at the myocardium were slight. Small inflamatory foci of mononuclear cells were observed in the great vessels of the atriums and right ventricle. Parasites were not seen. Hight titles of specific IgG were detected in all animals. This histopathological study did not reveal differences relate to the origin of the trypomastigotes form<hr/>Se evaluó la histopatología y respuesta humoral de ratones BALB/c que sobrevivieron después de la infección con formas tripomastigotes de sangre y de cultivo celular de T. cruzi Y. Los animales estudiados fueron los ratones que superaron la fase aguda de la infección, denominados Susceptibles13 y los ratones en los cuales la presencia del parásito se detectó después de haber sido inmunosuprimidos, denominados Poco Susceptibles.13 La autopsia en todos los animales reveló distensión del intestino grueso, mientras el tamaño del miocardio fue aparentemente normal. Los estudios histopatológicos del tracto gastrointestinal mostraron miositis, miolisis y destrucción del plexo mioentérico. Estas alteraciones incrementaron en intensidad a lo largo del tracto gastrointestinal, apareciendo ligeras y moderadas entre la región del cardias y el intestino delgado e intensas en el colon y recto. Solo en tres casos fueron detectados parásitos. Las alteraciones del páncreas condujeron a la pérdida de la arquitectura de la glándula, presentando intenso edema e infiltrado inflamatorio entre los acinos glandulares y necrosis de los Islotes de Langerhans. Los cambios histológicos del miocardio fueron moderados. Observándose pequeños focos inflamatorios de células mononucleares cerca de los grandes vasos del atrium y el ventrículo derecho. No se observaron parásitos. En todos los animales se detectaron títulos altos de IgG específica. El estudio no reveló diferencias relacionadas con la procedencia de los tripomastigotes. <![CDATA[<I>Anti-tick repellent effect of Andropogon gayanus grass on plots of different ages experimentally infested with Boophilus microplus larvae</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The anti-tick repellent effect of Andropogon gayanus grass was evaluated on plots of different ages experimentally infested with Boophilus microplus larvae, using Cenchurus ciliaris as control grass. Four infestations were made, at different plant ages, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old. The effect was evaluated by recovery of larvae from the experimental plots by flagging during a four week period after each infestation. The anti-tick repellent effect observed in A. gayanus grass was manifested only in mature plants, of 6 months old or more where highly differences were detected (p < 0.01) with control grass. The live larval recovery percentages in A. gayanus grass were 16.2%, 11% and 12% in plants of 6, 9 and 12 months old respectively while in C. ciliaris were 22.5%, 19% and 24.5% respectively. The effect of plant age on live larval recovery was greater than the effect of the grass species. Further studies are necessary to determine the potential use of this grass in field conditions as part of an integrated tick control package.<hr/>Se evaluó el efecto repelente anti-garrapata del pasto Andropogon gayanus en parcelas de diferentes edades que fueron infestadas experimentalmente con larvas de Boophilus microplus, utilizado a Cenchurus ciliaris como pasto control. Se realizaron cuatro infestaciones, a los 3, 6, 9 y 12 meses de edad de la planta, evaluando el efecto por la recuperación de larvas vivas de las parcelas por la técnica de bandera, durante un periodo de cuatro semanas después de cada infestación. Se observó un efecto anti-garrapata en A. gayanus que se manifestó únicamente en plantas maduras, de seis o más meses de edad, en donde se detectaron diferencias altamente significativas (p < 0,01) con respecto al pasto control. Los porcentajes de recuperación de larvas vivas en A. gayanus fueron 16,2%, 11% y 12% en plantas de 6, 9 y 12 meses de edad, respectiva-mente, mientras que en C. ciliaris fueron de 22,5%, 19% y 24,5%, respectivamente. El efecto de la edad de la planta en la recuperación de larvas vivas fue tan alto como el efecto de la especie de pasto. Es necesario realizar estudios para determinar el uso potencial de esta planta en condiciones de campo como parte de un paquete de control integrado de garrapatas <![CDATA[<I>Diversidade das infracomunidades de estrongilídeos do cólon dorsal de Equus caballus do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Twenty three species of the strongylid nematodes (18 Cyathostominae and five Strongylinae) were collected 33 equines in Metropolitana region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Cylicostephanus longibursatus (90.9%; 1,078.4), Cylicostephanus goldi (81.8%; 236.9) e Cylicocuclus nassatus (75.8%; 39.1) were the most prevalent and abundance species, respectively. Cylicostephanus longibursatus showed highest dispersion (2,425.1) and one of smallest aggregation value (0.1). Five infracommunities (2, 3, 11, 24 and 25) showed equal parasite richness (4.0), however the values obtained from diversity indices were different because the unequal evenness of these samples.<hr/>Vinte e três espécies de nematóides estrongilídeos (18 Cyathostominae e cinco Strongylidae) foram coletadas de alíquotas, com aproximadamente, 10% do cólon dorsal de 33 eqüinos, provenientes da região Metropolitana do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Cylicostephanus longibursatus (90,9%; 1.078,4) C. goldi (81,8%; 236,9) e Cylicocyclus nassatus (75,8%; 39,1) foram as espécies mais prevalentes e com maior abundância média, respectivamente. Cylicostephanus longibur-satus apresentou o maior Índice de Dispersão (2.524,1) e menor Índice de Green (0,1), devido à presença em quase todas as infracomunidades, e ao baixo nível de agregação dos espécimes nas mesmas. Cinco infracomunidades (2, 3, 11, 24 e 25) apresentaram riqueza parasitária igual a quatro, porém os índices de Shannon e de uniformidade de Pielou foram distintos, devido à equitabilidade das infrapopulações <![CDATA[<I>Metazoários parasitos do peixe espada, Trichiurus lepturus (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Between January and November of 1999, 55 specimens of Atlantic cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 were captured of the coastal of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21-23&deg; S, 41-45&deg; W), and necropsied to study of their metazoan parasites. Eleven species of metazoan parasites were collected in T. lepturus: 1 digenean, 1 monogenean, 2 cestodes, 1 acantocephalan, 5 nematodes, and 1 copepod. Trichiurus lepturus is a new host record for Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Hysterothylacium sp., and Raphidascaris sp., Octoplectanocotyla trichiuri and Polymorphus sp. were recorded for the first time in Brazil.<hr/>Entre janeiro a novembro de 1999 foram examinados 55 espécimes de Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) provenientes do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (aprox. 21-23&deg; S, 41-45&deg; O), sendo necropsiados para estudo dos seus metazoários parasitos. Onze espécies de metazoários parasitos foram encontrados: 1 digenético, 1 monogenético, 2 cestóides, 1 acan-tocéfalo, 5 nematóides e 1 copépode. Trichiurus lepturus é um novo registro de hospedeiro para as seguintes espécies: Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Hysterothylacium sp. e Raphidas-caris sp. Octoplectanocotyla trichiuri e Polymorphussp. são registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil <![CDATA[<I>Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Lucilia cuprina (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), criada emdieta a base de carne eqüina em diferentes estágiosde putrefaçâo</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Pos-embrionary development of Lucilia cuprina reared on horse meat, previously exposed at 27&deg;C for different periods (two, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours) was studied. Sixty grams of diet and 2 g diet per 1 larva ratio were used. There were four replication in each treatment. The results of this experiment indicated that the development time of the larval and pupal stages were shorttened when L. cuprina was reared on this substrate previously exposed to 2 and 24 hours. However, the body weigth was lower than that observed. The emergence of adults were higher than 50% in each treatment<hr/>O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a influência de diferentes fases verificar o desenvolvimento embrionário de Lucilia cuprina em dieta a base de carne eqüina (duas, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas) sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário. Utilizaram-se 60 gramas de dieta por repetição/tratamento, considerando-se a relação de 1 larva/2g de substrato. Foram utilizadas quatro repetições por tratamento. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a duração da fase larval e pupal oriunda deste substrato foi, em média, menor nos tratamentos relativo a 2 e 24 horas, respectivamente, refletindo-se, em uma redução da massa corporal, ocorrendo o inverso nos tratamento de 72 e 96 horas. A taxa de emergência dos adultos foi superior a 50% em todos os tratamentos <![CDATA[HUMAN ANISAKIOSIS CASE]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Patient of 38 years old with the antecedent to eat raw mariscal few hours before present epigastralgia pain and eliminated one nematode of 20 mm long. The endoscopy not found another helmints in the mucosa gastrica, the blood count was normal, the pain disappear two weeks after with antihistaminic y analgesic drugs.<hr/>Un paciente de 38 años de edad con antecedentes de haber comido pescado crudo (mariscal) doce horas antes, presentó un severo dolor gástrico y eliminó por vía bucal una larva de nematodo de aproximadamente 20 mm de largo. La endoscopía mostró una leve gastritis, sin evidenciar la presencia de otras larvas o lesiones ulcerosas. El dolor desapareció totalmente a las dos semanas luego de un tratamiento con antihistamínicos y analgésicos <![CDATA[FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF <I>Trichomonas vaginalis</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The present study examined the validity of PAP staining, as used for vaginal cytology, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange in order to determine the value of a negative result of Trichomonas vaginalis obtained by a PAP smear. We examined eighty vaginal-secretion samples from 18- to 45-year-old female patients of the Hospital Municipal of the city of Bahía Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples were stained in parallel by the PAP smear technique and the fluorescent staining technique with acridine orange described by Fripp in 1975. The results of our validation tests demonstrated that, against fluorescent staining with acridine orange, the PAP smear has a 54.5% sensitivity for the detection of T. vaginalis for a 13.75% prevalence of disease among the females in the study with a 95% confidence level. In assays conducted "in parallel" for both stainings, the global value of the test was 93.8%, with a predictive negative value of 93.2%. We conclude that, although the PAP smear can detect T. vaginalis, its sensitivity is not high enough for the test to be used as the sole diagnostic means and the test must always be supplemented with fluorescent staining with acridine orange or another test of similar value. Otherwise, the diagnostic sensitivity would not be any higher than that of vaginal discharge exams in vitro.<hr/>Se efectuó la validación de la coloración de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citología vaginal, frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 años, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecología del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Las muestras se colorearon paralelamente por la técnica de Papanicolaou y por la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina. Los resultados mostraron que el PAP presenta una sensibilidad del 54,5% para la detección de T. vaginalis, validación efectuada frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, para una prevalencia de enfermedad en el grupo de mujeres estudiadas del 13,75% y un nivel de confianza del 95%. Para ensayos "en paralelo" con ambas coloraciones, el valor global de la prueba fue del 93,8%, con un valor predictivo del resultado negativo del 93,2%. Concluimos que si bien T. vaginalis es detectada en el PAP, éste no presenta sensibilidad significativamente elevada como para ser considerada como única prueba, debiéndose complementar siempre con una coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, u otra prueba de similar valor <![CDATA[DISTRIBUTION AND TENDENCY OF FASCIOLOSIS IN MEAT ANIMALS IN CHILE, 1989- 1995]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt With data obtained from the Minestry of Health of Chile, the geographic distribution and yearly number of cases and rates of fasciolosis in bovines, porcines, ovines, equines, caprines and camelids populations from 1989-1995 were calculated. This infection is present in all the country with the exception of the XII Region. The mean rate in bovines was 30.1%, caprines 14%; porcines 1.4%, ovines 2.1 % and equines 12.3 %. In the first two species the number of cases increased during the period and in the three last species the same variable decreased. In all the species, with exception of camelids the highest rates are observed in the VII and VIII Region of the country..<hr/>Se describe la distribución anual y regional de los casos y tasas de fasciolosis en las poblaciones bovina, porcina, ovina, equina, caprina y camélida desde los años 1989 a 1995. Para la construcción de las tasas se contó con la información que disponía el Ministerio de Salud y el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas. La distribución regional señala que este parasitismo no se encuentra en la XII Región. En los bovinos es de amplia distribución, con una tasa de 30,1% y una tendencia al aumento; en caprinos muestra una tasa de 14% y también con tendencia al aumento. En porcinos, ovinos y equinos las tasas son de 1,4%, 2,1% y 12,3% respectivamente y con tendencia la disminución <![CDATA[Stomoxys calcitrans (L.): Preferência por regiões do corpo de eqüinos para alimentação]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt To study which anatomic parts of horses are preferred by the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans, for feeding, three males and two females were exposed to natural infestations in Espirito Santo do Pinhal County, São Paulo State, Brazil. The number of stable flies were weekly registered in six anatomic areas (head, neck, thorax, thoracic and pelvic members and abdomen) from May 1993 to April 1995. Significant differences were observed among infested areas and stable flies prefer the thoracic members for feeding. Within the thoracic members the shin region was more preferred.<hr/>Fazendo parte de um trabalho de sazonalidade, desenvolvido com eqüinos no município de Espírito Santo do Pinhal - SP - Brasil, avaliou-se a quantidade de moscas presentes no corpo de eqüinos, bem como a sua distribuição nas diferentes regiões zootécnicas. Verificou-se que as moscas picavam e sugavam o sangue principalmente nos membros torácicos, onde se obtiveram os percentuais mais elevados (13,9/S = 6,5), quando comparados às demais áreas do corpo. Quando se consideravam os membros torácicos, as moscas picavam principalmente nas regiões abaixo dos joelhos, se concentrando principalmente na canela. Isto pode ser devido a dificuldade em mover os membros torácicos, que suportam a maior parte do peso corporal dos animais, e devido ao fato de que o reflexo cutâneo, não atinge de modo eficaz as áreas abaixo dos joelhos <![CDATA[<I>Pavanelliella pavanellii Kritsky e Boeger, 1998 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasito das cavidades nasais de Pimelodus maculatus Lac., 1803, "mandi", das bacias do Rio São Francisco e do Rio Paraná, Brasil</I>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Specimens of monogeneans parasites found in the nasal cavities of Pimelodus maculatus from the São Francisco and Paraná rivers were identified as Pavanelliella pavanellii. Prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance this species are presented. An ecological analysis of the results related to the drought periods and full of the river Paraná evidences that P. pavanellii is more abundant in the rainy station, whose temperature is higher. Pavanelliella pavanellii from P. maculatus is for the first time registered to São Francisco river, southeast Brazil.<hr/>Espécimes de monogenóideos parasitos das cavidades nasais de Pimelodus maculatus dos rios São Francisco e Paraná foram encontrados e identificados como Pavanelliella pavanellii. Prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média de P. pavanellii em P. maculatus são apresentadas para os dois sistemas hídricos. Resultados da análise ecológica relacionados à períodos de seca e cheia do rio Paraná evidenciaram elevação da abundância média de P. pavanelli no período de cheia, no qual a temperatura é mais alta. Pavanelliella pavanellii é o primeiro registro de monogenóideos das cavidades nasais de P. maculatus e é pela primei-ra vez encontrada no rio São Francisco, Brasil. <![CDATA[TECHNICAL REPORT FROM AN EXPERT COMMITTEE: STANDARDS FOR DRUG EVALUATION AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN MEN]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Specimens of monogeneans parasites found in the nasal cavities of Pimelodus maculatus from the São Francisco and Paraná rivers were identified as Pavanelliella pavanellii. Prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance this species are presented. An ecological analysis of the results related to the drought periods and full of the river Paraná evidences that P. pavanellii is more abundant in the rainy station, whose temperature is higher. Pavanelliella pavanellii from P. maculatus is for the first time registered to São Francisco river, southeast Brazil.<hr/>Espécimes de monogenóideos parasitos das cavidades nasais de Pimelodus maculatus dos rios São Francisco e Paraná foram encontrados e identificados como Pavanelliella pavanellii. Prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média de P. pavanellii em P. maculatus são apresentadas para os dois sistemas hídricos. Resultados da análise ecológica relacionados à períodos de seca e cheia do rio Paraná evidenciaram elevação da abundância média de P. pavanelli no período de cheia, no qual a temperatura é mais alta. Pavanelliella pavanellii é o primeiro registro de monogenóideos das cavidades nasais de P. maculatus e é pela primei-ra vez encontrada no rio São Francisco, Brasil. <![CDATA[<b>ANUNCIO</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-07202000000300013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Specimens of monogeneans parasites found in the nasal cavities of Pimelodus maculatus from the São Francisco and Paraná rivers were identified as Pavanelliella pavanellii. Prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance this species are presented. An ecological analysis of the results related to the drought periods and full of the river Paraná evidences that P. pavanellii is more abundant in the rainy station, whose temperature is higher. Pavanelliella pavanellii from P. maculatus is for the first time registered to São Francisco river, southeast Brazil.<hr/>Espécimes de monogenóideos parasitos das cavidades nasais de Pimelodus maculatus dos rios São Francisco e Paraná foram encontrados e identificados como Pavanelliella pavanellii. Prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média de P. pavanellii em P. maculatus são apresentadas para os dois sistemas hídricos. Resultados da análise ecológica relacionados à períodos de seca e cheia do rio Paraná evidenciaram elevação da abundância média de P. pavanelli no período de cheia, no qual a temperatura é mais alta. Pavanelliella pavanellii é o primeiro registro de monogenóideos das cavidades nasais de P. maculatus e é pela primei-ra vez encontrada no rio São Francisco, Brasil.