Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista chilena de historia natural]]> vol. 93 num. lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Variability and variation in <em>Rhyncholestes raphanurus</em> Osgood (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae)]]> Abstract Background: Caenolestids are a group of poorly known South American marsupials with a restricted distribution in Páramo and Subpáramo environments of the Andes from Colombia and western Venezuela to Bolivia (represented by the genera Caenolestes and Lestoros), and Valdivian rainforest in southern Chile (including a separate population in Chiloé Island) and Argentina, where a single species lives: the Long-nosed shrew opossum (Rhyncholestes raphanurus). The objectives of this work were to analyze the intraspecific variability of R. raphanurus, which includes an anatomical description of the skull and dentition, describe its geographic variation, test for sexual dimorphism, and assess potential differences between continental and Island populations. Methods: Linear Mossimann-transformed variables were used to assess sexual differences within a large population (La Picada), compare sexes within other continental populations, and in a separate analysis, compare continental from Island samples. A full model Principal Components Analysis was performed to assess differences between males and females of the continental and Island populations. A thorough description of the skull and teeth of the species and comparisons with other living Caenolestidae is presented. Results: Rhyncholestes raphanurus presents little geographic variation, even between Island and continental populations. Similarly, we found no significant difference between sexes of this species in cranial and dental measurements. We provide a detailed description of cranial morphology and its variation, and also, the first description of the occipital bones, which haven't been previously described for any Paucituberculata. Conclusions: Comparative studies of continental and Chiloé Island specimens support the treatment of R. raphanurus as a single valid species, especially since morphologic and morphometric differences fall within the extremes of continental populations. The morphology of R. raphanurus clearly separates this genus from other extant Caenolestidae, and in a much greater degree than the differences found between Lestoros and Caenolestes. <![CDATA[Geographic variation in composition of metazoan parasite infracommunities in <em>Galaxias maculatus</em> Jenyns 1842 (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in southern Chile (38-47° S)]]> Abstract Galaxias maculatus is an abundant freshwater fish species in Chilean continental waters where it plays important ecological functions, yet few parasitological records of this species exist in Chile and all of them cover a very limited geographic range. The objective of this study was to assess large scale geographic variation in composition of parasite infracommunities of Galaxias maculatus. Specifically, parasite infracommunities of this species were compared among 11 locations across 9 degrees of latitude and 3 ecosystem types (lake, river and estuary). Most taxa found had been previously reported in Chile and Argentina. However, this is the first report for Tylodelphys sp. in this host in Chile. Furthermore, the cranial parasite Tylodelphys sp. had the highest overall prevalence and abundance compared to other parasite species. Despite the fact that the abundance of Tylodelphys sp. was not significantly correlated with Fulton's condition factor of fish, infected fish seem to have a better body condition compared to uninfected ones. The most important source of variation in composition of infracommunities was the sampling location. Furthermore, fish from lakes have a different composition of parasite infracommunities mainly due to higher abundances of Tylodelphys sp.