Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista chilena de infectología]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0716-101820030001&lang=es vol. 20 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[Frecuencia de <I>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</I> y <I>Chlamydia pneumoniae</I> en pacientes con <I>distress</I> respiratorio y serología negativa para hantavirus]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182003000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es A retrospective study by means of indirect immunofluorescence was carried out to detect IgM antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in seronegative patients for Hantavirus, with characteristics symptoms of atypical pneumonia. The final results indicate that the prevalence of C. pneumoniae reaches 8,6% and M. pneumoniae is equivalent to 17,1% of the patients studied. By this we can be aware of the importance of these agents in our media, and the necessity of having rapid laboratory techniques that allow an opportune differential diagnosis in pulmonary syndrome for Hantavirus and other pathologies that cause similar symptoms, mainly atypical pneumonia <![CDATA[Actividad <I>in vitro</I> de niveles séricos y urinarios de amoxicilina y amoxicilina-sulbactam sobre 820 cepas de <I>Escherichia coli </I>aisladas de infecciones urinarias bajas extrahospitalarias: Estudio sudamericano]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182003000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es We previously showed urinary activity against Escherichia coli both after oral amoxicillin-sulbactam and sulbactam alone. A study was performed in 10 laboratories from 8 countries to determine the etiology of community acquired lower urinary tract infections (CALUTI) in patients aged 3-to 7 years in South America. Each laboratory sent data from 100 consecutive isolates including susceptibility to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-sulbactam by agar diffusion and also sent 20 consecutive E. coli isolates resistant (R) to amoxicillin-sulbactam to CEA reference laboratory, were MICs were determined for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-sulbactam (2/1) and sulbactam. Urines from 12 volunteers who received a single oral dose 500/500 mg amoxicillin-sulbactam were collected at 0-2; 2-4 and 4-6 h and urinary inhibitory titers (UIT) were determined against 5 R and 1 susceptible (S) isolates from each center. Levels of amoxicillin and sulbactam were determined. Results: Etiology: E. coli 820/1000 (82%) was prevalent; P. mirabilis and K. pneumoniae (4,3% each), S. saprophyticus 4,1% other 5,3%. Diffusion test: 59,4% E. coli were R to amoxicillin, 16,9 intermediate (I) and 23,7 S whereas results for amoxicillin-sulbactam were 28% R; 19,2 I and 52,8 S. MICs: 102 E. coli R to amoxicillin-sulbactam were studied; MIC90s (µg/ml) were the following: amoxicillin > 2.048; amoxicillin-sulbactam 256/128 and sulbactam alone 128. UITs: ranged from > 1/32 at 2 h dose; 1/16-1/4 h and 1/4-1/2 at 6 h against all the isolates. Antibacterial urine levels (µg/ml) obtained for amoxicillin and sulbactam respectively were at 2 h 1.414 and 1.904; at 4 h 691 and 1.257 and at 6 h 462 and 641. Our results confirm the prevalence of E. coli and explain discrepancies between resistance shown by agar diffusion test and clinical success observed in the treatment of CALUTI. <![CDATA[La guerra biológica en la conquista del nuevo mundo: Una revisión histórica y sistemática de la literatura]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182003000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Five centuries ago the European invaders arrived to the New World. They carried with them what turned out to be their main allies in the conquest of the continent: smallpox, measles and influenza viruses. In an attempt to recompose the process of dissemination of such diseases, a systematic review of the biomedical and historical literature was performed, to investigate how the Spaniards first, and the British later, used mainly smallpox to undertake a biological warfare against the American Indians, which eventually meant the biggest population catastrophe that America has never suffered in all its history <![CDATA[Biología molecular en Infectología: Parte II: Diagnóstico molecular de agentes infecciosos]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182003000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The diagnostic applications of the molecular biology in infectious diseases are wide and applicable to any diagnostic problem. In the Herpesviridae family, the most used methods are those based on the amplification of DNA polymerase gene for the detection of HSV 1 and 2, varicela-zoster, citomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and HHV6 simultaneously. This methodology has been able of detect the co-infection of HSV1 and VZV in samples of CNS fluid. In citomegalovirus, molecular methods are used in the monitoring of the reactivation of CMV in immunosuppressed patients and are able to detect viral reactivation within 1 week before symptoms. The molecular methods are also able to identify the Epstein-Barr virus in a proportion of 8 to 20% of gastric cancer cases harboring a unique strain in spite of the presence multiples strains in the healthy population. These associations between virus and cancer have also been described for the human papilloma virus and esophageal and lung cancer. In bacterial agents, the detection and quantification of Bordetella pertussis is another interesting application since it might become a method for rapid diagnosis and predictive of severity in children less than 6 months old. The identification of Helicobacter pylori strains in relation to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease and the characterization of strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus are other examples of potential applications of the molecular methods in typing microorganisms. In the diagnosis of respiratory tract infectious agents such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii and atypical agents, the molecular methods allow the diagnosis in non-invasive samples. Finally, these new methodologies also contribute to the diagnosis of systemic mycotic agents (Candidiasis and Aspergillosis) particularly in immunosuppressed patients <![CDATA[Consenso nacional sobre infecciones asociadas a catéteres vasculares centrales]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182003000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The diagnostic applications of the molecular biology in infectious diseases are wide and applicable to any diagnostic problem. In the Herpesviridae family, the most used methods are those based on the amplification of DNA polymerase gene for the detection of HSV 1 and 2, varicela-zoster, citomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and HHV6 simultaneously. This methodology has been able of detect the co-infection of HSV1 and VZV in samples of CNS fluid. In citomegalovirus, molecular methods are used in the monitoring of the reactivation of CMV in immunosuppressed patients and are able to detect viral reactivation within 1 week before symptoms. The molecular methods are also able to identify the Epstein-Barr virus in a proportion of 8 to 20% of gastric cancer cases harboring a unique strain in spite of the presence multiples strains in the healthy population. These associations between virus and cancer have also been described for the human papilloma virus and esophageal and lung cancer. In bacterial agents, the detection and quantification of Bordetella pertussis is another interesting application since it might become a method for rapid diagnosis and predictive of severity in children less than 6 months old. The identification of Helicobacter pylori strains in relation to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease and the characterization of strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus are other examples of potential applications of the molecular methods in typing microorganisms. In the diagnosis of respiratory tract infectious agents such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii and atypical agents, the molecular methods allow the diagnosis in non-invasive samples. Finally, these new methodologies also contribute to the diagnosis of systemic mycotic agents (Candidiasis and Aspergillosis) particularly in immunosuppressed patients <![CDATA[Diagnóstico de las infecciones asociadas a catéteres vasculares centrales]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182003000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The diagnostic applications of the molecular biology in infectious diseases are wide and applicable to any diagnostic problem. In the Herpesviridae family, the most used methods are those based on the amplification of DNA polymerase gene for the detection of HSV 1 and 2, varicela-zoster, citomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and HHV6 simultaneously. This methodology has been able of detect the co-infection of HSV1 and VZV in samples of CNS fluid. In citomegalovirus, molecular methods are used in the monitoring of the reactivation of CMV in immunosuppressed patients and are able to detect viral reactivation within 1 week before symptoms. The molecular methods are also able to identify the Epstein-Barr virus in a proportion of 8 to 20% of gastric cancer cases harboring a unique strain in spite of the presence multiples strains in the healthy population. These associations between virus and cancer have also been described for the human papilloma virus and esophageal and lung cancer. In bacterial agents, the detection and quantification of Bordetella pertussis is another interesting application since it might become a method for rapid diagnosis and predictive of severity in children less than 6 months old. The identification of Helicobacter pylori strains in relation to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease and the characterization of strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus are other examples of potential applications of the molecular methods in typing microorganisms. In the diagnosis of respiratory tract infectious agents such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii and atypical agents, the molecular methods allow the diagnosis in non-invasive samples. Finally, these new methodologies also contribute to the diagnosis of systemic mycotic agents (Candidiasis and Aspergillosis) particularly in immunosuppressed patients <![CDATA[Prevención de infecciones asociadas a catéteres vasculares centrales]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182003000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The diagnostic applications of the molecular biology in infectious diseases are wide and applicable to any diagnostic problem. In the Herpesviridae family, the most used methods are those based on the amplification of DNA polymerase gene for the detection of HSV 1 and 2, varicela-zoster, citomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and HHV6 simultaneously. This methodology has been able of detect the co-infection of HSV1 and VZV in samples of CNS fluid. In citomegalovirus, molecular methods are used in the monitoring of the reactivation of CMV in immunosuppressed patients and are able to detect viral reactivation within 1 week before symptoms. The molecular methods are also able to identify the Epstein-Barr virus in a proportion of 8 to 20% of gastric cancer cases harboring a unique strain in spite of the presence multiples strains in the healthy population. These associations between virus and cancer have also been described for the human papilloma virus and esophageal and lung cancer. In bacterial agents, the detection and quantification of Bordetella pertussis is another interesting application since it might become a method for rapid diagnosis and predictive of severity in children less than 6 months old. The identification of Helicobacter pylori strains in relation to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease and the characterization of strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus are other examples of potential applications of the molecular methods in typing microorganisms. In the diagnosis of respiratory tract infectious agents such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii and atypical agents, the molecular methods allow the diagnosis in non-invasive samples. Finally, these new methodologies also contribute to the diagnosis of systemic mycotic agents (Candidiasis and Aspergillosis) particularly in immunosuppressed patients <![CDATA[Tratamiento de las infecciones asociadas a catéteres venosos centrales]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182003000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The diagnostic applications of the molecular biology in infectious diseases are wide and applicable to any diagnostic problem. In the Herpesviridae family, the most used methods are those based on the amplification of DNA polymerase gene for the detection of HSV 1 and 2, varicela-zoster, citomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and HHV6 simultaneously. This methodology has been able of detect the co-infection of HSV1 and VZV in samples of CNS fluid. In citomegalovirus, molecular methods are used in the monitoring of the reactivation of CMV in immunosuppressed patients and are able to detect viral reactivation within 1 week before symptoms. The molecular methods are also able to identify the Epstein-Barr virus in a proportion of 8 to 20% of gastric cancer cases harboring a unique strain in spite of the presence multiples strains in the healthy population. These associations between virus and cancer have also been described for the human papilloma virus and esophageal and lung cancer. In bacterial agents, the detection and quantification of Bordetella pertussis is another interesting application since it might become a method for rapid diagnosis and predictive of severity in children less than 6 months old. The identification of Helicobacter pylori strains in relation to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease and the characterization of strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus are other examples of potential applications of the molecular methods in typing microorganisms. In the diagnosis of respiratory tract infectious agents such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii and atypical agents, the molecular methods allow the diagnosis in non-invasive samples. Finally, these new methodologies also contribute to the diagnosis of systemic mycotic agents (Candidiasis and Aspergillosis) particularly in immunosuppressed patients <![CDATA[Peste en Milán: Borromeos y untadores]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-10182003000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The diagnostic applications of the molecular biology in infectious diseases are wide and applicable to any diagnostic problem. In the Herpesviridae family, the most used methods are those based on the amplification of DNA polymerase gene for the detection of HSV 1 and 2, varicela-zoster, citomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and HHV6 simultaneously. This methodology has been able of detect the co-infection of HSV1 and VZV in samples of CNS fluid. In citomegalovirus, molecular methods are used in the monitoring of the reactivation of CMV in immunosuppressed patients and are able to detect viral reactivation within 1 week before symptoms. The molecular methods are also able to identify the Epstein-Barr virus in a proportion of 8 to 20% of gastric cancer cases harboring a unique strain in spite of the presence multiples strains in the healthy population. These associations between virus and cancer have also been described for the human papilloma virus and esophageal and lung cancer. In bacterial agents, the detection and quantification of Bordetella pertussis is another interesting application since it might become a method for rapid diagnosis and predictive of severity in children less than 6 months old. The identification of Helicobacter pylori strains in relation to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease and the characterization of strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus are other examples of potential applications of the molecular methods in typing microorganisms. In the diagnosis of respiratory tract infectious agents such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii and atypical agents, the molecular methods allow the diagnosis in non-invasive samples. Finally, these new methodologies also contribute to the diagnosis of systemic mycotic agents (Candidiasis and Aspergillosis) particularly in immunosuppressed patients