Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Biological Research]]> vol. 34 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Fortalecimiento de las ciencias biológicas en Chile durante la era posgenómica]]> <![CDATA[<B>LA CIENCIA EN CHILE Y EL PROGRAMA MILENIO</B>]]> <![CDATA[20 AÑOS DE FONDECYT]]> <![CDATA[Premio Fred L. Soper 2001]]> <![CDATA[<B>LIDERES MUNDIALES DE LA BIOLOGÍA DEL DESARROLLO SE REUNIERON EN SANTIAGO</B>]]> <![CDATA[TERCER SIMPOSIO INTERNACIONAL SOBRE PROTEINA QUINASA CK 2 SE REALIZÓ EN CHILE]]> <![CDATA[U. DE CHILE INVESTIGA CON EE.UU]]> <![CDATA[Premio de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y de Tecnología 2000,]]> <![CDATA[Ventricular Myosin Light Chain-2 Gene Expression in Developing Heart of Chicken Embryos]]> Recent gene knock-out studies in mice have suggested that ventricular myosin light chain-2 (vMLC2) has a role in the regulation of cardiogenic development and that perturbation in expression of vMLC2 is linked to the onset of dilated cardiomyopathy. In an attempt to develop an avian model for such studies, we examined the expression pattern of vMLC2 in chicken embryos at various stages and analyzed the effect of antisense oligonucleotide-mediated interference of vMLC2 function in cultures of whole embryos. Our results showed vMLC2 to be a specific marker for ventricular chamber throughout chicken embryonic development and antisense vMLC2 treatment of primitive streak stage (stage 4) embryos to produce pronounced dilation of heart tube with severe deficiency in formation of striated myofibrils. Further studies with antisense mRNA techniques of whole embryo cultures should, therefore, be useful to evaluate the role of vMLC2 and other putative regulatory factors in cardiac myofibrillogenesis <![CDATA[<I>In situ</I> hybridization of somatolactin transcripts in the pituitary glands from acclimatized carp (<I>Cyprinus carpio</I>)]]> We isolated and cloned a carp somatolactin SL DNA fragment, of which 78% of the nucleotides were identical to the corresponding salmon SL sequence. The results obtained upon Northern blot hybridization of carp pituitary RNA allowed the identification of two transcripts as described for other fish. When the content of SL transcripts in pituitary sections from summer- and winter- acclimatized carp was quantified by in situ hybridization assays, we found no significant differences between the two seasons. In salmonids, plasma SL reaches higher levels in summer than in winter in synchrony with the water temperature cycle; in the eurythermal carp, however, the complex adaptive responses imposed by seasonal environmental changes do not seem to include the regulation of the somatolactin detected with the probe used at the transcriptional level in pituitary glands <![CDATA[A segment and epithelium specific messenger ribonucleic acid fragment up-regulated by estradiol in the rat oviduct]]> Estradiol accelerates oviductal embryo transport in the rat through changes of genomic expression in oviductal cells. However, the genes involved are unknown. We used a differential display by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to detect estradiol (E2)-dependent genes in the rat oviduct. Rats on day 2 of pregnancy were untreated or treated with 10 µg of E2 and the oviducts were extracted at 30, 180 and 360 min later and used to isolate RNA. Products of reverse transcriptase-PCR, made with pairs of arbitrary and oligo-deoxythymidine primers, were separated on denaturing polyacrylamide gels and candidate bands were excised and reamplified. Truly positive cDNA fragments determined by a single strand conformation polymorphism assay were cloned and sequenced. A ribonuclease protection assay confirmed that clone 25 is up-regulated by E2 in the oviduct at 30, 180 and 360 min. This clone exhibited no homology with known genes and in situ hybridization showed it is only expressed in the epithelial cells of the isthmic segment. Clone 25 is likely to represent a new gene, which is up-regulated by E2 in the epithelium of the isthmic segment of the rat oviduct. Its time frame of response is compatible with a mediator of the effect of E2 on oviductal embryo transport <![CDATA[Genetic polymorphism in eight Chilean strains of the carotenogenic microalga <I>Dunaliella salina</I> Teodoresco (Chlorophyta)]]> Eight Chilean strains of Dunaliella salina obtained within a restricted geographic range, but exhibiting a high variability in their morphology, rate of growth and carotenogenic capacity, were analyzed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR). Twenty of the 50 random primers (D, P, OPA and OPD series) that were tested amplified reproducible bands and were useful for comparative analysis of the strains. Of 107 polymorphic genetic markers, 49 were strain-specific. A great genetic variability was found among the strains in spite of their geographic proximity. In addition, phenetic analysis of the data showed close agreement between the morpho-physiological attributes and the genetic diversity of the strains <![CDATA[Distribution of delta sleep-inducing peptide in the newborn and infant human hypothalamus: an immunohistochemical study]]> The distribution of delta sleep-inducing peptide immunoreactive cell bodies, fibers, and terminal-like structures was investigated in the normal human hypothalamus during the first postnatal year, using immunohistofluorescence and peroxidase anti-peroxidase techniques. Immunolabeled perikarya were relatively few and were mostly scattered through the anterior (preoptic) and mediobasal regions (infundibular nucleus) of the hypothalamus. DSIP-immunoreactive fibers and terminal-like fibers were observed throughout the entire rostro-caudal extent of the hypothalamus. They exhibit high densities in the preoptic region, the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, infundibular nucleus and median eminence. Moderate to low densities of DSIP-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the other hypothalamic structures, located in the anterior and mediobasal regions of hypothalamus, such as periventricular, paraventricular, suprachiasmatic, ventromedial, dorsomedial and parafornical nuclei. In the present study, the analysis of the immunohistochemical pattern of DSIP-immunoreactive neuronal elements in the human infant hypothalamus during the first postnatal year provided evidence of the presence of several differences. We have found qualitative age-related changes in the density of DSIP immunoreactivity in several hypothalamic structures such as the anterior region and the median eminence <![CDATA[Participation of the phosphoinositide metabolism in the hypersensitive response of <I>Citrus limon</I> against <I>Alternaria alternata</I>]]> Lemon seedlings inoculated with Alternaria alternata develop a hypersensitive response (HR) that includes the induction of Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, E. C. and the synthesis of scoparone. The signal transduction pathway involved in the development of this response is unknown. We used several inhibitors of the Phosphoinositide (PI) animal system to study a possible role of Inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 ) in the transduction of the fungal conidia signal in Citrus limon. The HR was only partially inhibited by EGTA, suggesting that not only external but internal calcium as well are necessary for a complete development of the HR. In this plant system, Alternaria alternata induced an early accumulation of the second messenger IP3. When lemon seedlings were watered long term with LiCl, an inhibitor of the phosphoinositide cycle, the IP3 production was reduced, and the LiCl-watered plants could neither induce PAL nor synthesize scoparone in response to fungal conidia. Furthermore, neomycin, a Phospholipase C (PLC, E. C. inhibitor, also inhibited PAL induction and scoparone synthesis in response to A. alternata. These results suggest that IP3 could be involved in the signal transduction pathway for the development of the HR of Citrus limon against A. alternata