Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Biological Research]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0716-976020100004&lang= vol. 43 num. 4 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of foliar fungal endophyte diversity and colonization of medicinal plant <i>Luehea divaricata </i>(Martius et Zuccarini)</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400001&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Endophyte microorganisms are organisms that live inside plants without causing any apparent damage to their hosts. Since all plants exhibit endophyte microorganisms, it is believed that mutual association is of great importance in nature. Luehea divaricata (Martius & Zuccarini), known popularly in Brazil as agoita-cavalo, is a big-sized tree with a wide distribution in the country that possesses medicinal qualities for: dysentery, leucorrhea, rheumatism, blennorrhoea, tumors, bronchitis, and depuration. This research aims at isolating and molecularly characterizing fungi isolates from L. divaricata by sequence analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Further, the colonization of endophyte in the host plant by Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy will also be investigated. Whereas, genera Alternaria, Cochliobolus, Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Guignardia, Phoma, and Phomopsis, were identified; rDNA sequence analysis revealed intra-species variability among endophyte isolates of the genus Phomopsis sp. Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques showed the presence of endophyte fungi inside L. divaricata leaves, inhabiting inter- and intra-cellular spaces. These types of extensive colonization and dissemination were reported throughout all the leaf parts in palisade parenchyma, esclerenchyma, spongy parenchyma, adaxial epidermis, and vascular bundle indicating colonization of endophytes in múltiple structural sub-niches in the host plant. <![CDATA[<b>Development and characterization of two new cell lines from common carp, <i>Cyprinus carpio </i>(Linn)</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400002&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Two new cell lines (CCF and CCH) were established from fin and heart tissues of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The cells were optimally maintained in Leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 10 ng/ml of basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF). The effects of temperature, concentration of FBS and bFGF on the growth of CCF and CCH cells were examined. The temperature ranged from 24 to 32 °C for good growth of the cells. The growth rate of cells was higher in medium containing 10% FBS and the addition of bFGF to the medium significantly increased the growth rate. The CCF cells were found to be epithelial, while the CCH cells were fibroblastic in nature. The cytogenetic analysis of the cell lines revealed a diploid number of 100 chromosomes in C. carpio. The viability of CCF and CCH cell lines were 70 and 72%, respectively, after six months of storage in liquid nitrogen (-196 ° C). Molecular characterization of the cell lines using 16S rRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) revealed the origin of the cell lines. These new cell lines will be useful for isolation of fish viruses and other in vitro biotechnological studies. <![CDATA[<b>Network connectivity is shown to change in C57BL/6 mice during a continuing immune response subsequent to tetanus toxoid hyperimmunization</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400003&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= We have already demonstrated (Stojanovic et al., 2009) a connection between tetanus toxoid (TTd) hyperimmunization and the induction of anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) in BALB/c mice. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice subjected to an identical procedure do not exhibit any like pathology attributable to anti-phospholipid antibodies; we explain that this absence results from idiotypic connectivity. Six groups of C57BL/6 mice were hyperimmunized with TTd in aluminum hydroxide or glycerol, with or without pretreatments. Pretreated mice had been injected with polyclonal or nonspecific immune stimulators, such as complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or glycerol. The epitope specificity of induced antibodies was tested by indirect ELISA using a tetanus toxoid immunogen and these autoantigens: phospholipids, gangliosides, laminin. Idiotypic connectivity was tested by competitive ELISA and gauged from the degree to which the interaction of idiotypic/anti-idiotypic complementary antibodies was inhibited in the presence of immunized sera antibodies. Higher idiotypic connectivity was noted amongst pretreated mice. There was a positive correlation between higher connectivity and autoantibody levels that acted to favor the participation of natural autoantibodies in the inhibitory process. We conclude that idiotypic connectivity plays a protective role in immunization-induced autoimmunity. <![CDATA[<b>The foliar trichomes of <i>Hypoestes aristata </i>(Vahl) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult <i>var aristata </i>(Acanthaceae) a widespread medicinal plant species in tropical sub-Saharan Africa</b>: <b>with comments on its possible phylogenetic significance</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400004&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The micromorphology of foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata var. aristata was studied using stereo, light and scanning microscopy (SEM). This genus belongs to the advanced angiosperm family Acanthaceae, for which few micromorphological leaf studies exist. Results revealed both glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the latter being more abundant on leaf veins, particularly on the abaxial surface of very young leaves. With leaf maturity, the density of non-glandular trichomes decreased. Glandular trichomes were rare and of two types: long-stalked capitate and globose-like peltate trichomes. Capitate trichomes were observed only on the abaxial leaf surface, while peltate trichomes were distributed on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of Phenotypic and Genetic Performance of Local Silkworm Groups and Two Commercial Lines</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400005&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Five Iranian native silkworm groups: Baghdad, Khorasan Orange, Guilan Orange, Khorasan Pink, Khorasan Lemon, and 107 and 110 commercial lines (12 families from each breed) were randomly selected and reared during 2003-2005 (five generations in spring and autumn). In each family, 30 male and 30 female cocoons were individually recorded for weight, shell weight and shell ratio. From among the native groups, the highest average in all three traits belonged to Baghdad and Khorasan Pink, and the lowest to Khorasan Orange and Khorasan Lemon. From among the commercial lines, the highest average in all three traits belonged to 107. In comparing heritabihty for cocoon weight in native groups, the highest heritabihty belonged to Guilan Orange (0.5147) and Khorasan Orange (0.5036) and the lowest heritabihty belonged to Khorasan Pink (0.0967). In the two other traits, the highest heritabihty belonged to Khorasan Orange and Baghdad and the lowest to Khorasan Pink. In the commercial lines, linellO had higher heritabihty than linel07 for cocoon weight and cocoon shell weight. In all the groups, genetic correlations between cocoon weight and cocoon shell weight were high, expect for the Baghdad group. There was médium or low genetic correlation among cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight and cocoon shell ratio. <![CDATA[<b>Anatomical root variations in response to water deficit</b>: <b>wild and domesticated common bean (<i>Phaseolus vulgaris </i>L)</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400006&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Root anatomical responses to water deficit are diverse and regulation of water uptake strongly depends on plant anatomy. The ancestors of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars are the wild common beans. Because wild beans adapt and survive well in theon atural environment, it is hypothesized that wild common bean roots are less affected than those of domesticated beans at low substrate water potential (ψW). A wild common bean accession from Chihuahua Mexico and cv. Bayomex were studied. Seedlings with a mean root length between 3 and 4 cm were maintained for 24 h in vermiculite at ψW of -0.03 (well hydrated), -0.65, -1.48 and -2.35 MPa (partially dry). Ten anatomical characteristics of differentiation and cell division in root regions were evaluated. Thickness of epidermis and protoderm diminished similarly in wild and domesticated beans growing at low substrate ψW (between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa). At the same time, parenchymatic cell area diminished by 71 % in the domesticated variety, but by only 32 % in the wild bean at -2.35 MPa. Theon umber of cells in the cortex and the thickness of the xylem wall increased in both wild and domesticated beans at low substrate ψW;on evertheless, the effect was significantly lower in the wild bean. Theon umber of xylem vessels increased in the cultivar (up to 40 %) while in the wild bean it decreased (up to 33 %). The diameter of xylem vessels and transverse root area diminished (15 and 57 %, respectively) in the cultivar, but in the wild common bean wereon ot affected. Anatomical root characteristics and their modifications in both differentiation and cell division in root regions demonstrated that the wild bean reacted quite differently to substrate ψW than the domesticated common bean. <![CDATA[<b>Toxicity mechanisms of onion (<i>Allium cepa</i>) extracts and compounds in multidrug resistant erythroleukemic cell line</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400007&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Onion (Allium cepa) is being studied as a potential anticancer agent, but little is known regarding its effect in multidrug resistance (MDR) cells. In this work, the cytotoxicity of crude onion extract (OE) and fractioned extract (aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate), as well as some onion compounds (quercetin and propyl disulfide) were evaluated in Lucena MDR human erythroleukemic and its K562 parental cell line. The capacity of OE to induce apoptosis and/or necrosis in these cells, the possible participation of oxidative stress and DNA damage were also assessed. Similar sensitivities were obtained for both tumoral cells, however only OE caused significant effects in the cells. In K562 cells, a significant increase of apoptosis was verified while the Lucena cells experienced a significant increase of necrosis. An antioxidant capacity was verified for OE discarding oxidative damage. However, OE provoked similar significant DNA damage in both cell lines. Thus, the OE capacity to overcome the MDR phenotype suggests anti-MDR action of OE. <![CDATA[<b>Synthetic nanoemulsion resembling a protein-free model of 7-ketocholesterol containing low density lipoprotein</b>: <b><i>In vitro </i>and <i>in vivo </i>studies</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400008&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) differs from cholesterol by a functional ketone group at C7. It is an oxygenated cholesterol derivative (oxysterol), commonly present in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxysterols are generated and participate in several physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. For instance, the cytotoxic effects of oxidized LDL have been widely attributed to bioactive compounds like oxysterols. The toxicity is in part due to 7-KC. Here we aimed to demonstrate the possibility of incorporating 7-KC into the synthetic nanoemulsion LDE, which resembles LDL in composition and behavior. This would provide a suitable artificial particle resembling LDL to study 7-KC metabolism. We were able to incorpórate 7-KC in several amounts into LDE. The incorporation was evaluated and confirmed by several methods, including gel filtration chromatography, using radiolabeled lipids. The incorporation did not change the main lipid composition characteristics of the new nanoparticle. Particle sizes were also evaluated and did not differ from LDE. In vivo studies were performed by injecting the nanoemulsion into mice. The plasma kinetics and the targeted organs were the same as described for LDE. Therefore, 7-KC-LDE maintains composition, size and some functional characteristics of LDE and could be used in experiments dealing with 7-ketocholesterol metabolism in lipoproteins. <![CDATA[<b>The effects of <i>Tynnanthus fasciculatus </i>(Bignoniaceae) infusion on testicular parenchyma of adult Wistar rats</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400009&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Traditional medicine provides strong guidance for scientific experiments involving plant products used by the Brazilian people. The species "cipó-cravo" (Tynnanthus fasciculatus) is a plant commonly used either to combat indigestion and stomachaches, or as a general stimulant and aphrodisiac. In this study, the effects of "cipó-cravo" infusion were investigated within the testicular parenchyma of adult Wistar rats. Rats were divided into 3 groups: a control (distilled water) and two treated groups, which received the plant infusion (100 and 200mg/animal/day). The 200mg dose promoted a significant increase of the testicular parenchyma weight and of the volume and total length of the seminiferous tubules, as well as in total daily sperm production and sperm production per gram of testis. <![CDATA[<b>Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of <i>Parkia platycephala </i>Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400010&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae), popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH), as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52 %, respectively), but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder. <![CDATA[<b>Antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of <i>Encholirium spectabile </i>Mart. ex Schult & Schult f. (Bromeliaceae) in rodents</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400011&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= This study evaluated the antiulcer activity of an ethanolic extract of Encholirium spectabile (ES-EtOH) by using different standard experimental models of induced acute gastric ulceration. ES-EtOH (100 mg/kg p.o) protected the gastric mucosa against ulceration that was induced by absolute ethanol (53%), ethanol/HCl (75 %), ibuprofen (52 %) and ischemia/reperfusion (43 %). It also restored catalase activity and non-protein sulfhydryl group concentration in the gastric wall of mice that had been treated with ethanol. The pre-treatment of mice with N-nitro-L-arginine (70 mg/kg i.p.) abolished the protective activity of ES-EtOH, which indicates that prostaglandins, antioxidant compounds and nitric oxide synthase activity are involved in the gastroprotective activity of the extract. <![CDATA[<b>Divergent effects of Nitric oxide on airway epithelial cell activation</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400012&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Nitric oxide (NO*) is a gaseous mediator synthesized by Nitric oxide sinthases. NO* is involved in the modulation of inflammation, but its role in airway inflammation remains controversial. We investigated the role of NO* in the synthesis of the chemok Nes Interleukin-8 and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1, and of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 by human airway epithelial cells. normal human bronchial epithelial cells and the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were used. Neterleukin-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression were measured by ELISA. mRNA was assessed by semiquantitative RTI-PCR. Neterleukin-8 secretion was significantly reduced after 24h incubation with the NO* donor, sodium nitroprusside. The effect was dose-dependent. Similar results were obta Ned with S-Nitroso-N-D,L-penicillam Ne and S-Nitroso-L-glutathione. Inhibition of endogenous NO* with the Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arg N Ne-methyl-esther caused an increase in IL-8 secretion by lypopolisaccharide- and cytok Ne-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Sodium nitroprusside also caused a reduction in Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 secretion by both cell types. In contrast, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 expression was upregulated by sodium NItroprusside. RTI-PCR results indícate that the modulation of protein levels was paralleled by modification in mRNA levels. NO* has divergent effects on the synthesis of different inflammatory mediators in human bronchial epithelial cells. <![CDATA[<b>UL146 variability among clinical isolates of Human Cytomegalovirus from Japan</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400013&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a herpesvirus associated with serious diseases in immunocompromised subjects. The region between ORF UL133 and UL151 from HCMV, named ULb' is frequently deleted in attenuated AD169 and in highly passaged laboratory strains. However, this region is conserved in low-passaged and more virulent HCMV, like the Toledo strain. The UL146 gene, which is located in the ULb' region, encodes a CXC-chemokine analogue. The diversity of UL146 gene was evaluated among fifty-six clinical isolates of HCMV from Japan. Results show that UL146 gene was successfully amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in only 17/56 strains (30%), while the success rate for UL145/UL147 gene was 18/56 strains (32%). After DNA sequencing, the 35 amplified strains were classified into 8 groups. When compared, variability of UL146 ranged from 25.1% to 52.9% at the DNA level and from 34.5% to 67% at the amino acid level. Seven groups had the interleukin-8 (IL-8) motif ERL (Glu-Leu-Arg) CXC and one group had only the CXC motif, suggesting the absence of the IL-8 function of UL146. In conclusion, we found that UL146 gene of HCMV is hyper-variable in clinical strains from Japan suggesting the possibility of a different function in each sequence group. <![CDATA[<b>Internucleotide correlations and nucleotide periodicity in <i>Drosophila </i>mtDNA</b>: <b>New evidence for panselective evolution</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400014&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Analysis for the homogeneity of the distribution of the second base of dinucleotides in relation to the first, whose bases are separated by 0, 1, 2,... 21 nucleotide sites, was performed with the VIH-1 genome (cDNA), the Drosophila mtDNA, the Drosophila Torso gene and the human p-globin gene. These four DNA segments showed highly significant heterogeneities of base distributions that cannot be accounted for by neutral or nearly neutral evolution or by the "neighbor influence" of nucleotides on mutation rates. High correlations are found in the bases of dinucleotides separated by 0, 1 and more number of sites. A periodicity of three consecutive significance values (measured by the x²9) was found only in Drosophila mtDNA. This periodicity may be due to an unknown structure or organization of mtDNA. This non-random distribution of the two bases of dinucleotides widespread throughout these DNA segments is rather compatible with panselective evolution and generalized internucleotide co-adaptation. <![CDATA[<b>Erratum</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602010000400015&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Analysis for the homogeneity of the distribution of the second base of dinucleotides in relation to the first, whose bases are separated by 0, 1, 2,... 21 nucleotide sites, was performed with the VIH-1 genome (cDNA), the Drosophila mtDNA, the Drosophila Torso gene and the human p-globin gene. These four DNA segments showed highly significant heterogeneities of base distributions that cannot be accounted for by neutral or nearly neutral evolution or by the "neighbor influence" of nucleotides on mutation rates. High correlations are found in the bases of dinucleotides separated by 0, 1 and more number of sites. A periodicity of three consecutive significance values (measured by the x²9) was found only in Drosophila mtDNA. This periodicity may be due to an unknown structure or organization of mtDNA. This non-random distribution of the two bases of dinucleotides widespread throughout these DNA segments is rather compatible with panselective evolution and generalized internucleotide co-adaptation.