Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Electronic Journal of Biotechnology]]> vol. 18 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Statistical optimization for tannase production by </strong><em><b>Aspergillus tubingensis</b></em><strong> in solid-state fermentation using tea stalks</strong>]]> Background A sequential statistical strategy was used to optimize tannase production from Aspergillus tubingensis using tea stalks by solid-state fermentation. Results First, using a Plackett-Burman design, inoculum size and incubation time (among seven tested variables) were identified as the most significant factors for tannase yield. The effects of significant variables were further evaluated through a single steepest ascent experiment and central composite design with response surface analysis. Under optimal conditions, the experimental value of 84.24 units per gram of dry substrate (U/gds) closely matched the predicted value of 87.26 U/gds. Conclusions The result of the statistical approach was 2.09 times higher than the basal medium (40.22 U/gds). The results were fitted onto a second-order polynomial model with a correlation coefficient (R²) of 0.9340, which implied an adequate credibility of the model. <![CDATA[<strong>Study on the relationship between intracellular metabolites and astaxanthin accumulation during </strong><em><b>Phaffia rhodozyma</b></em><strong> fermentation</strong>]]> Background To study the relationship between intracellular anabolism and astaxanthin production, the influence of intracellular protein and fatty acids on astaxanthin production by four mutant Phaffia rhodozyma strains and their variations was investigated in this research. Results First, the content of astaxanthin in cells showed a reverse fluctuation in contrast to that of protein during the whole fermentation process. Moreover, compared with the three other strains, the astaxanthin-overproducing mutant strain of the yeast P. rhodozyma, called JMU-MVP14, had the highest specific productivity of astaxanthin as 6.8 mg/g, whereas its intracellular protein and fatty acid contents were the lowest. In addition, as a kind of sugar metabolic product, ethanol was only produced by P. rhodozyma JMU-VDL668 and JMU-7B12 during fermentation. Conclusions The results indicated that the accumulation of ethanol, intracellular protein, and fatty acids had competition effects on astaxanthin synthesis. This condition may explain why the P. rhodozyma strains JMU-VDL668 and JMU-7B12 achieved relatively lower astaxanthin production (1.7 and 1.2 mg/L) than the other two strains JMU-MVP14 and JMU-17W (20.4 and 3.9 mg/L). <![CDATA[<strong>Overproduction of clavulanic acid by extractive fermentation</strong>]]> Background Clavulanic acid is an important beta-lactamase inhibitor produced as a secondary metabolite by the actinomycete Streptomyces clavuligerus. Clavulanic acid is chemically unstable; therefore, it is degraded during bacterial cultivation. In this work, the adsorbents clinoptilolite, activated carbon, calcined hydrotalcite, and Amberlite IRA 400 anionic exchange resin were studied in terms of their ability to adsorb clavulanic acid during extractive fermentation, in order to prevent product degradation and avoid product concentrations reaching inhibitory levels. Adsorption assays were used to investigate the effect of pH, and the decrease in the clavulanic acid concentration in the culture broth was measured for each adsorbent. Results IRA 400 was found to be most effective, with 78% adsorption of clavulanic acid. The maximum production of clavulanic acid in Erlenmeyer flask cultures increased 86% in terms of mass of CA, and 248% in cumulative CA concentration, with the use of Amberlite IRA 400 as adsorbent in extractive fermentation, compared to control fermentation performed without product removal. Conclusions The results indicated that extractive fermentation using a solid phase could be an important way of enhancing clavulanic acid titers. It was also possible to show that clavulanic acid acts as an inhibitor of its own synthesis. <![CDATA[<strong>Stable expression and characterization of a fungal pectinase and bacterial peroxidase genes in tobacco chloroplast</strong>]]> Background The high capacity of chloroplast genome response to integrate and express transgenes at high levels makes this technology a good option to produce proteins of interest. This report presents the stable expression of Pectin lyase (PelA gene) and the first stable expression of manganese peroxidase (MnP-2 gene) from the chloroplast genome. Results pES4 and pES5 vectors were derived from pPV111A plasmid and contain the PelA and MnP-2 synthetic genes, respectively. Both genes are flanked by a synthetic rrn16S promoter and the 3'UTR from rbcL gene. Efficient gene integration into both inverted repeats of the intergenic region between rrn16S and 3'rps'12 was confirmed by Southern blot. Stable processing and expression of the RNA were confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Enzymatic activity was evaluated to detect expression and functionality of both enzymes. In general, mature plants showed more activity than young transplastomic plants. Compared to wild type plants, transplastomic events expressing pectin lyase exhibited enzymatic activity above 58.5% of total soluble protein at neutral pH and 60°C. In contrast, MnP-2 showed high activity at pH 6 with optimum temperature at 65°C. Neither transplastomic plant exhibited an abnormal phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrated that hydrolytic genes PelA and MnP-2 could be integrated and expressed correctly from the chloroplast genome of tobacco plants. A whole plant, having ~ 470 g of biomass could feasibly yield 66,676.25 units of pectin or 21,715.46 units of manganese peroxidase. Also, this study provides new information about methods and strategies for the expression of enzymes with industrial value. <![CDATA[<strong>Molecular cloning and antibacterial activity of hepcidin from Chinese rare minnow (</strong><em><b>Gobiocypris rarus</b></em><strong>)</strong>]]> Background Hepcidins, a kind of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides, play important roles in host immunological processes and iron regulation, which have been identified from several fish species. The rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), an endemic cyprinid fish in China, has been used extensively as model animal in laboratory. However, little is known about its hepcidin. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a hepcidin gene from the liver of Chinese rare minnow. Results The full-length cDNA of rare minnow hepcidin is 662 bp, which contains an ORF of 273 bp encoding a prepropeptide of 90 amino acid residues. The predicted prepropeptide contains three domains: a signal peptide of 24 amino acids, a prodomain of 41 amino acids, and a mature peptide of 25 amino acids. Sequence alignment showed eight conserved cysteine residues in the mature peptide, which formed four disulfide bonds in spatial structure. The deduced structure of mature peptide showed a high degree of homology to the human hepcidin. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it had a close relationship with zebrafish hepcidin, and clustered in a clade with these from Cyprinidae. Synthetic peptide of rare minnow hepcidin could inhibit the growth of Gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Conclusion These results suggested that rare minnow hepcidin had typical structure of hepcidins and antibacterial activity. It could participate in innate immune response as an antibacterial agent and be used as antibiotic substance. <![CDATA[<strong>Clonal diversity and antimicrobial resistance of </strong><em><b>Enterococcus faecalis</b></em><strong> isolated from endodontic infections</strong>]]> Background Enterococcus faecalis is considered to be one of most prevalent species in the oral cavity, particularly in endodontic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of E. faecalis in dental root canals, clonal diversity by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis, and the antibiotic susceptibility of E. faecalis isolates. Results Among the bacterial strains isolated from dental root canal specimens (n = 82), E. faecalis was determined to have the highest prevalence followed by Streptococcus viridians, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Cluster analysis of RAPD-PCR and RFLP patterns of the E. faecalis isolates discriminated five and six different genotypes, respectively. Among the tested strains, 43%, 52% and 5% were susceptible, intermediate resistant, and resistant to erythromycin, respectively. In addition, one strain (E-12) was intermediate resistant to linezolid, and one isolate (E-16) was resistant to tetracycline. Interestingly, many of the intermediate resistant/resistant strains were grouped in clusters 5 and 6, according RAPD and to RFLP, respectively. Conclusions E. faecalis demonstrated the highest prevalence in the tested dental root canal specimens collected from Saudi patients and were grouped into five to six different genotypes. Different levels of antimicrobial susceptibility were observed in the tested E. faecalis strains, which clearly indicated that although bacterial strains may be similar, point mutations can result in extreme susceptibility or resistance to various antibiotics. This phenomenon is a cause for concern for clinicians in the treatment of dental infections caused by E. faecalis. <![CDATA[<strong>Population structure and genetic diversity of Brazilian popcorn germplasm inferred by microsatellite markers</strong>]]> Background The genetic diversity and structure of 31 popcorn accessions of the germplasm bank of the State University of Maringá were assessed using 30 microsatellite primers. Results 127 alleles were identified from 30 evaluated loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to eight. The overall mean of the polymorphic loci averaged 79.89%. The primers UMC1549 and UMC1072 detected polymorphism in all accessions analyzed. The mean observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.07 to 0.30 and the highest proportion of heterozygous plants was observed in accession BOZM 260 (Ho = 0.30). The analysis of molecular variance revealed that 60% of the total genetic variation was found within accessions and 40% was found between accessions. The Bayesian clustering approach grouped the 31 accessions into two genetically differentiated clusters. The dendrogram revealed that accessions TATU 2 and ARZM 05 083 are genetically less similar than the others. Conclusions The analysis allowed to identify microsatellite loci with high levels of heterozygosity (UMC1549 and UMC1072). These loci can be indicated as promising for detecting polymorphisms in popcorn accessions and in the monitoring of genetic improvement programs. Moreover, allowed to identify heterozygous accessions (BOZM 260), this accession showed allelic variation at all analyzed microsatellite loci and can be recommended for crosses with plants that have desirable agronomic characteristics, with a view to the broadening of the genetic base of popcorn accessions and developing new cultivars. <![CDATA[<strong>Isolation of the intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides of </strong><em><b>Ganoderma neojaponicum</b></em><strong> (Imazeki) and characterization of their immunomodulatory properties</strong>]]> Background The role of polysaccharides isolated from the Ganoderma species of fungi in innate immunity has recently become a topic of research. Although some work has been conducted concerning Ganoderma lucidum, the characteristics of polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma neojaponicum (Imazeki) as immunomodulatory agents are largely unknown. The aims for this study were to isolate and characterize the intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs) and extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) of G. neojaponicum from STR reactor. Results The production of EPS and IPS was optimized on day 4 of the cultivation time in 2 L STR reactor based on the amount of biomass yield, total carbohydrate, β-glucan and a-glucan content. Further analysis, both the EPSs and IPSs showed the enhancement on proliferation and increment of phagocytosis activities of macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines. Using an oral toxicity test, we also observed that 2000 mg/kg body weight/day dosage of dried G. neojaponicum mycelium does not cause any significant toxic effects on Sprague-Dawley rats in 14 d of administration. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that the IPSs and EPSs of G. neojaponicum have the potential to be used as immunomodulating agents to stimulate the innate immune system for fighting infectious diseases. The polysaccharides from G. neojaponicum have to be further commercially explored as an alternative for medicinal Ganoderma variety of G. lucidum production. <![CDATA[<strong>Fermentation of rice bran hydrolysate to ethanol using </strong><em><b>Zymomonas mobilis</b></em><strong> biofilm immobilization on DEAE-cellulose</strong>]]> Background The major challenges associated with the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates are the reduction in the operating cost and minimizing the complexity of the process. Zymomonas mobilis biofilm has been emerged to resolve these complexities. Biofilm has been reported to tolerate to the toxic inhibitors and easily manipulated toward the cell recycle through the cell immobilization. Results Z. mobilis ZM4 and TISTR 551 were able to develop biofilms on DEAE cellulose under the differences in the morphologies. Z. mobilis ZM4 developed homogeneous biofilm that brought DEAE fiber to be crosslinking, while Z. mobilis TISTR 551 developed heterogeneous biofilm in which crosslinking was not observed. Ethanol production under batch and repeated batch fermentation of rice bran hydrolysate containing toxic inhibitors were compared between these two biofilms. TISTR 551 biofilm produced the maximum yield (Y P/S) of 0.43 ± 0.09 g ethanol/g glucose (83.89% theoretical yield). However the repeated batch could not be proceeded due to the bacterial detachment. Z. mobilis ZM4 biofilm produced the maximum yield (Y P/S) of 0.177 ± 0.05 g ethanol/g glucose (34.74% theoretical yield) in the batch culture and the biofilm remained intact to proceed along the repeated batch. The highest ethanol yield (Y P/S) in the repeated batch of Z. mobilis ZM4 was 0.354 ± 0.07 g ethanol/g glucose (69.51% theoretical yield). Conclusions Homogeneous biofilm structure of Z. mobilis provided more recycle beneficial over the heterogeneous biofilm structure for the ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. <![CDATA[<strong>Modulation of mitochondrial membrane integrity and ROS formation by high temperature in </strong><em><b>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</b></em>]]> Background Yeast strains are exposed to numerous environmental stresses during industrial alcoholic fermentation. High temperature accumulated acetic acid, enhanced the growth inhibition and decreased ethanol production. Results In this study the influence of high temperature on the cellular and mitochondrial membrane integrity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was investigated to understand the mechanisms of the high temperature fermentation process. However, increasing the temperature to 42°C resulted in a clear decrease in the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in intracellular ROS formation. It was also determined that the different thermostability between YZ1 and YF31 strains had a clear correlation with the yeast's intracellular trehalose content of the cell. Finally, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to explore the genome differences between the YZ1 and YF31 strains. Conclusions Thus, the stability of the mitochondrial membrane and subsequently, the clearance ROS ability could be important factors for the viability of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. <![CDATA[<strong>Diet high in </strong><strong>α</strong><strong>-linolenic acid up-regulate PPAR-</strong><strong>α</strong><strong> gene expression in the liver of goats</strong>]]> Background There is little information on the effects of diets containing high α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) on liver lipid composition and lipogenic gene expressions. In this study fourteen goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) were fed either a flaxseed oil (FSO) supplemented diet containing high α-linolenic acid or a control diet without added flaxseed oil (CON) for 100-d to evaluate the effects on liver lipid composition and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α) and stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD) in the liver. Results An increase in the levels of C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3, C22:6n-3 was observed in the liver of FSO-treated goats. There was a significant (P < 0.05) up-regulation of PPAR-α gene expression and downregulation of SCD gene in the liver of goats fed the high α-linolenic acid diet. Conclusions In conclusion, genes associated with the control of fatty acid (FA) conversion (SCD and PPAR) were affected by the α-linolenic acid supplementation in the goat diet. It is suggested that PPAR-α is the key messenger responsible for the translation of nutritional stimuli into changes in hepatic gene expression. <![CDATA[<strong>mRNA transcription and protein expression of PPAR</strong><strong>γ</strong><strong>, FAS, and HSL in different parts of the carcass between fat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep</strong>]]> Background The objective of this study was to compare the level differences of mRNA transcription and protein expression of PPARγ, FAS and HSL in different parts of the carcass in different tail-type sheep. Six Tan sheep and six Shaanbei fine-wool sheep aged 9 months were slaughtered and samples were collected from the tail adipose, subcutaneous adipose, and longissimus dorsi muscle. The levels of mRNA transcription and protein expression of the target genes in these tissues were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. Results The results showed that PPARγ, FAS, and HSL were expressed with spatial differences in tail adipose, subcutaneous adipose and longissimus dorsi muscle of Tan sheep and Shaanbei fine-wool sheep. Differences were also observed between the two breeds. The mRNA transcription levels of these genes were somewhat consistent with their protein expression levels. Conclusion The present results indicated that PPARγ, FAS and HSL are correlated with fat deposition, especially for the regulating of adipose deposition in intramuscular fat, and that the mRNA expression patterns are similar to the protein expression patterns. The mechanism requires clarification in further studies. <![CDATA[<strong>Photo-fermentational hydrogen production of </strong><em><b>Rhodobacter</b></em><strong> sp. KKU-PS1 isolated from an UASB reactor</strong>]]> Background In this study, the detection of nifH and nifD by a polymerase chain reaction assay was used to screen the potential photosynthetic bacteria capable of producing hydrogen from five different environmental sources. Efficiency of photo-hydrogen production is highly dependent on the culture conditions. Initial pH, temperature and illumination intensity were optimized for maximal hydrogen production using response surface methodology with central composite design. Results Rhodobacter sp. KKU-PS1 (GenBank Accession No. KC478552) was isolated from the methane fermentation broth of an UASB reactor. Malic acid was the favored carbon source while Na-glutamate was the best nitrogen source. The optimum conditions for simultaneously maximizing the cumulative hydrogen production (Hmax) and hydrogen production rate (Rm) from malic acid were an initial of pH 7.0, a temperature of 25.6°C, and an illumination intensity of 2500 lx. Hmax and Rm levels of 1264 ml H2/l and 6.8 ml H2/L-h were obtained, respectively. The optimum initial pH and temperature were further used to optimize the illumination intensity for hydrogen production. An illumination intensity of 7500 lx gave the highest values of Hmax (1339 ml H2/l) and Rm (12.0 ml H2/L-h) with a hydrogen yield and substrate conversion efficiency of 3.88 mol H2/mol malate and 64.7%, respectively. Conclusions KKU-PS1 can produce hydrogen from at least 8 types of organic acids. By optimizing pH and temperature, a maximal hydrogen production by this strain was obtained. Additionally, by optimizing the light intensity, Rm was increased by approximately two fold and the lag phase of hydrogen production was shortened. <![CDATA[<strong>PCR-RFLP as a useful tool for diagnosis of invasive mycoses in a healthcare facility in the North of Brazil</strong>]]> Background The incidence of invasive mycoses is increasing worldwide. PCR-RFLP was applied to the identification of 10 reference strains and 90 cultures of agents of invasive mycoses. In addition, the new approach was applied to detect fungal agents in 120 biological samples (blood, cerebrospinal fluid and bone marrow). PCR-RFLP results were compared with the ones obtained with conventional methods (culture, microscopy, and biochemical testing). Results The assays carried out with the reference strains (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii and Histoplasma capsulatum), demonstrated that the RFLP profiles were correctly predicted by the in silico investigation and allowed unequivocal identification of all chosen reference strains. The PCR-RFLP also identified 90 cultures of agents of invasive mycoses correctly, 2.5 times faster than the conventional assays. Evaluating PCR-RFLP with biological samples it was observed that the PCR was found to be 100% accurate and the RFLP profiles allowed the identification of the etiological agents: C. neoformans (n = 3) and C. gattii (n = 1) in CSF samples, H. capsulatum (n = 1) in bone marrow and C. albicans (n = 2) in blood cultures. The detection and identification by PCR-RFLP were found to be between two to ten times faster than the conventional assays. Conclusion The results showed that PCR-RFLP is a valuable tool for the identification of invasive mycoses that can be implemented in hospital laboratories, allowing for a high number of clinical analyses per day. <![CDATA[<strong>Production of extracellular alkaline protease by new halotolerant alkaliphilic </strong><em><b>Bacillus</b></em><strong> sp. NPST-AK15 isolated from hyper saline soda lakes</strong>]]> Background Alkaline proteases are among the most important classes of industrial hydrolytic enzymes. The industrial demand for alkaline proteases with favorable properties continues to enhance the search for new enzymes. The present study focused on isolation of new alkaline producing alkaliphilic bacteria from hyper saline soda lakes and optimization of the enzyme production. Results A new potent alkaline protease producing halotolerant alkaliphilic isolate NPST-AK15 was isolated from hyper saline soda lakes, which affiliated to Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. Organic nitrogen supported enzyme production showing maximum yield using yeast extract, and as a carbon source, fructose gave maximum protease production. NPST-AK15 can grow over a broad range of NaCl concentrations (0-20%), showing maximal growth and enzyme production at 0-5%, indicated the halotolerant nature of this bacterium. Ba and Ca enhanced enzyme production by 1.6 and 1.3 fold respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for both enzyme production and cell growth were at 40°C and pH 11, respectively. Alkaline protease secretion was coherent with the growth pattern, started at beginning of the exponential phase and reached maximal in mid stationary phase (36 h). Conclusions A new halotolerant alkaliphilic alkaline protease producing Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 was isolated from soda lakes. Optimization of various fermentation parameters resulted in an increase of enzyme yield by 22.8 fold, indicating the significance of optimization of the fermentation parameters to obtain commercial yield of the enzyme. NPST-AK15 and its extracellular alkaline protease with salt tolerance signify their potential applicability in the laundry industry and other applications. <![CDATA[<strong>Enhanced production of dimethyl phthalate-degrading strain </strong><em><b>Bacillus</b></em><strong> sp. QD<sub>14</sub> by optimizing fermentation medium</strong>]]> Background Integrated statistical experimental designs were applied to optimize the medium constituents for the production of a dimethyl phthalate (DMP)-degrading strain Bacillus sp. QD14 in shake-flask cultures. A Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen for significant factors, followed by the Steepest Ascent Method (SAM) to find the nearest region of maximum response. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted to optimize the final levels of the medium components. Results After the regression equation and response surface contour plots were analyzed, the concentrations of glucose, corn meal and NaCl were found to significantly influence the biomass of DMP-degrading bacteria. A combination of 22.88 g/L of glucose, 11.74 g/L of corn meal, and 10.34 g/L of NaCl was optimum for maximum biomass production of Bacillus sp. QD14. A 57.11% enhancement of the biomass production was gained after optimization in shake-flask cultivation. The biomass production of Bacillus sp. QD14 reached 9.13 ± 0.29 × 10(8) CFU/mL, which was an excellent match for the predicted value, and the mean value of the match degree was as high as 99.30%. Conclusion In this work, the key factors affected by the fermentation of DMP-degrading strain Bacillus sp. QD14 were optimized by PBD, SAM and BBD (RSM); the yield was increased by 57,11% in the conditions in our study. We propose that the conditions optimized in the study can be applied to the fermentation for commercialization production. <![CDATA[<strong>A rapid method for an offline glycerol determination during microbial fermentation</strong>]]> Background The purpose of this work was to find a rapid method for glycerol detection during microbial fermentations. The method requirements were, first, to avoid sample pretreatment, and second, to measure glycerol precisely especially out of fermentation broth. Results This was achieved by combining two reaction principles - the Malaprade reaction and the Hantzsch reaction. In the Malaprade reaction, glycerol is converted into formaldehyde. This forms a dye in the Hantzsch reaction after which adsorption is than detected. The subsequent assay was investigated with two different fermentation media, a chemically undefined and a chemically defined media, used for Pichia pastoris fermentation. In both media, as well as in real fermentation samples, glycerol content could be reproducibly detected with the method. Moreover, measurements were more precise than using a standard glycerol detection kit. Conclusions With this rapid assay, glycerol could be detected easily in microbial fermentation broth. It is reliable over a wide concentration range including advantages such as an easy assay set-up, a short assay time and no sample pretreatment.