Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 4 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>How Relevant and Useful is the Concept of National Systems of Innovation?</b>]]> This paper aimed to provide an analytical and theoretical discussion of the national innovation systems perspective. In doing so, first, we sketched out some of the economists' main endeavours in theorizing about the relationship between technological development and economic progress over the past several decades. Second part of the presentation was concerned with identifying and describing the driving forces behind innovations; that was, an economic actor's desire to gain and sustain competitive advantages. In the third part of the discussion, we presented major theoretical accounts put forward by the authors of national systems of innovation focusing on the question of which institutional elements shape the behaviours and interactions of economic actors in terms of innovative performance. Then we reflected on some of the major policy implications enshrined in the study of national innovation systems. <![CDATA[<b>The Role of Technology as an Enabler in Job Redesign</b>]]> This paper is an acknowledgement of the role of technology as an enabler that encourages the constant need to evaluate, update and employ changing job descriptions and business processes that truly acknowledge job requirements as they are versus notions of what they have been or should be. Advancements in technology have brought about a significant amount of change in terms of how we go about doing our daily work. The evolution from being a manufacturing economy to being information and service based brought to the workplace new realities and responsibilities. As a result, workers can no longer expect to be given a specific listing of assigned duties and tasks that remain fixed over a long period of time. The new paradigm in the workplace relies on continuous demands for improvement and acquired knowledge in a dynamic environment. The catalyst that enables continuous improvement is technology. <![CDATA[<b>A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries</b>: <b>Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues</b>]]> There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects in the developing world, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology's implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating the risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC² ) auditing, and that we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC² issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects. <![CDATA[<b>Managing Science and Technology Occupations of Women in Nigeria</b>]]> The study examined the occupational activities of female graduates in science and technology related fields with a view to a ssessing factors influencing their performance and make recommendations to enhance women work experiences in S&T occupations. The data for the study was collected through questionnaire and interview schedule from a sample of 2110 respondents comprising of employed female Science and Technology (S&T) graduates and heads of departments in tertiary institutions and S&T firms in Nigeria. The study reveal that most female S&T graduates (FSTGs) employed in tertiary institutions and research institutions were engaged in S&T based occupations. However, in corporate firms, most of the FSTGs work either in administration, finance or R&D departments. In addition, a large proportion takes less paying non S&T jobs for domestic reasons and lack of suitable vacancies. This suggests gross under-utilization of human resource. Some S&T organizations did not have any female working in S&T departments. Recommendations were made to enhance the recruitment, retention and performance of women in S&T employment in Nigeria. <![CDATA[Inventions Utilizing Satellite Navigation Systems in the Railway Industry: An Analysis of Patenting Activity]]> Applications based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), in combination with different communication systems, have significantly helped to increase safety, efficiency and system capacity of operations in different modes of transportation. Here railway transport is no exception, although the number of applications based on GNSS has been considerably behind the number of those used in road transport. Since incorporating e.g. GPS receivers into modern signaling, train control and other railway systems has become usual, it is interesting to examine GNSS/GPS-based inventions and patenting trends more closely in this context. This paper analyses GNSS/GPS-related patents in the railway industry in order to shed light on the patenting activity in different countries/regions and to identify (and to a certain extent make a classification of) the main application areas for this technology. <![CDATA[<b>Biogenéricos</b>: <b>Un Estudio de Vigilancia Tecnológica para el Caso de la Situación en Chile</b>]]> The activities to know the market of a technological product must know not only the exclusively economic analyses but to consider the technological existing information. The present work was approached as a study of case for the application of some tools of technological alertness to determine the possibility of producing medicines of biotechnological base in Chile. Of the information that exist, is clear that the biogenerics in general are very sophisticated and need for the elaboration, a long period of management, of technical and clinical precise and sophisticated controls and significant amounts of investment in research and development. In Chile, 100 % of the imported biotechnological products are finished products and that does not exist exportation of biotechnological products from Chile. In Chile yet does not have sufficient technological aptitude to include all the stages that are needed to place a biotechnological product on the market.<hr/>Las actividades para conocer el mercado de un producto tecnológico deben conocer no solo los análisis exclusivamente económicos sino que considerar la información tecnológica existente. El presente trabajo se abordó como un estudio de caso para la aplicación de algunas herramientas de vigilancia tecnológica para determinar la posibilidad de producir medicamentos de base biotecnológica en Chile. De la información recogida se desprende que los biogenéricos en general son muy sofisticados y requieren para su elaboración, un largo período de gestión, de controles técnicos y clínicos precisos y sofisticados y montos significativos de inversión en investigación y desarrollo. En Chile, el 100% de los biofármacos importados son productos terminados y que no existe exportación de biofármacos desde Chile. Se concluye que Chile aún no tiene suficiente capacidad tecnológica para abarcar todas las etapas que se requieren para colocar un producto biotecnológico en el mercado. <![CDATA[<b>La Relación</b><b> entre las Estrategias de Innovación</b>: <b>Coexistencia o Complementariedad</b>]]> This paper explores the relationships between internal R&D and external knowledge acquisition as business innovation strategies. Drawing on absorptive capacity framework (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990), we distinguish and empirically evaluate two possible relationships: coexistence and complementarity. The analysis is based on a large sample of manufacturing firms taken from the Spanish Survey of Technological Innovation 2004. Our results show coexistence between internal R&D and external knowledge acquisition but they do not provide evidence that these activities are complementary with respect to influencing innovation performance. In other words, although our results suggest that internal R&D activities are associated with a greater use of external knowledge sourcing strategies, they do not seem to have synergistic effects to develop new products.<hr/>Este artículo analiza las relaciones existentes entre la generación y la adquisición externa de conocimiento como estrategias de innovación empresarial. Para ello, y utilizando el concepto de capacidad de absorción (Cohen y Levinthal, 1990) como marco de referencia, se distinguen y se analizan empíricamente dos posibles relaciones: coexistencia y complementariedad. El estudio es realizado sobre una muestra amplia de empresas manufactureras españolas, empleando los datos derivados de la Encuesta sobre Innovación Tecnológica del año 2004. Los resultados muestran que en el contexto analizado, las actividades internas de I+D y las estrategias asociadas con la adquisición externa de conocimiento son estrategias coexistentes, pero no complementarias. En otras palabras, si bien las actividades internas de I+D facilitan la identificación y adquisición de conocimiento externo, no se encuentra evidencia a favor de que dichas actividades tengan un efecto sinérgico para el desarrollo de nuevos productos. <![CDATA[<b>Determinantes da Transferência de Tecnologia na Agroindústria Brasileira de Alimentos</b>: <b>Identificação e Caracterização</b>]]> This article aims to identify and characterize determinants of technology transfer, from the perspective of agro-industrial firms operating in Brazil, and under the light of the core theoretical concepts. By reaching this objective, the article provides a basis for studies and practices relating to technological change in the agrifood sector. Particularly, it may help in defining or reformulating public policies favorable for the generation and application of technologies in the Brazilian food industry.<hr/>Este artigo objetiva identificar e caracterizar determinantes da transferência de tecnologia à luz dos conceitos teóricos básicos e na ótica de empresas agroindustriais que atuam no Brasil. Ao alcançar este objetivo, o artigo apresenta uma base para estudos e práticas referentes à mudança tecnológica no setor agroalimentar. Particularmente, ele pode auxiliar na definição ou reformulação de políticas públicas favoráveis para a geração e aplicação de tecnologias na agroindústria brasileira de alimentos.