Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 4 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Investing in Networking Competences or Establishing in Hot Spots?</b>: <b>The Innovation Dilemna</b>]]> The target of this paper is twofold: investigating open innovation practices that are used up in French manufacturing industries, and evaluating the impact on firms' innovativeness of those networking abilities in comparison to internal development of competences and to spillovers available in the neighborhood. Concretely, thanks to a huge database on competences for innovation, the paper estimates the impact of different categories of innovative competences (mostly relational ones) on innovative performance. This empirical analysis first shows that if networking abilities are the core innovative competences, strategies to tap into external innovation sources vary across sectors. Second, this work allows to precise the relational competences that firms should develop in order to improve their innovative performance. <![CDATA[<b>Company Size Effect in Innovative Performance</b>]]> The study presents the result of a research that had the objective of evaluate the influence of the size of the company in the practices of management of external sources of technological information and the correspondent impacts of these practices in the innovation performance of the enterprise. The survey was carried based on data collected from a set of Brazilian industrial companies that are considered innovative The analysis of the relation between the management of external sources of technological information and the performance, according to the size of the companies disclosed that although being limited to a smal number there are some significant differences in aspects related to the access to technology and the types of external sources of technological information used by the firms. Some significant differences between small and larger firms on how these managerial practices affect the innovative performance were also detected. <![CDATA[<b>Technological Foresight Based on Citing and Cited Patents of Cellulose with Pharmaceutical Applications</b>]]> The present study intends to present the relevance of cellulose by means of the technological foresight study through citing and cited documents from a patent application (WO 9745131 A1) as indicators of innovation. The European database of patents (espacenet) was used, combining keywords and IPC. The major applicants, countries of publication and uses were mapped. The patent requests collected are mainly distributed in the area of polymers to medical devices and therapeutic methods that utilize cellulose. The results obtained revealed that the US was the main country with studies directed to this technological area (18 patent applications) and the major applicant was the company Micro Therapeutics Inc. Therefore, we can understand that this is a promising technology that may reflect in an increase of R&D activities and in the patent deposits in this area. <![CDATA[<b>Technology Strategy and New Technology Based Firms</b>]]> A study of the competitive advantage in successful New Technology Based Firms found that their technology strategy played a key role for making these companies improve their competitive advantage. We appealed to the grounded theory as a qualitative strategy to build theory, and to the exploratory case-study methodology to effectively understand this phenomenon in specific contexts as the one represented by small entrepreneurial firms in comparison with large established firms. A suitable comprehension of the different contexts required of a view of technology strategy that is more dynamic than those typically available. We build an explanatory model which integrates and groups the propositions previously developed. We view the study as exploratory to a class of studies aimed at understanding the technology strategy process in new ventures. <![CDATA[<b>SME Innovative Capacity, Competitive Advantage and Performance in a 'Traditional' Industrial Region of Portugal</b>]]> This study aims to identify the factors that contribute to the building of a firm's innovative capacity and to assess the way in which this contributes to our understanding of how much this contributes to improvements in the firm's performance. A conceptual model is proposed consisting of five separate dimensions: the firm; the entrepreneur; the external business environment; the firm's innovative capacity; and the firm's performance. The study was based on questionnaire-based data from a sample of firms drawn from the manufacturing industry in the Beira Interior Region of Portugal. The results provided evidence regarding the factors influencing the innovative capacity of firms and permitted conclusions to be drawn regarding effects of superior innovative capacity on the construction of firms' competitive advantage, which in turn contributes to improved performance. <![CDATA[<b>Firm's Innovation Expectation, Potential and Actions</b>: <b>Impressions on the Japanese Videogame Console Market</b>]]> From the major assumptions proposed by the Theory of the Firm, it is possible to understand the firm as the primary site for innovation. Innovation efforts are justified by the vital need of any firm to generate enough solutions to be validated in the market. All along the market validation process, one can identify the life cycle of the innovation, easily represented by an "S-curve". Whether due to the new solution's success in terms of sales, market share or technological improvements, there is a sequence of stages that are, invariably, repeated in all technologies: startup, development and maturity. This paper presents, based on an S-curve model for innovation expectation and potential, the analysis of the major players (Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft) actions´ in the Japanese videogame console market. The most interesting findings are that firms launch new products somewhere just before the inflexion point of the previous S-curve, and stress the life cycle of each on-going technology by keeping, simultaneously, different versions of the consoles. <![CDATA[<b>Impacts of New Technologies on Free-to-Air TV industry</b>: <b>Lessons from Selected Country Cases</b>]]> This paper aims to examine the impacts of new technologies, especially of the digital TV, on the industry of terrestrial TV in selected countries. Taking the evolution of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as a background scenario, the transformations provoked by digitization of TV on the following aspects are analyzed: (i) the market structure of terrestrial TV (or free-to-air TV broadcasting), (ii) the plurality and diversity of TV programming. Based on secondary data and on recent studies on the technological trajectory of terrestrial TV in selected countries, one concludes that digital TV may provide great opportunities for development in such industry, but the magnitude of its benefits is strongly conditioned by socioeconomic factors and by how the service was regulated. Such findings may contribute to Brazilian debate on development opportunities opened by technological change to the television sector. <![CDATA[<b>R&D Management and the Stokes Diagram</b>: <b>An Exploratory Study</b>]]> The Stokes Diagram model was developed to replace the linear mode view of a progression of science by a two dimensional plane in which the vertical dimension represents the search of understanding and the horizontal dimension represents the use. Although this diagram is easy to understand, no cases of organizations or government programs were identified in literature which developed a method to put this proposal in practice. Thus, based on the development of a conceptual and operating model, both dimensions were measured and validated through structural equation modeling, using information from 28 dissertations developed in a Postgraduate program. The results suggest that the proposed method is viable and give some examples of its use to analyze and manage R&D activities. <![CDATA[<b>Exogenous Factors in the Development of Flexible Fuel Cars as a Local Dominant Technology</b>]]> With flexible fuel technology, customers can choose gasoline, ethanol, or any mix thereof at the fuel station pump. This paper presents the endogenous and exogenous factors that influnced the development of a flexible fuel electronic injection system by Magneti Marelli Automotive Systems Brazil - the first to the market. This software-based architecture, launched commercially in 2003, is now the dominant flexfuel design in the Brazilian market. This article documents the emergence of a local dominant technology (design) in a specific car sub-system. It is shown how exogenous institutional factors played the major role in this process. The paper also shows that this local dominant technological design emerged through the sharing of capabilities and interaction among the key market players, in the absence of a strong appropriability regime. All the main market pioneers were multinational affiliates, inviting questions concerning this technology diffusion outside Brazil. <![CDATA[<b>El Proceso de Desarrollo de Productos Tecnológicos entre las Universidades y las MIPYMES Mexicanas</b>: <b>Una Carrera de Obstáculos</b>]]> Today firm's competitiveness depends on the development of proprietary technology and its integration to commercial technological products. Experiences and case studies show that the micro, small and medium firms (MIPYMES, in Spanish) develop technological products collaborating with public universities. In this work it is presented the colaborative technological product development process phases focusing in the identification of the diverse obstacles occurring along the process. Diverse technical, organizational and communication aspects that affects the project development are discussed. The resistances or barriers to the development make it difficult and could cause project abandon sometimes. This empirical and exploratory research is conducted under the reference of the technological project management model developed and used at the Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico (CCADET) of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).<hr/>Hoy en día se sabe que la competitividad de las empresas depende del desarrollo de tecnologías propietarias y de su integración a productos tecnológicos comercializables. Muchas experiencias y estudios de caso demuestran que las MIPYMES¹ desarrollan productos tecnológicos colaborando con las universidades públicas. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de las fases del proceso de desarrollo de productos tecnológicos colaborativo poniendo énfasis en la identificación de los diversos obstáculos que se presentan a lo largo del mismo. Se discuten diversos aspectos técnicos, organizacionales y de comunicación que afectan al proceso convirtiéndose en resistencias o barreras que lo obstaculizan y que pueden llegar inclusive a provocar su abandono. Esta investigación empírica y exploratoria se enfoca desde la perspectiva del modelo de Gestión Tecnológica de Proyectos (GTP) que se lleva a cabo en el Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo tecnológico, CCADET de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM. <![CDATA[<b>Formulación y Control de la Estrategia en un Grupo de Empresas que Conforman una Red</b>]]> The management's networks are part of the actual business surrounding and characterize themselves because they promote the establishment of a strong interdependency between the companies, their clients, suppliers, government institutions and supporting entities. The investigation proposal was to evaluate the degree in which the enterprises include these actors in the formulation and control of the management's strategy The results shows that the companies involved are taking especially into consideration the interaction with their employees at the moment to formulate and realize controls of managements' strategy. The involvement of the other enterprises which adjusts the network in this procedure is questionable; at the time the importance that the enterprises ascribe to universities and entities who promote investigation, is limited.<hr/>Las redes empresariales son parte del actual entorno de negocios y se caracterizan porque llevan a establecer fuertes interdependencias entre las empresas, sus clientes, proveedores, instituciones del gobierno y entidades de apoyo. El estudio tenía como propósito validar el grado en que las empresas consideran estos agentes en los procesos de formulación y control de la estrategia empresarial. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las empresas tienen en cuenta especialmente la interacción con sus empleados al momento de formular y realizar controles a las estrategias empresariales; el papel de las otras empresas que conforman la red en este proceso es discutible; así mismo, es limitada la importancia que las empresas le atribuyen a las universidades y entidades de fomento a la investigación. <![CDATA[<b>Una Revisión de la Interpretación Económica sobre la Innovación</b>]]> Theorists have employed two conflicting approaches in order to understand the economic concept of innovation: the classical theory of static equilibrium where innovation is interpreted as being exogenous to the economic system, and the dynamic equilibrium theory of endogenous technological change. Despite progress in studies and inquiries on the second model, research in and teaching of economics remain dominated by the first approach. This review discusses the differences between science, technology and innovation and implications of dynamic equilibrium theory in understanding the economy and wealth creation processes.<hr/>El concepto económico de la innovación ha sido tratado desde dos enfoques antagónicos: el de la teoría clásica del equilibrio estático donde la innovación es interpretada como un elemento exógeno al sistema económico, y el de la teoría del equilibrio dinámico del cambio tecnológico endógeno. A pesar del avance en los estudios del segundo modelo, la investigación y la enseñanza de la economía continúa siendo dominada por el primer enfoque. En la presente revisión se discute las diferencias entre ciencia, tecnología e innovación, y las implicaciones de la teoría del equilibrio dinámico para entender la economía y los procesos de creación de riqueza. <![CDATA[<b>The Influence of the Actor Network on the Innovative Process of Transgenic Soybean in Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil</b>]]> Rio Grande do Sul was the first Brazilian state to plant genetically modified soybean. The sowing occurred in 1998 with Roundup Ready soybean seeds from Monsanto smuggled from Argentina. The aim of this study is to investigate how this innovative process of planting transgenic soybean came about in Rio Grande do Sul based on the actor network involved in the period 1998 to 2003. Although the innovative process has been discussed in the literature on innovation management since the work of Schumpeter, there is still no clear understanding of the issues of interests and power that involve the innovative process. Given this, from within the literature we have sought a perspective that would understand the innovative process as being political. We adopted Actor Network Theory as a base for the discussion of the primary and secondary data obtained regarding the controversy surrounding transgenic soybean in RS. The results point to the existence of two translation chains that contribute towards the formation of actor networks. <![CDATA[<b>ICT Policy and perspectives of Human Development in Latin America</b>: <b>the Peruvian Experience</b>]]> Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has been considered as an important element for economic growth and social development. However, no consensus seems to exist about the proper roles and actual effects of information technology in dynamics of socioeconomic development. Many countries around the world have seen great opportunities in implementing initiatives that would increase the ICT adoption in different areas, especially in the government. Developed countries have exploited their ICT infrastructure for implementing success projects, while developing countries are launching their own ICT based initiatives hoping to achieve a considerable impact in the society in a relatively short term. The present research is oriented to study the implications of ICT policies for enhancing the quality of life in developing countries, especially in the Latin American countries. This paper reviews some important efforts in the deployment of ICT initiative in Peru. The contribution from a research perspective is to report on some key lessons learnt and propose a set of recommendations for future implementations in similar developing nations' environments.