Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 5 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Athena in the World of<i> Techne</i>: The Gender Dimension of Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship]]> Long confined to the realm of feminist studies, issues pertaining to women’s access, participation, advancement and reward are rising to prominence in innovation, technology and entrepreneurship -areas traditionally characterised either by gender-blindness or male dominance. The implications of this shift are wide-ranging but the mechanisms by which it takes place are little known. We discuss causes of the relatively small numbers of women scientists, researchers, innovators or entrepreneurs, the exceedingly slow pace of transition from inequality to equality and the usually lower hierarchical positions than men’s in academia or business, women’s hidden roles in technological change and an exemplary instance of women’s leading role in a major technological innovation with wide social impact, in the context of major changes arising in the transition from the Industrial to the Knowledge Society. <![CDATA[Where are All the Female Innovators?: Nurses as Innovators in a Public Sector Innovation Project]]> The individual innovator is seldom seen in innovation research, but there is still an implicit understanding that men are more innovative than women, and that men-dominated occupations are more innovative than women-dominated ones. The female nurse is one among those who are not seen as innovative and few innovation policies target her. In this paper, two of the many factors that determine the alleged lack of innovativeness of women are tested empirically: that women work in occupations which are not associated with innovation; and that women lack the self-confidence to carry out innovative work. Our results show that there are gender differences in favour of women regarding the creativity and innovativeness of employees within the same care sector occupation. Men and women end their innovative efforts for different reasons and the innovativeness of women is sometimes hampered by low self-confidence and low prioritization of work issues over family or household issues. Overall, innovation policies targeting these groups are needed to mobilize otherwise dormant potential innovators. <![CDATA[Financing Strategies of New Technology-Based Firms: A Comparison of Women-and Men-Owned Firms]]> In this article we used data from the Kauffman Firm Survey to compare the financing strategies of women-and men-owned new technology-based firms. Our findings reveal that women raised dramatically less financial capital than men in the startup year and in the subsequent four years of operation. We also found that women used a significantly higher level of external debt and a significantly lower level of external equity during the startup year. Although our findings do not allow us to definitively rule out the possibility of discrimination, particularly in the market for external equity, our results indicate that women may have different motivations and expectations for their firms. These, in turn, may determine some of their financing choices. <![CDATA[Academic Entrepreneurship: Gendered Discourses and Ghettos]]> In this article, we explore how the academic entrepreneurship discourse is constructed and gendered, based on texts on academic entrepreneurship and interviews with teachers and researchers at two Swedish universities. We show that the global entrepreneurship discourse is met by both counteracting and contributory discourses in academia. We also show that entrepreneurship-promoting texts in which only men are depicted address both women and men, while pictures of women are only targeted to women, often found in ‘entrepreneurial ghettos' and conceptualized as in need of support, as less risk-willing and less willing to commercialize their research. Another problem addressed in this article is how to design gender mainstreaming interventions without reproducing such stereotypes. We believe the solution is not gender neutrality, but to move back and forth between liberal feminist and social constructionist approaches. <![CDATA[Gender Equality in Interface Organizations between Science, Technology and Innovation]]> The article addresses the question of gender equality in the context of interface organizations between science, technology and innovation, focusing on gendered work practices in science parks. Drawing upon the notions of gendered work practices, feminization of work and feminist science and technology studies, the article explores: 1. Key aspects of work practices in science parks; 2. Gender segregation embedded in these practices; and 3. Practices which help to promote gender equality in intermediary work. The study is empirically based on interviews with top managers and female experts of four Finnish science parks, complemented by one focus group interview with representatives of funding agencies, ministries and intermediary organizations. The study demonstrates that work in science parks is simultaneously future-oriented knowledge work and service work characterized by features of feminization and care (i.e. sensitivity to the needs of clients). Gender segregation commonly seen in the science, technology and innovation sector is reproduced in novel ways in the work practices of the science parks, especially due to the gendered patterns of professional recognition and male networking. This implies that - in spite of the feminised work practices - women do not find easy careers in science parks. The data show, however, that there are also several practices which are used to counteract segregation and promote gender equality, including a number of positive actions developed by women themselves in order to promote recognition and networking in science parks. <![CDATA[We are a Motley Crew: Exploring the Careers of Men and Women Working at the University-Industry Interface]]> Entrepreneurial activities of faculty have received increasing research attention. In contrast, little is known about the careers and activities of the women and men working at the university-industry interface. To close this gap, in this paper we address technology transfer as an emerging occupational field and examine the careers of people working in the field. Taking the example of Germany, we show that on the surface technology transfer is almost perfectly gender balanced, but marked gender differences exist between and within transfer organizations. Against this background, we find a 'motley crew' with a diversity of disciplinary backgrounds and professional experiences. While women often consider working in technology transfer as temporary in nature and 'second best' when compared to a science career, men approach their career in an entrepreneurial spirit. Our results also suggest that women's opportunities and gains are fragile because of the still transitory nature of the field. <![CDATA[Women in Hybrid Roles in IT Employment: A Return to 'Nimble Fingers'?]]> Two key aspects of the Information Technology sector are the focus on clients and the 'new' organisational forms of teamwork and management by project. Both require employees who are able to combine technical and communication skills in the form of 'hybrid' jobs. We discuss the gendered development of hybrid jobs in the IT sector, proposing two overarching types of hybridity: inward-facing, tending to be done by women; and outward-facing, tending to be done by men. The 'boundaryless' career model, argued to be the model for successful careers in the IT sector, may link more to the outward-facing type. The gendered differentiation of hybrid jobs could therefore be one reason for women's segregation in IT employment and the attendant gender pay gap. <![CDATA['Disappearing Women': A Study of Women Who Left the UK ICT Sector]]> Women continue to leave the UK ICT sector in disproportionate numbers, yet little research has documented this phenomenon. In contrast, the majority of existing studies in this area concentrate on women who remain in the ICT workplace. The ' Disappearing Women: Northwest ICT ' project reported in this paper focused on women who left the UK ICT sector and allowed their voices to be heard, telling how they had been overlooked and effectively silenced. Drawing on nine in-depth qualitative autobiographical interviews, we identify a typology of 'disappearing women' from the ICT sector and several reasons for their decision to do so. The relevance of these findings for policy and practice is also discussed. <![CDATA[Implicaciones de Género en la Sociedad de la Información: Un Análisis desde los Determinantes de Uso de Internet en Chile y México]]> This document presents the gender differences in Internet use for some Latin American countries and, through an empirical exercise, validates these differences, as well as the gender interaction with the determinants of Internet use. For this purpose, a model of interaction effects is applied to Mexico and Chile, with the income as one of the key determinants in the use of Internet. The main findings suggest that the positive effect of the income on the probability of use of Internet is greater for men than for women. This is one of the first papers that show the status of gender indicators and Internet use in the region. Additionally, this is the first empirical validation of gender gaps given by using models based on information from ICT households' surveys of Mexico and Chile. Thus, based on findings on the gender implications in Internet use, we raised the discussion to public policy guidelines for the region.<hr/>Este documento presenta las diferencias de género en el uso de Internet para algunos países de América Latina y mediante un ejercicio empírico valida estas diferencias, así como la interacción del género con los determinantes de uso de Internet. Para esto se aplica a los casos de México y Chile un modelo de Interaction effects, con el ingreso como uno de los principales determinantes de uso de Internet. Los principales hallazgos sugieren que el efecto positivo que tiene el ingreso sobre la probabilidad de uso de Internet, resulta mayor para los hombres que para las mujeres. Este es uno de los primeros documentos en mostrar el estado de los indicadores de género y uso de Internet en la región. Adicionalmente es el primero en validar las diferencias de género empíricamente a través de modelos que utilizan la información de TIC de las encuestas de hogares de México y Chile. De esta manera, con base en los hallazgos sobre las implicaciones de género en el uso de Internet se hacen algunas reflexiones con orientación de políticas públicas para la región <![CDATA[Gendering Excellence in Technological Research: A Comparative European Perspective]]> Gender patterns in technological and engineering research careers were explored in the EU funded 13-country study PROMETEA in 2005-2007, including old and new EU member states, and Serbia, the Russian Federation and Chile. Drawing from this study, the article analyses the gendering of key arenas of excellence in technological and engineering research from a comparative international perspective, with a focus on research funding, publishing, scientific prizes and awards, and patents. A central challenge for gender-sensitive science and research policy is how to combine the promotion of scientific excellence with the promotion of gender equality. Exploring the gendering of excellence in technology and engineering research is of special interest because of the strong position this field enjoys in national, European and international research policy and in national research policies, and also because it continues to be the most male-dominated research field. Furthermore, the article discusses methodological challenges of this type of comparative research. <![CDATA[Mind the Gap: Women in STEM Career Breaks]]> The slow advancement of women in scientific fields remains a persistent problem, especially in academia. Highly trained doctoral women in the sciences drop out of the academic pipeline for a variety of reasons that are poorly documented. This paper reports on a qualitative exploratory study based on structured interviews with 15 women who have taken career breaks after receiving their science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) PhD, but wish to re-enter the academic career track. The study aims to understand the pressures that contribute to taking such breaks, how women remain connected (or not) to their field during breaks and how re-entering the field after a career break could be facilitated. Suggestions based on the interviews include career development workshops and networking opportunities for women in breaks, as well as systemic changes such as reduced fees for society membership and conferences, changes in the way resumés are reviewed by faculty search committees, and in the design and implementation of maternity and child care leave policies. <![CDATA[Gender and Technoscience: A Historical Perspective]]> This paper explores turning points in the historical relationship between gender and technoscience, most notably the gender parity of the 2009 Nobel Prizes; the public debate on the under-representation of women in science that raged world-wide but especially in the US during 2005-2006; and the construction of a public memory for a leading woman technoscientist in the mid-1990s. The paper situates these turning points in the context of historical events, most notably the Scientific Revolution of the 17 th Century, WW2 and the Cold War, the women's liberation movement of the 1970s that legally ended overt gender discrimination, and the rise of covert gender discrimination since the 1990s. It concludes by highlighting the shift toward interactiveness and fluidity in the theoretical conceptions of both gender and technoscience.