Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 5 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Patent Quality and Pro-patent Policy</strong>]]> This paper analyzes the patent examination and litigation process in terms of a simple Perfect Bayesian Equilibrium model, and interprets the results in line with real pro-patent trends in the US and other countries. Each country's pro-patent policy option is different from the other because of reflecting its own path-dependent patent situation. That is, when a country adopts an easy patent policy (a pro-patent policy), firms in the country gain larger payoffs in the short term. Hence, every country seeks to adopt an easy patent policy. However, the easy patent policy undermines the true invention incentive. In this situation, it is difficult for any country to escape the problem, depending on the historical inertia. <![CDATA[<strong>Barriers to Open Innovation</strong>: <strong>Case China</strong>]]> The notion of open innovation suggests that firms can boost their innovative performance by both acquiring knowledge from outside the company and deploying external paths to market for commercialization of non-core technologies. As innovations emerge increasingly from interorganisational cooperation, the background for such cooperation can also have an impact on the involvement of companies into open innovation processes. Thereby this paper proposes to analyze the barriers towards open innovation from three different aspects, such as internal firms' environment, institutional factors or innovation system and cultural background. Our findings indicate that economic systems and institutions (in particular the protection of IPRs) may have large effects on the behaviour of firms with respect to their engagement in open innovation practices. On the other hand, our results also suggest that the importance of appropriability regime may differ in the buy and sell sides of knowledge, and finally we demonstrate the influence of peculiarities of national cultures upon the adoption of certain elements of open innovation model. <![CDATA[<strong>Examining the Relative Influence of Risk and Control on Intention to Adopt Risky Technologies</strong>]]> For technologies such as electronic commerce, mobile payments, internet and mobile banking etc. customers are concerned about security issues that arise as a result of adoption of these technologies. However, in practice, we find that customers forgo their considerations of risk in the technology, if the benefits of using the technology overpower the risks involved in using the technology. Understanding their relative roles in technology adoption will help technology developers focus their efforts on either of them to improve technology adoption. Results of this study reveal that in adopting a technology, customers are guided more by the perception of control rather than by the perception of risk. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. <![CDATA[An Environmental Impact Assessment System for Agricultural Research and Development II: Institutional Learning Experience at Embrapa]]> "An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R&D" has been implemented by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) aiming at fulfilling the institutional mission statement of 'introducing sustainable development objectives in all steps of agricultural research'. The impact assessment platform emphasizes close interaction between R&D teams and technology-adopting producers, under actual field contexts, in order to improve both the technology development and the demand probing processes. The proposed integrated environmental indicators system (Ambitec-Agro) has been routinely applied in technology appraisals by all of Embrapa's Research Units, as one of the criteria of its institutional evaluation system, and toward the formulation of the Social Balance Reports, annually published since 1997. The present paper describes the social and environmental dimensions of this integrated impact assessment platform, its roles in the institutional learning process for technology research management, and an impact analysis of proposed agricultural innovations. <![CDATA[<strong>On the Appropriateness of Incident Management Systems in Developing Countries</strong>: <strong>A Case from the UAE</strong>]]> Road traffic incidents are eliciting growing public concerns due to their devastating social, economical, and environmental impacts. The severity of these random events is particularly alarming in developing countries, where the situation is just worsening. Recently, Incident Management Systems (IMSs) have been proposed as powerful tools to enhance the coordination and management of rescue operations during traffic accidents. However, most of the available commercial IMS solutions are designed for large metropolitan cities and within the contexts of developed nations. This paper explores the issues of appropriateness and customization of IMS solutions in developing countries through an exploratory inquiry consisting of a case study from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The paper also explores the important issues related to managing the organizational changes that an IMS introduces to the operations of the command and control room. This contribution calls for the development of more comprehensive theoretical frameworks that can guide towards the implementation of appropriate IMS solutions in developing countries. Our research highlights the need for developing countries to acquire appropriate IMS solutions that are tailored to the local organizational work context in which these systems will be used. The experience reported herein can also inspire other public safety agencies in developing countries to consider the option of developing customized IMS solutions that best suit their needs. <![CDATA[<strong>The Simultaneous Impact of Supplier and Customer Involvement on New</strong> <strong>Product Performance</strong>]]> The recall rates of various products these years have triggered a new round of interests in the impacts of supplier involvement (SI) and customer involvement (Cl) on new product performance (NPP). However, existing literature looks at either SI or Cl but not both. Most supply chain management papers focus on SI and NPP while research in marketing field focuses on Cl and NPP. Additionally, the NPP has not been elaborated into detail dimensions in these previous studies. This research investigates the impact of both SI and Cl on the three dimensions of NPP, namely new product quality and reliability, time to market and product innovativeness. The research was based on the data from over 600 manufacturers in 21 countries. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to test the simultaneous impact of SI and Cl on NPP. The results show that SI influences all the three dimensions of NPP while Cl influences quality and reliability. The research also reveals that companies pay more attention to Cl than SI. It seems that more efforts in both academic and practical fields are needed to enhance SI in relation to NPD. The research suggests that both SI and Cl should be implemented in new product development process. It is not a two-party issue but a three-party-issue. <![CDATA[<strong>Innovation for Sustainability</strong>: <strong>Overcoming the Productivity of the Sugar-and-Ethanol Industry's Conventional System</strong>]]> The article's objective is to analyze a process of technological innovation incorporation in the realm of organic agriculture which, as per legal and conceptual definition, should take into consideration the economic, social and environmental aspects according to the proposals of sustainable development. This article presents the results of a case study carried out at Native Alimentos Organicos Ltd. , a Brazilian company producing organic sugar and ethanol with an exporter profile and responsible for the world's largest organic agriculture project. The organic production system developed by the company demanded important innovation in the agricultural and industrial areas. The study shows that the choice for innovations that respond simultaneously to economic, environmental and social issues, besides being viable, is essential for the Brazilian sugar to access markets of developed countries. Thus the case shows that it is possible to innovate with profit and social and environmental concern simultaneously. <![CDATA[<strong>The Adoption of New Technology</strong>: <strong>Conceptual Model and Application</strong>]]> The decision to adopt a new technology or not depends on the benefits to be gained by incorporating new technical, functional or esthetic solutions, in order to attain the company's competitive positioning; this decision also depends on the costs and risks involved. In general terms, businesses lack the resources, whether financial, human, or structural, to innovate or even to adapt new technologies. The objectives of this study are to test an innovation adoption model on a real case and show the importance of international cooperation for new technology implementation processes, based on a decision-making case about whether or not to adopt a new technology that occurred in eletronic company in Brazil (called "A"). The new technology might help to solve certain challenges the company faced in its printer plant, by increasing efficiency and cutting costs. <![CDATA[<strong>Third-Generation Display Technology</strong>: <strong>Nominally Transparent Material</strong>]]> Display technology is reshaping the consumer, business, government, and even not-for-profit markets in the midst of the digital convergence, coupled with recent smart phones led by Apple, Inc. First-Generation (IG) display technology was dominated by the Cathode Ray Tubes, followed by Liquid Crystal Display and Plasma in 2G. A radically innovative shift as a disruptive technology is expected to follow in 3G to utilize virtually any transparent material, which wirelessly connects to portable access points. This paper studies the feasibility of the 3G Display Technology (DT) with Technology S-Curves, and presents possible business models and technology strategies which may be generated from it. Additional subsets of business models may be derived for a wide range of industry applications. <![CDATA[<strong>The Marketplace Variables in Successful and Unsuccessful NPD Projects in Technology Intensive Companies</strong>]]> We present an exploratory investigation of how managers conceptualize and perceive 'marketplace' variables in successful and unsuccessful New Product Development (NPD) projects, and explore the role that marketplace variables play in differentiating between successful and unsuccessful NPD outcomes. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed. Our findings indicate that managers perceive the marketplace in multiple ways during the NPD process and also that differences exist in metric equivalence across successful and unsuccessful NPD projects. Also, although half of the marketplace variables are positively related to NPD success, managers in Finnish technology companies appear to attach higher relative importance to market attractiveness rather than market competitiveness variables. Marketplace variables appear to be less important than in the Korean and Chinese samples, and much more important than in the Canadian sample in the Mishra et al. study (1996), and similarly much more important than in the Cooper study (1979b). <![CDATA[A Causal Decision Making Model for Knowledge Management Capabilities to Innovation Performance in Taiwan's High-Tech Industry]]> R&D and innovation is the source of technology companies' profit. If companies cannot be smoothly implemented technological innovation and R&D investments, then they can not strengthen their competitiveness. In the light of dynamic capabilities and absorptive capacities, we need an effective multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) analysis tools to assess the impact of organizational innovation and performance factors so that we can promote organizational innovation performance requires. This study used multiple criteria decision analysis method- DEMATEL, how influence as innovation performance on knowledge management capabilities of high-tech industry. Result of this study, enterprises can access external knowledge and make amendments to the operating principle effectively and immediately, when enhanced absorptive capabilities. Moreover, enhancing absorption capabilities will lead the improvement of dynamic capabilities to adapt to the rapidly changing competitive environment.