Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 8 num. lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[ALTEC y la Gestión Tecnológica en Iberoamérica: Gestión de Proyectos, Conocimiento e Innovación Social y Sustentable]]> The seminars of the Latin Ibero-American Association of Technology Management (ALTEC) they are one of the most important spaces in this region for the discussion of the research in the discipline of innovation and technology management. This article presents a brief panorama of the main thematic areas approached in 14 seminars carried out by that association from 1985 until the year 2011. In this context, a group of 28 articles is presented, which discuss in this volume the project management of R&D and innovation, the knowledge management, the social innovation and the relationships between innovation and sustainable development.<hr/>Los encuentros bianuales realizados por la Asociación Latino-Iberoamericana de Gestión Tecnológica (ALTEC) constituyen en la actualidad uno de los espacios más importantes en esta región para la discusión de la investigación en la disciplina de la gestión de la innovación y la tecnología. En este artículo se presenta brevemente un panorama de las principales áreas temáticas abordadas en 14 encuentros realizados por esa asociación desde 1985 hasta el año 2011. En este contexto, se presenta un conjunto de 28 artículos que tratan en este volumen de la gestión de proyectos de I+D e innovación; las relaciones entre la innovación y la gestión del conocimiento, la innovación social y el desarrollo sustentable. <![CDATA[Performance Evaluation of IT Projects: The Shenhar and Dvir Model]]> This paper presents a scale for the ex-post evaluation of IT projects based on the definition of multidimensional performance of projects proposed by Shenhar and Dvir (2009). From the five dimensions proposed by these authors, a questionnaire was designed to assess the importance of various performance criteria in the ex-post evaluation of projects and IT in different organizations. The responses to the questions in the questionnaires were analyzed using factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha, which measures the scale's internal reliability. The scales presented in this article are consistent with the evaluation criteria of the model ex-post evaluation of IT projects presented by Moraes and Laurindo (2010), and they are articulated with assessment procedures described by these authors. Accordingly, this paper contributes to the construction of a set of references for an ex-post evaluation of IT projects. <![CDATA[Maturity and Performance in Information Technology Project Management]]> This study concerns the relationship between the information technology (IT) project performance and the project management maturity of an organization. The research was developed from a survey of 185 respondents during 2010. Project performance was evaluated using the two first dimensions proposed by Shenhar et al (2001) - project efficiency and impact on the customer. Project management maturity was evaluated using the formalization level of project management processes described in PMBoK. Data were analyzed by statistical methods (factorial analysis, Cronbach's alpha, cluster analysis and bivariate analysis) and showed that (i) organizations with superior maturity present superior performance in their projects and (ii) different maturity dimensions have distinct impacts on IT projects performance. <![CDATA[The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: a Study of Brazilian Multinationals]]> The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of the Seven Dimensions of Knowledge Management in</b> <b>Organizations</b>]]> This study aims to identify critical elements in Knowledge Management in companies in the second and third sectors of the economy of the region of Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional survey. The sample consisted of 191 workers. To collect the data, a social scale developed by Terra (1999) was used. It was found that the critical elements are, in order of relevance: human resource management; organizational structure; organizational culture and values; information and communication systems; learning through the environment; strategic factors; the role of senior management, and the measurement of results. It is concluded that for most organizations to reach the condition of a learning organization several critical elements need to be overcome. <![CDATA[Understanding the Impact of Project Risk Management on Project Performance: an Empirical Study]]> The goal of this study is to comprehend the impact of risk management on project performance. Further it aims to investigate the degree of diffusion of risk management practice in Brazilian companies. The methodological approach involves a survey of 415 projects at different levels of complexity in different industrial sectors in several states of Brazil. The results demonstrate that adopting risk management practices has a significant positive impact on project success. They also show a positive impact from the presence of a risk manager on project success. The study's principal limitations are the methodological choice of non probability sampling and a questionnaire based on respondent perception. From the practical point of view, paying attention to uncertainties during the project, making use of the risk management techniques and deeply understand the business environment are critical success factors, demanding attention of project managers and risk managers. The results demonstrate the impact of risk management practices on project success. They also show a positive impact from the presence of a risk manager on project success. Furthermore, it demonstrated the importance of soft skill in risk management. <![CDATA[Best Practices in Brazilian Companies]]> Competitive intelligence (CI) is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM) can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment. <![CDATA[El Valor de la Tecnología: Enfoques Novedosos para su Determinación]]> Traditionally, Technology valuation has been applied with the financial focus of Project management, focusing on the economical dimension. However, several authors have detected problems in this approach and propose the inclusion of qualitative aspects of technology. The aim of this paper is to identify alternative proposals for estimating the value of technology. A scientometric study was carried out and as a result, novel works were identified, like the use of roadmapping, econometrics and neural networks in technology valuation. We conclude that different approaches exist, but, in general, aspects as the knowledge embodied in technology are not taken into account, with a reductionist and linear view of the valuation process and the technology itself. We formulate some considerations on an approach of technology valuation from biology, as an alternative approximation from the organicistic view, in order to add attributes like dynamicity and adaptation.<hr/>Tradicionalmente la valoración tecnológica se ha abordado con un enfoque financiero de gestión de proyectos, centrándose en la dimensión económica. Sin embargo, diversos autores han detectado falencias en esta aproximación, proponiendo incluir aspectos cualitativos de la tecnología. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar propuestas alternativas a las tradicionales para determinar el valor de la tecnología. Se hizo un análisis cienciométrico, y como resultado se identificaron trabajos novedosos como la aplicación de roadmapping, econometría y redes neuronales en procesos de valoración. Se concluye que, si bien se han planteado aproximaciones diferentes, en general se desconocen aspectos como el conocimiento embebido en la tecnología, con una visión reduccionista y lineal del proceso de valoración y de la propia tecnología. Se plantean consideraciones sobre un abordaje de la valoración desde la biología, como enfoque alternativo a partir de la visión organicista, agregando al proceso atributos como la dinamicidad y la adaptación. <![CDATA[Inter-Organizational Knowledge Conversion and Innovative Capacity in Cooperative Networks]]> In the current business and management environments, organizations are challenged to search for new ways of working focused on findings and practical innovation. In this sense, knowledge management constitutes a tool to support the practices of innovation, which are facilitated by the existence of physical, virtual or mental spaces, called Ba's, where knowledge can be better used. The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamics of inter-organizational knowledge conversion into existing Ba spaces in a cooperative network. The data analysis was performed from the triangulation of primary and secondary data and from the non-participant observation, within specific variables. The results point that the network displays an unfavorable configuration regarding the favorable characteristics to dynamics of knowledge conversion, which influences negatively its performance, especially the intensity and quality of information. <![CDATA[Test-Driven Development as an Innovation Value Chain]]> For all companies that consider their Information Technology Department to be of strategic value, it is important to incorporate an innovation value chain into their software development lifecycles to enhance their teams' performance. One model is TDD (Test-Driven Development), which is a process that detects failures and improves the productivity and quality of the team's work. Data were collected from a Financial Company with 3,500 employees to demonstrate that software projects that require more than 4,000 hours of development benefit from TDD if a clear knowledge conversion step occurs between the client and the developers. <![CDATA[Comunidades de Práctica Una Innovación en la Gestión del Conocimiento]]> Al apoyar o institucionalizar las Comunidades de Práctica (CdP) de importancia estratégica, las organizaciones promueven el aprendizaje colectivo y la innovación organizacional. Con el objetivo de analizar cómo las empresas están trabajando con las CdP, desde la concepción de la idea, los pasos de implementación, dificultades, logros y retos futuros, esta investigación de naturaleza exploratoria se realizó en Elektro Eletricidade S.A., que es el séptimo mayor distribuidor de Brasil, con una cuota de mercado del 4% y la fuerza laboral de 5.205 empleados. Entrevistas semi-estructuradas fueron conducidas con los responsables del proyecto y los documentos fueron analizados (informes, proyectos, noticias, etc.) Los resultados mostraron que el éxito de cada CdP está relacionado con el grado de motivación de los participantes y el papel del facilitador responsable.<hr/>By supporting or institutionalizing Communities of Practice (CoP) of strategic relevance, organizations promote collective learning and organizational innovation. Aiming at analyzing how companies are dealing with the CoP, from the conception of the idea, implementation steps, difficulties, achievements and future challenges, this exploratory research was conducted at Elektro Eletricidade S.A., which configures the seventh largest distributor in Brazil, with a market share of 4% and a workforce of 5,205 employees. We conducted semi-structured interviews with those responsible for the project and analyzed documents (reports, projects, press news, etc.). The results showed that the success of each CoP is related to the degree of motivation of the participants and the role of facilitator responsible. <![CDATA[Percepción de los Estudiantes de Ingeniería: Tecnología y Curso Técnico sobre Responsabilidad Social Empresarial]]> Este artículo identifica la percepción de los alumnos de Ingeniería, Tecnología y Técnico de la Universidad Tecnológica Federal del Paraná (UTFPR) sobre la Responsabilidad Social (RS) mediante un cuestionario estructurado en tres ejes: i) Percepción sobre RS en las empresas; ii) En relación a UTFPR e, iii) RS sobre sí mismos. Por un lado, las acciones deben ser compartidas con acciones gubernamentales en la promoción del bien estar y desarrollo social, por ende, las empresas deben de responsabilizarse y resolver los problemas sociales. Por otro lado, las acciones y proyectos de la institución son percibidos para el posicionamiento Social responsable en la formación profesional. Existe una RS en la calidad de compras y las mejores prácticas son las que preservan el medio ambiente, el reciclaje y respetan a los derechos humanos.<hr/>This article identifies the perceptions of students in Engineering, Technology and Technical Course at the Federal University of Technology, Paraná (UTFPR), Campus Ponta Grossa, on Social Responsibility (SR) using a structured questionnaire in three areas: i) perception of CSR in companies, ii) in relation to UTFPR, and iii) RS about themselves. Actions should be shared with the government's actions in promoting social welfare and development. Companies should be accountable and solve their social problems. Actions and projects of the institution are perceived with a positioning responsible socially in the formation. Exist a RS in shopping quality and the best practices are those that preserve the environment, recycle and respect human rights. <![CDATA[Voices Project: Technological Innovations in Social Inclusion of People with Visual Impairment]]> This article aims to analyze how technological innovations are contributing to inclusion of people with disabilities in society and at work, from the study of social innovations, assistive technology and digital inclusion presented in a case study on the Voices Project. The project, developed in partnership with the Association of Parents and Friends of the Blind and the Federal Technological University of Paraná, in the years 2008/2009, made a computer course for people with visual impairments. The theoretical survey and project data confirmed that social innovations really are essential tools for digital inclusion of people with disabilities contributing thus to their inclusion in the workplace. <![CDATA[Online Social Networks and the New Organizational Spaces]]> We analyzed the 'virtuality' of the social space and the boundaries of organizations from the emergence and dissemination of online social networking. The purpose is to identify how the use of social networks by 10 Brazilian companies enables the redefinition and expansion of organizational space. For the analysis of the data, we used the theory of social space of Lefebvre (2004), which defines three moments of space social production: the imagined space, the lived space and the perceived space. The methodological qualitative approach is done by document analysis from the websites of the companies. We show that the organizational space has new contours with the adoption of online social networks and we analyzed four spatial metaphors: the square, the museum, the temple and the market. <![CDATA[Social Enterprises in Brazil: Socially Produced Knowledge Versus Social Innovation]]> This study investigated whether socially produced knowledge in social ventures in Brazil has promoted social innovation and local development. The research is exploratory and descriptive, and was developed in two stages. At first, the sample group was composed of 378 projects selected from the mapping of Solidarity Economic Enterprises, conducted by the National Secretary of Solidarity Economy (Secretaria Nacional de Economia Solidária). The sample was surveyed to verify the main characteristics of these enterprises. After that, interviews were conducted with key managers in a sample of 32 projects. The results indicate challenges in the long path of favoring dynamic learning, with a generation of knowledge from the collective experiences of socialization: there is a lack of joint discussion and a predominance of individualized learning actions. <![CDATA[Social Technology as a Sustainable Public Policy: The Mandalla Project in Ceará]]> Environmental degradation in semi-arid Northeast has been a great challenge for the Brazilian government. The need to generate employment and income, justifies the establishment of productive activities competitive and covering the dimensions of sustainability. In this context, there is the movement of Social Technology (ST), aimed at social inclusion and development through the appropriation of simple technologies, inexpensive and consolidated in the culture of the community benefit. As a public policy of the government of Ceará, appeared the Mandalla Project, using irrigated agriculture and agribusiness production system, which includes the creation of small animals from natural methods. This study aims to analyze the ST Mandalla as a public policy that promotes sustainable development. The results show that this technology, contributes significantly to the sustainable development of semi-arid and improving the quality of life of communities served when examined against the dimensions of Sustainable Development model of Sachs (2002). <![CDATA[Social Entrepreneurship: a Reflection for Adopting Public Policies that Support the Third Sector in Brazil]]> Interest in social entrepreneurship is growing widely not only in Brazil but in the world. Several developed countries have stepped forward to develop policies to support this area not only as a tool to fulfill the government failures such as poverty, health, education, unemployment among others, but also because of all the benefits that social enterprises have in relation to society. However, it is possible to identify a lack of political support for social entrepreneurship in Brazil. Given the needs in the Brazilian context of improvements in several areas where the state can not cover actions in their entirety as social exclusion, income distribution and especially professionalization of youth and creating jobs, we need a deep analysis of how social entrepreneurship can act as a modifying element of this scenario. Thus, with Brazil a country developing rapidly, it is important to verify public policies that support social entrepreneurship in already developed countries and carry out studies on the suitability and applicability of these policies in the Brazilian reality. Thus, this paper aims to study the trends of social entrepreneurship in some developed countries as well as analyzing public policies implemented by these countries, and considering the Brazilian context, present some policy proposals to support social entrepreneurship in Brazil. <![CDATA[Transferencia de Tecnologías a una Cooperativa en Argentina: Un Estudio de Casos]]> El presente trabajo describe una experiencia piloto de un proceso de transferencia de tecnología llevada a cabo en la provincia de Salta, región noroeste de Argentina, cuyo objetivo fue la transferencia de conocimiento y saberes prácticos para producir cocinas solares. La particularidad de esta experiencia radica en que la transferencia se ha realizado desde un centro de lnvestigación y Desarrollo público a una cooperativa de trabajo de la provincia. En el trabajo se describe detalladamente todas las etapas del proceso de transferencia, los métodos que se han implementado para su ejecución, y una síntesis de las principales recomendaciones a considerar para futuras experiencias en proyectos de transferencia de tecnología.<hr/>This paper describes a pilot technology transfer process carried out in the province of Salta, northwestern Argentina, whose goal was to disseminate knowledge to produce solar cookers. The particularity of this experience is that the source of knowledge transfer has been made from a research and development center to a cooperative public work in the province. The paper describes in detail all the stages of the process, methods that have been used, and suggests a set of points to consider in future similar experiences. <![CDATA[Services for People Innovation Park: Planning Methodologies]]> This article aims to identify appropriate methodologies for the planning of a Services for People Innovation Park-SPIP, designed according to the model proposed by the Ibero-American Network launched by La Salle University of Madrid. Projected to form a network, these parks were conceived to provoke social change in their region, improving quality of life and social welfare, through knowledge, technology and innovation transfer and creation of companies focused on developing product and services to reduce social inequalities. Building a conceptual framework for the identification of planning methodologies compatible with the SPIP problemátique, this article analyses the theories of complex systems and adaptive planning, considering the particularities presented by Innovation Parks. The study deepens the understanding of the problems inherent in park planning, identifies the key issues to be considered during this process, and characterizes the SPIP as active adaptive complex system, suggesting methodologies more appropriate to its planning. <![CDATA[Implication of Legal References on Technological Dissemination: a Study on Transgenic Soybeans Resistant to Glyphosate Herbicide in Brazil]]> The following paper aims at establishing a connection between the evolution of legal landmarks related to soybeans tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide in Brazil and the planting growth of this transgenic soybean in Brazil, in order to determine the role that such soybeans play in today's domestic agricultural scenario. To do so, a study of Brazilian laws that protect intellectual creations was carried out (Industrial Property Law - Law number 9.279/96 and the Plant Protection Law - Law number 9.456/97), the Law on Biosafety - Law number 11105 / 05 - and the Law on Brazilian Seeds and Seedlings - Law number 10.711/03, in order to delimit the matter protected by each of those laws while establishing its interfaces. Regarding planting, the Biosafety Law of 2005 corresponds to the fourth law which deals with soybeans tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide and ensures that those previously registered may be marketed without limitation per crop. In order to estimate the space that soybean seeds tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide began to occupy in the Brazilian market, in the 2008/2009 harvest, compared to the other not genetically modified soybeans, a search in the Ministry of Agriculture's database was done ( through the available records of certified, non-certified and basic seeds. This study demonstrates that despite great controversy involving planting of transgenics and in particular the emblematic case of Roundup Ready soybeans, we found out that in Brazil there has been an evolution and articulation of legal landmarks in order to facilitate and make this market more attractive. In the case of soybeans tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide (which had its production measured here) the market went from an estimated 40% in the 2005/2006 harvest, according to James (2005) to 50.6% in 2008/2009 indicating that Brazil has been following the trend of spreading transgenic planting as has been occurring in most parts of the globe. <![CDATA[Diffusion of Emerging Technologies for Sustainable Development: Prospective Assessment for Public Policies]]> Emerging technologies based on biotechnology, nanotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICT), and green chemistry will shape the future of some industries and will transform many others. In many cases, these technologies will determine the development and restructuring of industries as never before. These changes, in turn, will promote debates and revisions of current regulatory frameworks and corporate business models. This paper - which is based on a prospective study carried out by the authors in 2010 - emphasizes the importance of understanding and anticipating movements of driving forces, trends and critical uncertainties at global level, which will influence the diffusion of emerging technologies into industrial processes and business models concerning seven societal sectors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evolutionary trajectories of these sectors, based on diffusion of the so-called emergent technologies in a time horizon of 20 years. <![CDATA[Awakening the Biodiversity Potential trough ST&I Investments in the Sector of Amazonian Biotechnology]]> The biotechnological development conciliated to Amazonian biodiversity represents a big potential for richness to Brazil. This study analyses the Brazilian investments in ST&I Amazonia's, utilizing as indicator for that, the resources applied in R&D and the patent appli;cations coming from Amazon, which were filed with the National Institute of Industrial Property during the period from 2003 to 2008. The objective is to analyze how where such investments applied by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation (MCTI), and which was their impact over the biotechnological inventions of Amazonian origin. In the results, we observed that R$ 1,308.09 million was invested in ST&I in Amazonia. The Amazonian state that attracted the larger part of such resources was Amazonas and 153 patent applications were identified as coming from the state of Amazonas; out of which, 56% derived from companies of the Manaus Industrial Pole, and 9% originated from biomedical and alimentary sectors. <![CDATA[Strategies for Sustainable Business and Performance in Brazilian Industrial Companies]]> The study looks to analyze the adoption of strategies for sustainable business and the performance of Brazilian industrial companies. The quantitative character research has involved the execution of a survey. The results have permitted to conclude that the Brazilian companies are enlarging their participation in the international market. However, one must observe that some factors still limit this performance in terms of innovation management and socio-environmental management. Concerning the technological innovation management, one observes that, in spite of the growth of use of external sources of innovation over the last few years, one must still go a long way in the sense of developing a corporate culture that may value the partnership and the collaboration between the companies. Concerning socio-environmental management, the research data confirm the studies by authors mentioned in the literature review who maintain that most Brazilian companies still adopt a reactive stance in relation to these issues. <![CDATA[Management of Sustainable Innovation in an Internationalized Company]]> The main objective of this study was to identify the main forms of management of sustainable technological innovation and examine the relation of these practices with the increased competitiveness of the Brazilian chemical industry in the international market. To conduct this research, we examined the management practices of a chemical industry located in southern Brazil through the descriptive and qualitative case study, using semi-structured interviews with those responsible for the company's innovation management and analyzing secondary data. The analyses of the survey results with respect to the relation between the sustainable technological innovation management and the increased international competitiveness of the chemical industry were not conclusive. The data only show that the management practices of sustainable innovation may represent motivations for seeking international partnerships and innovations that can be converted into business opportunities in the domestic and international market <![CDATA[Sustainable Innovation: Eco-development Tendencies and Theory of Communicative Action Standpoint]]> The paper aims to show new production tendencies, trying to find out if they can be seen under a sustainable innovation perspective and if their logical action presents a connection to Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action. Considering the current innovation theories it is worth saying that specific approaches facing environmental sustainability are not common. Based on such scope, Industrial Ecology and Integrated Production Systems are highlighted. They are in the mainstream because they try to guide themselves not just by economic concerns, but also considering the articulation demand among different subjective and objective elements. The tendencies draw proposals to policies' transformations - regarding production methods - by placing economical, social and environmental dimensions in an inseparable way. However, even though after analyzing systems we did not identify any relation to the "Theory of Communicative Action", the habermasian approach is recognized as useful to innovation processes once achieved by consensus and mutual understanding. <![CDATA[Public Service Innovation and Evaluation Indicators]]> This paper analyzes innovation in public services with emphasis on the application of evaluation indicators. It considers the clean development mechanism (CDM) projects developed in the Bandeirantes and São João landfills, both located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. There are two methodological procedures. First, the analysis is based on a multi-agent innovation approach. Second, there is an adaptation of the social carbon methodology (SCM) constructing indicators to assess the social and environmental outcome of landfill CDM projects in order to identify opportunities for innovations in services related to the solid waste sector. The application of the multi-agent model for innovation in public services in the solid waste sector makes it possible to bring together the political actors, service organizations and consumers / users. Equally pertinent is the adaptation of the application of SCM, defining indicators to understand the particularities of the service in the context researched, with regard to seeking opportunities for building new ways to solve specific problems through new institutional and organizational arrangements, involving municipal governments, utility companies, communities surrounding the landfills, collectors of recyclable materials, organized bodies of civil society; and with regard to establishing parameters to guide the objectives of innovation in the public sector. <![CDATA[Producción más Limpia en el Sector Biotecnológico]]> In this work we present a cleaner production (CP) method was applied to the production process of Erythropoietin in the biotechnological field. CP production potentials were identified from rapid and complete evaluations made during plant processes. Process areas where improvements in the use of water resources, energy, waste generation and waste disposal could be made were determined. The proposed CP method enabled the increase of environmental innovations of the studied process and in addition it can be applied to other biotechnological institutions with similar characteristics to those of the studied process.<hr/>En el presente trabajo se aplicó una metodología de Producción más Limpias (PML) al proceso productivo de la Eritropoyetina del sector Biotecnológico. Identificándose en el mismo, potenciales de PML a partir de una evaluación rápida y otra completa en planta. Se determinaron las áreas del proceso en donde se podían hacer mejoras en el uso de los recursos agua, energía, generación y disposición de residuos. Esta metodología de PML propuesta, posibilitó incrementar la innovación medioambiental del proceso estudiado y a su vez esta puede ser utilizada en otros centros de la biotecnología, con características similares al objeto de estudio. <![CDATA[Vegetable Charcoal and Pyroligneous Acid: Technological, Economical and Legal Aspects of its Production and Commerce]]> The production of vegetable charcoal generates atmospheric emissions, which can be controlled by the instalation of collectors for the condensation of such emissions, forming the pyroligneous acid. The development of collectors for the condensations and characterization of the acid for commerce can contribute with the local sustainable development. This study intends to investigate the technological, economical and legal aspects of the production and commerce of the pyroligneous acid. The chosen method was case study in Presidente Lucena/RS, Brazil, with use of surveys, interviews with producers and responsible government sectors' representatives. The results indicate that the pyroligneous acid extraction technique is little-known and little used by the producers, that the current market does not absorb the pyroligneous acid offering and the ruling is not relevant. <![CDATA[The Processing and Marketing of Seeds from the Amazon City of Porto Velho,RO]]> This article aims to show through an epistemological perspective that the sustainability conscious actions implemented in the Amazon rainforest region of the municipality of Porto Velho-RO, have not been created to prevent economic development or the survival of small investors who work with the raw material from the forest. In this region, there arises a proposal for community organization with the help of the Government agencies mentioned that aims at supplementing the lack of technical knowledge for the correct handling of material taken from the forest, with the possibility of managerial and technical maturity by the organized community, looking into making their businesses more effective, at the expense of amateurism. Based also on social difficulties concerning unemployment in the country, the environmental entrepreneur activity can be a consistent alternative to many who cannot find employment or insertion into the disputed work market, as well as, possibly becoming a complementary income for those who already work. <![CDATA[<strong>ALTEC y la Gestión Tecnológica en Iberoamérica</strong>: <strong>Sistemas de Innovación,</strong> <strong>Territorio y Vinculación</strong>]]> The seminars of the Latin-Ibero-American Association of Technology Management (ALTEC) they are one of the most important spaces in this region for the discussion of the research in the discipline of innovation and technology management. This article presents a brief panorama of the main thematic areas approached in 14 seminars carried out by that association from 1985 until the year 2011. In this context, a group of 25 articles is presented, which discuss in this volume the aspects macro of the management of the innovation, such as the construction of favorable environments for the innovation, the form like the innovation is managed in specific territories and the linking forms among the actors in the innovation processes.<hr/>Los encuentros bianuales realizados por la Asociación Latino-Iberoamericana de Gestión Tecnológica (ALTEC) constituyen en la actualidad uno de los espacios más importantes en esta región para la discusión de la investigación en la disciplina de la gestión de la innovación y la tecnología. En este artículo se presenta brevemente un panorama de las principales áreas temáticas abordadas en 14 encuentros realizados por esa asociación desde 1985 hasta el año 2011. En este contexto, se presenta un conjunto de 25 artículos que tratan en este volumen de los aspectos macro de la gestión de la innovación, tales como la construcción de entornos favorables para la innovación, la forma como se gestiona la innovación en territorios específicos y las formas de vinculación entre los actores que ocurren en los procesos de innovación. <![CDATA[Conception and Execution of an Energy Innovation Program: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Analyses of the Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel]]> The National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel aims to partially replace petroleum diesel consumed in Brazil by biodiesel. PNPB costs are subsidized by government and diesel consumers, based on economical, environmental and social benefits. Rules and incentives have been created in order to create a sectoral innovation system congruent with PNPB's objectives. Nevertheless, PNPB didn't reach its goals, especially social policy goals. The paper analyzes PNPB by applying public policy analysis methodologies. Top-down and bottom-up approaches have been adopted. Top-down approach investigates PNPB's conception, focusing Program's rules and results expected by formulators. Bottom-up approach investigates PNPB's execution, focusing public/private actors enrolled on PNPB. Shortcomings identified are mainly related to the coordination of public/private actors and the Program's goals. <![CDATA[Análisis de Nivel Sub-Nacional de Política de Desarrollo de Biotecnología en Brasil: Innovación Tecnológica y la Salud Humana en el Estado de Bahía]]> The potential of biotechnology for research and development (R & D) in various areas of knowledge is reflected in actions for the promotion of technological innovation in Brazil from the demands of productive sectors and health. Considering the Brazilian scenario regarding the weaknesses and strengths of the Health Industrial Complex (HIC), the aim of this study was to analyze the current stage of implementation of the National Biotechnology Development Policy (PDB) in the State of Bahia, in the sector of human health, considering the structural actions - (i) investments, (ii) human resources, (iii) infrastructure. Through an exploratory descriptive study were identified developments, in particular the existence of programs "Bahia Inovação" and "Empreende Bahia" that stimulates entrepreneurship and technological innovation. However, in spite of the existing scientific and technological capacity in the state, there are few projects submitted and funded in the field of biotechnology.<hr/>El potencial de la biotecnología para la investigación y el desarrollo (I + D) en diversas áreas del conocimiento se refleja en las acciones de promoción de la innovación tecnológica en el Brasil de las demandas de los sectores productivos y de salud. Teniendo en cuenta el escenario brasileño sobre las debilidades y fortalezas del Complejo Industrial de Salud (CIS), el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el estado actual de la aplicación de la Política Nacional de Desarrollo de la Biotecnología (PDB) en el Estado de Bahía, en el sector de la salud humana, teniendo en cuenta las acciones estructurales -(i) las inversiones, (ii) los recursos humanos, (iii) la infraestructura. A través de un estudio exploratorio descriptivo fueron identificados los avances, en particular la existencia de programas "Bahia Inovação" y "Empreende Bahia" que estimula el espíritu empresarial y la innovación tecnológica. Sin embargo, a pesar de la capacidad científica y tecnológica existente en el estado, hay pocos proyectos presentados y financiados en el campo de la biotecnología. <![CDATA[Nanometrology, Standardization and Regulation of Nanomaterials in Brazil: a Proposal for an Analytical-Prospective Model]]> The main objective of this paper is to propose an analytical-prospective model as a tool to support decision-making processes concerning metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials in Brazil, based on international references and ongoing initiatives in the world. In the context of nanotechnology development in Brazil, the motivation for carrying out this research was to identify potential benefits of metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials production, from the perspective of future adoption of the model by the main stakeholders of development of these areas in Brazil. The main results can be summarized as follows: (i) an overview of international studies on metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials, and nanoparticles, in special; (ii) the analytical-prospective model; and (iii) the survey questionnaire and the roadmapping tool for metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials in Brazil, based on international references and ongoing initiatives in the world. <![CDATA[Modelo de Política Pública de I+D+i, Para Liderar y Coordinar el Sistema Regional de Innovación en Apoyo a las PYMIS: Caso de Estudio del Estado de Bolívar, Venezuela]]> El presente proyecto planteó como objetivo diseñar un Modelo de Política Pública de I+D+i para liderar, coordinar y direccionar el sistema regional de innovación en apoyo al sector de las PYMIS, caso de estudio el estado Bolívar, Venezuela. El proyecto representa una investigación no experimental de tipo proyectivo y se divide en dos partes. Primero se diagnóstica, se evalúa y se describe la situación actual del SRI y su vinculación con las PYMIS. En la segunda parte se diseña y se propone un modelo de política pública de I+D+i para fortalecer la capacidad de innovación en las PYMIS.<hr/>This proposed project aims to design a Model of Public Policy for R +D +I to lead, coordinate and direct the Regional Innovation System (RIS) in support of the SMI sector. The case study of the Bolivar State, Venezuela, is analyzed. The project represents a no- experimental research of projective type and is divided into two parts. In the first one, the current state of the SRI and its relationship with the SMIs is diagnosed, evaluated and described. In the second part, a model of public policy for R&D&I is designed and proposed in order to strengthen the capacity for innovation in SMIs. <![CDATA[Política Hídrica y Cambio Tecnológico en Tecnologías Aplicadas al Tratamiento de las Aguas Residuales]]> El objetivo del trabajo es analizar el efecto de la política hídrica en el cambio tecnológico en la infraestructura para el tratamiento de las aguas residuales en el Distrito Federal en el periodo de 1970 a 2010, en la planta Cerro de la Estrella. En este caso la hipótesis de que las regulaciones ambientales generen efectos positivos en el desarrollo tecnológico y favorezcan la innovación no se ha cumplido. La planta en estudio tiene una infraestructura obsoleta, concentrada en la eficiencia en el tratamiento de aguas residuales para recuperación de agua de uso industrial y no en desarrollar tecnologías.<hr/>The goal of the project is to analyze the effect of the hydrological policy on the technological change of infrastructure for the treatment of sewage waters in Distrito Federal on the lapse time from 1970 to 2010, specifically on the Cerro de la Estrella plant. On this case, the hypothesis that environmental regulations generate positive effects on the technological development and favour the innovation has not been met. The plant of study has an obsolete infrastructure, centered on the efficiency on the treatment of sewage waters for the recovery of water of industrial use and on not developing technologies. <![CDATA[Propuesta de un Modelo de Inteligencia Territorial]]> Un territorio se construye en el espacio compartido y la interacción entre diversos actores públicos y privados que aportan conocimientos y recursos que propician el desarrollo del territorio en relación con sus propias trayectorias, visiones de futuro y contextos. El desarrollo territorial depende de las competencias y el enfoque que tengan estos actores en la articulación de redes y en la formación de activos de conocimiento alrededor de las posibilidades y las potencialidades del territorio, de manera que puedan actuar favorablemente frente a los cambios del entorno, desplegando un comportamiento tanto adaptativo como predictivo, e incluso propiciatorio, del cambio. Este trabajo propone un modelo conceptual de inteligencia territorial que se compone de procesos que permiten la apropiación territorial del conocimiento y el desarrollo de una inteligencia colectiva para promover un desarrollo sustentable del territorio.<hr/>A territory is built on the shared space and interaction between diverse public and private actors providing knowledge and resources that encourage development of the territory according to their own trajectories, visions and contexts. Territorial development depends on the competences and efforts of these actors to articulate territorial networks and to build knowledge assets around the territorial possibilities and potential, so they can act favorably in front of the changing environment, deploying both adaptive and predictive behavior. This paper proposes a conceptual model of territorial intelligence that includes the processes that allow territorial appropriation of knowledge as well as the development of a collective intelligence to promote the sustainable development of the territory. <![CDATA[<strong>Un Modelo de Medición de Resultados en las Prácticas de</strong> <strong>Innovación Abierta</strong>]]> El objetivo principal de este trabajo consiste en la propuesta de un modelo que permita la medición de conocimiento y la generación de eficiencias organizativas en las iniciativas de innovación abierta con los clientes. Además hemos tratado de analizar otro conjunto de aspectos necesarios para la propuesta del modelo: la identificación, selección y validación de índices que midan capital relacional y eficiencias organizativas. El modelo se compone de dos partes: una que trata de medir el capital relacional, y otra que mide la generación de eficiencias organizativas. El modelo generado es un modelo global que se puede aplicar en cualquier sector y en el que los clientes son el centro de los procesos de innovación donde los diferentes agentes interactúan. Deciden como se comportarán los usos de los nuevos productos y servicios.<hr/>The main objective of this work consists of proposing a model that will allow measuring knowledge and the generation of organizational efficiencies in open innovation initiatives with customers. Besides we have tried to analyze another group of aspects needed to propose the model: the identification, selection and validation of indexes that measure the relational capital and organizational efficiencies. The model is composed by two parts: one in which we try to measure relational capital, and another one that measures the generation of organizational efficiencies. The model offered is a global one that can be applied to any industry where the customers are the centre of the innovation processes where the different agents interact. They decide how future uses of new products and services will take place. <![CDATA[<strong>Role of the Tourism Cluster of Porto de Galinhas in the Local Development</strong>]]> This paper proposes to prepare a case study on the role of the tourism cluster of Porto de Galinhas in local development. For such, the analysis on the indicators listed in the database of the Annual Report of Social Information (RAIS) was performed, whose time interval was 15 years comprised between 1994 and 2008, the pair years in the aforementioned period being analyzed. The results show that the impact of tourism cluster is positive, both from economic, as the social point of views, i.e. it entails development both in physical infrastructure and in terms of socio-economic relationships of the resident population. This study reinforces therefore, the argument of the positive influence of a tourism cluster in the region, specifically in case of Porto de Galinhas. <![CDATA[<strong>Desarrollo Local Basado en Conocimiento e Innovación</strong>: <strong>Caso Agrópolis del Norte</strong>]]> Este artículo inicialmente aborda a la gestión del conocimiento como factor de desarrollo de una sociedad o de una región. Gestionar conocimiento implica generar condiciones para la creación e intercambio de conocimiento, para apoyar estos procesos es necesario articular sistemas organizativos que promuevan la activación de capitales intangibles y endógenos, como el conocimiento. Bajo esta concepción teórica se construye un Sistema Local de Innovación (S.L.I) para la Agrópolis del Norte, con el propósito de estimular dinámicas que integren y movilicen los actores sociales de los nueve municipios del Norte del Valle del Cauca (Colombia), que constituyen la Agrópolis del Norte, hacia un desarrollo basado en capitales financieros y no financieros (o intangibles), a través de la gestión del conocimiento.<hr/>This article addresses the management of knowledge as a development factor of a society or region. Knowledge management involves generating conditions for the creation and exchange of knowledge, to support these processes is necessary to articulate organizational systems that promote the activation of endogenous and intangible capitals, such as knowledge. Under this theoretical conception, a Local System of Innovation (L.S.I) is built for Agrópolis del Norte, for the purpose of stimulate integrating and mobilizing dynamics for social actors of nine municipalities in north Valle del Cauca (Colombia), which constitute the Agrópolis del Norte, towards development of financial and non-financial capital through knowledge management. <![CDATA[<strong>The Evaluation of Innovation Processes from the Perspective of Territorial</strong> <strong>Development</strong>]]> The object of the present work is to investigate the degree of adjustment of the "evaluation studies and analysis" that are promoted when validating investment processes which involve "innovative" actions; from the contrast between the practises and the instruments applied by the main public actor of the regional innovation system with the objectives that such policies and/or programs hold as justification. In this analysis, it is verified the ability with which the evaluation practises held can generate readings of the potential impacts which are to be known in advance both, by the present evaluation models and by the unanswered questions which come out from these new technological risks and uncertainties. From this analysis performed, it arises that the promoted practises do not adjust completely neither to the traditional evaluation theoretical standards nor to the emerging demands which contemplate the new conceptualizations of risk; giving place to mistaken evaluations in relation to the contributions of such social efforts to the territorial development; an achievement which is considered the main objective of them. <![CDATA[<strong>Social Technology and Development in Telemaco Borba/BRAZIL from the</strong> <strong>Social Network Analysis (SNA)</strong>]]> This article observes the relationship among economic activity and local agents, by means of Social Networks Analysis (SNA) and showing the historical aspects on local development of the town of Telemaco Borba, in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The social network can be understood as a Social Technology shaped by relationships among local agents and mapped by SNA. The relevance is given by the enrichment of knowledge by SNA, focusing on understanding the social technology as the basis of strategic formulation for actions to local development. The method used exploratory research and data from primary sources of a structured questionnaire for interviews. The study reveals that the interaction network among agents is elemental to creating capacities to its own identity and innovative solutions for local development. Pulp and paper activity is a cultural landmark and establishes a reference hard link and dependence for local actors. <![CDATA[<strong>El Comportamiento Innovador en Valor Agregado del Sector Agrícola</strong> <strong>en el Estado de Sinaloa</strong>]]> El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar el comportamiento innovador del sector agrícola del Estado de Sinaloa y sus efectos en la mejora de los productos. Este trabajo se apoya en la experiencia de aplicación de un modelo de innovación en una empresa regional, reconocida en relación con su tipo, tamaño, productos que maneja, mercado y perfil de participación en proyectos. Se busca generar el registro de un caso que muestre un nuevo comportamiento innovador enfocado a la generación de productos de valor agregado a través de una combinación entre la inteligencia de mercado y la transferencia de tecnología.<hr/>This work is based on the experience of implementing an innovation model in a regional company, recognized for its type, size, products handled, profile market and participation in projects. The task is to generate the registration of a case showing a new innovative behavior focused on the generation of value-added products through a combination of market intelligence and technology transfer. <![CDATA[<strong>Barriers and Facilitators of Collaborative Management in Technological</strong> <strong>Innovation Projects</strong>]]> Discussions about innovation tend to a more systemic and cooperative approach in which those networks focused on scientific and technological development are considered. This article aims to identify the barriers and facilitators in the collaborative management process of technological innovation projects and a study has been carried out by the cooperation action for innovation with 17 industries in Brazil. The primary evidence refers to the crucial role of project managers when leading the structural demands, and clarity on the relevance of the communication of strategic guidelines among the organizations involved for the achievement of the results in the industries. <![CDATA[<strong>Caracterización de las Redes Científicas Interinstitucionales Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Sede Medellín - Colombia</strong>]]> Las redes científicas hacen referencia a un conjunto de actores que se asocian porque tienen como interés mutuo la consecución de objetivos y resultados de conocimiento previamente acordados. Durante los últimos años se han convertido en uno de los principales mecanismo de cooperación entre las instituciones de educación superior y se ha demostrado que a través de ellas se pueden abordar problemas complejos que individualmente serían difíciles de abordar. En este sentido, se presenta una caracterización de las principales redes científicas de una universidad en Colombia con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico de las tendencias de relacionamiento y su tipología, así como medir el impacto que tiene el pertenecer a ellas en cuanto a producción científica y tecnológica.<hr/>Scientific networks make reference to a set of actors that are associated because they have mutual achieving in the attainment of objectives and results of knowledge previously agreed. In recent years, they become a major mechanism of cooperation between higher education institutions and has shown that through them you can tackle complex problems that individually would be difficult to approach. In this sense, we present a characterization of the main scientific networks of a university in Colombia in order to get a diagnosis of trends and typology of relationships and to measure the impacts of belonging to them in terms of scientific production and technology. <![CDATA[<strong>Strategic Management of Innovation Towards Sustainable Development of</strong> <strong>Brazilian Electronics Industry</strong>]]> This paper presents and discusses the baselines of a nationwide project whose objective is to support the economic, social and environmental sustainability of Brazilian electronics industry. This project encompasses a complex and innovative articulation of a large number of multidimensional variables and includes some innovative solutions. It foresees the execution of a pilot project with the participation of nine companies producers of electro medical equipment. Its implementation occurs by coordinating innovation of products and processes with the integrated management of the marketing mix of products, by means of the integration of the company's management systems. It is presented the theoretical and methodological foundations of this pilot project, its structure and organization, and the main results obtained so far. <![CDATA[<strong>Contributions of Social Networking for Innovation</strong>]]> This paper investigates the role of virtual social networks as a mechanism complementary to formal channels of technology transfer represented by ICT and by private centers of R & D in industry. The strengthening of Web 2.0 has provided the expansion of collaborative tools, in particular the social networks, with a strong influence on the spread of knowledge and innovation. To evaluate the potential of virtual networks, a survey had been conducted to identify and describe the characteristics of some of the major social networks used in Brazil (LinkedIn, Orkut and Twitter). Even this phenomenon is not mature, the study identified the potential and benefits of social networks as informal structures that help in generation of knowledge and innovation diffusion, as a field to be explored and developed. <![CDATA[<strong>La Relación Universidad-Empresa en las Prácticas Empresariales</strong>: <strong>Un Modelo Conceptual desde las Técnicas de Generación de Ideas</strong>]]> Business internships are part of the wide range of situations that support productive in the University-Industry collaboration. In this context, business practices become favorable places where both business objectives and universities converge. This paper aims to understand two topics. Firstly, the fundamentals of business internships as a component of training by having real-world problems and based on relevant characterization of these experiences. Secondly the paper proposes a methodology of how to achieve internships as a place to search common objectives between the firms and universities. For this second objective is proposed a conceptual model to identify problems together, taking advantage of experience for businesses and updated knowledge developed within the university.<hr/>Las prácticas o pasantías empresariales son parte de la amplia gama de situaciones que soportan las colaboraciones productivas en la relación Universidad-Empresa. En este contexto, las prácticas empresariales se convierten en lugares propicios en los que confluyen los objetivos empresariales y los de las universidades. Este documento está orientado a comprender por una parte los fundamentos de las prácticas empresariales como un componente de formación y beneficio de experiencia a través de problemas reales partiendo de una relevante caracterización de la práctica, y por otra parte el documento propone una metodología de cómo lograr prácticas empresariales que sean lugares de búsqueda de objetivos comunes entre la Empresa y la Universidad. Para este último propósito se propone un modelo conceptual que llega a identificar problemas empresariales, desde una perspectiva de análisis, basados en la experiencia y el conocimiento acumulado de los procesos académicos de formación desarrollado al interior de la universidad representada en los estudiantes y otros actores de la comunidad académica. <![CDATA[<strong>Organization of Research and Innovation</strong>: <strong>a Comparative Study of Public</strong> <strong>Agricultural Research Institutions</strong>]]> This paper discusses the institutional reorganization that has culminated in new designs for the management models of Public Research Institutes (PRIs), comparing the experiences of four PRIs in the agricultural sector to identify common elements and differences in processes, flows and policies. The focus is to improve research and innovation management, developing new approaches and tools. The four PRIs analyzed are the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS), the Research Branch of Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), and Uruguay's National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA). The study shows that management processes have become more sophisticated and above all oriented to the creation of products, processes and services that are more likely to be used. This movement indicates a new positioning by PRIs in the agricultural innovation systems of their countries, reorienting their relationships with other actors of particular importance to knowledge production. <![CDATA[<strong>The Selection of Partners in Technological Alliances Projects</strong>]]> The study seeks to understand the factors for selecting partners in technology alliances prevailing in the Brazilian chemical industry. The data comes from two successive stages. Based on the theory of resource-based view (RBV), together with qualitative evidences from a previous study carried out in the Brazilian petrochemical leader (analyzing 20 technological alliances with different kind of partners, and encompassing diverse types of projects - incremental, platforms, radical and basic science), it was possible to identify domains in the exploitation-exploration continuum and generate the conceptual model and the derived research hypotheses to be tested in the quantitative research, using a websurvey for data collection in the Brazilian chemical industry. By using the techniques of Multinomial Logistic Regression and Binomial Logistic Regression, the study outlines a series of relationships determining the most important selection factors depending on the type of partner and type of project. Finally, implications are discussed. <![CDATA[<strong>El Patentamiento Universitario en Colombia</strong>]]> El artículo presenta un panorama general del patentamiento que realizan las Universidades en Colombia. Para ello, se realiza un análisis de la información de la base de datos de patentes de la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio de Colombia desde 1970 hasta 2010. Los resultados permiten observar el estado real del patentamiento Universitario en Colombia, así como identificar las Universidades más exitosas en el proceso de patentamiento y los tiempos reales requeridos para proteger las nuevas creaciones. Así mismo, los resultados son un insumo importante en la determinación de la estrategia de protección que adopten las Universidades Colombianas en cuanto a la protección de sus creaciones.<hr/>The article presents an overview of university patenting in Colombia. For this propose, we analyze the information about patents, utility models and industrial designs at the Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio's patent database from 1970 to 2010. The results show the real state of university patenting in Colombia, and identify the most successful universities in the patenting process and the actual times required to protect new creations. The results are an important input in determining the protection strategy Colombian Universities should pursue regarding the protection of their new creations. <![CDATA[<strong>Methodology for Evaluating Innovation Capabilities at University Institutions</strong><strong> </strong><strong>Using a Fuzzy System</strong>]]> This article proposes a methodology to evaluate Technological Innovation Capabilities at university institutions, seeking to strengthen innovation management and advance in the integration of said institutions in the dynamics of the innovation system. The Triple Helix Model is adopted to analyze the relationships of university institutions with their surroundings. The proposal is conceptually built on a based on the perspective of resources and capabilities and on to the systemic congruence model of the organization. A fuzzy inference system is developed as the mathematical support of the evaluation process of the Technological Innovation Capabilties. The methodology is experimentally applied to a university institution in Medellín - Colombia, demonstrating its consistency, viability and practical usefulness. <![CDATA[<strong>Proceso de Construcción del Sistema Regional de Innovación de la Biotecnología para la Agricultura, la Agroindustria y la Bioindustria - SRIB</strong> <strong>en el Valle del Cauca - Colombia</strong>]]> The collective construction process allowed, from the selection of 4 projects articulators under BIO trends in the region, building strategic and concept of each project notes articulator strategic Units-UEA-analysis in each case, project identification of various levels of complexity, and a common agenda for joint construction in the first phase of five years. In the construction process to formulate common agenda directly involved 80 players from more than 30 institutions of business, academic and research, government and community organizations. The process SRIB as real case application of national policy in the region has posed an environmental analysis, biotechnology policies proposed by the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation COLCIENCIAS for the country in international relations 2010.Las in this phase were especially STEPS-University of Sussex, UK, the BMBF-Germany, CENIBIOT of Costa Rica and CIAT. Biotec Corporation acts as manager and coordinator of the process. The article presents the development and results of the construction of the 4 projects SRIB articulators and resulting joint agenda.<hr/>El proceso de construcción colectiva permitió, desde la selección de 4 proyectos articuladores en el marco de las tendencias BIO de la región, construir ejes estratégicos y notas concepto de cada proyecto articulador, Unidades estratégicas de análisis-UEA- en cada caso, identificación de proyectos de diversos niveles de complejidad y una AAgenda común para construcción conjunta en una primera fase de 5 años. En el proceso de construcción hasta formular la agenda común, participaron directamente 80 actores de más de 30 instituciones de los sectores empresarial, académico y de investigación, gubernamental y de organizaciones de la comunidad. El proceso SRIB como caso real de aplicación de la política nacional en la región, ha planteado un análisis del entorno, a las políticas de biotecnología propuestas por el Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación COLCIENCIAS para el país, en 2010.Las relaciones internacionales en esta fase inicial fueron especialmente con STEPS-Universidad de Sussex, GB, el BMBF-Alemania, CENIbiot de Costa Rica y el CIAT. Corporación Biotec actúa como gestor y coordinador del proceso. El artículo presenta los desarrollos y resultados del proceso de construcción de los 4 proyectos articuladores SRIB y la agenda conjunta resultante. <![CDATA[<strong>Academic Research In Technology Innovation Management and Related</strong> <strong>Thematic Areas in Brazil</strong>]]> This paper presents a profile of a Brazilian academic research group in areas related to the management of technology innovation. Keywords searches have been chosen to generate a database composed of information about research groups, projects that are funded by Brazilian Federal Government and scientific journals. Data analysis allowed the following conclusions: 1. Most research groups have been established in the 2000s, when innovation Policies have been settled in Brazil; 2. Most of the research is located in regions which have better science and technology infrastructure; 3. There is low interaction between researchers and public/private companies; 4. Federal Agencies tend to support projects related to innovation policy instruments (technology parks, local production systems, technology transfer centers in universities and research institutes). <![CDATA[<strong>Technology, Relationship and Support Institutions on Sectoral Systems of Innovation and Production in Brazil's Northwest Bio Ethanol and Sugar Agro-industry</strong>]]> This study focuses on the interactions between economic agents, verifying the assumption that innovation and competitiveness in an industry are systemic, with relatively diffuse sources, which co-evolve. In this sense, were used the approach of the Sectoral Innovation System defined by Malerba (2002), analyzing the relationship between three dimensions of analysis: organizations, institutions and technologies. The object of this study was the Industry of Sugar and Ethanol in Alagoas, the largest producer and exporter of sugar and ethanol in the Northeast of Brazil. The results indicated a positive interaction between those three dimensions of analysis; show that there is interaction between universities and research centers, and much of the technological advancement comes from public and private partnerships. It is noteworthy that the research effort focuses on genetic improvement and on innovations of process. Thus, the study indicates that there is an innovation system locally circumscribed. <![CDATA[<strong>Espacios Transnacionales de Conocimiento a Través de la Formación de</strong> <strong>Redes en Nanotecnología</strong>]]> Este artículo tiene como objetivo explorar un nuevo marco analítico espacial en la discusión sobre los procesos de producción de conocimiento e innovación. La tesis principal es que la formación de redes de conocimiento no está contenida en configuraciones espaciales de una nación, región o localización. Por lo tanto, se tiene que reflexionar sobre nuevas perspectivas analíticas en el marco de la globalización para comprender sus implicaciones en el espacio local. A través de un caso de estudio de redes de conocimiento en nanotecnología en el Norte de México, se analiza la formación de espacios transnacionales de conocimiento que conectan puntos plurilocales. La propuesta específica es un marco analítico que nos permita discutir los procesos de producción de conocimiento e innovación como espacios abiertos, socialmente construidos y como producto de constantes interacciones entre diferentes actores y escalas espaciales. Se propone abordar el espacio local como una intersección constante en donde confluyen múltiples conexiones de diferentes niveles: translocal, transregional y transnacional.<hr/>The aim of this paper is to explore a new analytical framework in the discussion of knowledge production and innovation processes. The main thesis is that the formation of networks is not contained in spatial configurations of a nation, region or localization. Therefore there is a need to explore new analytical perspectives in the era of globalization in order to comprehend their implications in the local space. Through a case study of nanotechnology knowledge networks in Northern Mexico, the formation of transnational knowledge spaces is analyzed by means of networks that connect plurilocal points and the circulation of knowledge. The analytical perspective proposed is a framework that discusses the knowledge production and innovation as an open space, which is socially produced, and in constant interaction between different actors and spatial scales. This paper aims to address the local space as an area of intersection, where multiple connections converge from different spatial scales: translocal, transregional, transnational. <![CDATA[<strong>ALTEC y la Gestión Tecnológica en Iberoamérica</strong>: <strong>Investigación y Gestión en</strong> <strong>las Empresas</strong>]]> The seminars of the Latin Ibero-American Association of Technology Management (ALTEC) they are one of the most important spaces in this region for the discussion of the research in the discipline of innovation and technology management. This article presents a brief panorama of the main thematic areas approached in 14 seminars carried out by that association from 1985 until the year 2011. In this context, a group of 18 articles is presented, which discuss in this volume the technology and innovation management in Latin American companies of diverse size, from an individual and sectoral focus.<hr/>Los encuentros bianuales realizados por la Asociación Latino-Iberoamericana de Gestión Tecnológica (ALTEC) constituyen en la actualidad uno de los espacios más importantes en esta región para la discusión de la investigación en la disciplina de la gestión de la innovación y la tecnología. En este artículo se presenta brevemente un panorama de las principales áreas temáticas abordadas en 14 encuentros realizados por esa asociación desde 1985 hasta el año 2011. En este contexto, se presenta un conjunto de 18 artículos que tratan en este volumen sobre la gestión de la innovación y la tecnología en empresas latinoamericanas de diverso tamaño, desde un enfoque individual y sectorial. <![CDATA[Implementing Open Innovation: The Case of Natura, IBM and Siemens]]> This paper analyses three case firms whose innovation management processes have been consolidated. The companies Natura, IBM (Brazilian Subsidiary) and Siemens (ChemTech/Brazil) were studied with the purpose of analysing the implementation of OI, particularly in terms of: (a) its alignment with existing corporate strategy; (b) its requirements such as culture, skill and motivation; (c) the strategy and the implementation process; (d) the results achieved (e) the present barriers and enablers. The research is qualitative in nature and employs a descriptive approach. The main results of this study, obtained using a method called 'Collective Subject Speech' , show that the implementation of OI, both structured and non-structured, is mainly challenged by cultural issues. It has been observed that the implementation of OI process is at its embryonic stage in all case firms and that this occurs along with investments in closed innovation, meaning that OI results cannot be explored at this stage of the implementation, as there is a long way to consolidate these practices in the case firms studied. <![CDATA[<strong>Integration Practices for the Technological Innovation of Products</strong>: <strong>Case Studies at Two Large Technological Companies</strong>]]> Studies on innovation and technology management have emphasized the importance of integration between the research and development (R&D) department and others involved with the product development process (PDP) as a relevant practice for the good performance of technological innovation of product activities. This study addresses the topic of transfers of technologies to new product projects and also integration practices between the R&D department and others involved with the PDP. A qualitative study was conducted that was operationalized through two case studies at large high-tech companies: One is Brazilian and the other is a multinational subsidiary in Brazil. Among its main result, this paper represents and analyzes management practices that are favorable to integration in product development projects that demand development and transfer of technologies, such as: participation of R&D personnel in market activities, the adoption of virtual interaction mechanisms, and the application of methods such as technology roadmaps. <![CDATA[<strong>Conformity Assessment as a Tool for Organizational Learning in Large Engineering and Construction Projects</strong>]]> For the successful realization of large engineering and construction projects (LECPs), a systemic organizational learning framework for institutional cooperation is critical. Due to the long project life-cycle of LECPs, this is particularly important for this kind of project. The objective of this paper is to analyze to what extent the conformity assessment of LECPs, carried out under Engineering, Procurement and Construction management (EPCm) services, can be used as a tool for organizational learning and cooperation between typical stakeholders (project owners, engineering contractors, EPC contractors; subcontractors and certification bodies). The research, from which this paper emanates, was based on a case study concerning LECPs in an oil and gas company in Brazil. Based on its results, we suggest that the proposed organizational learning framework, supported by the conformity assessment rationale, constitutes an important management tool that can be disseminated in other organizational contexts where conformity assessments of LECPs take place. <![CDATA[<strong>Innovation in Innovation Management</strong>: <strong>the Experience of Petrobras Centers</strong> <strong>and Networks of Excellence Program</strong>]]> Since 1996, Petrobras - Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., the biggest company in Latin America, has supported the development of a method to structure networks of partnerships called Centers and Networks of Excellence Practice (PCREX). It aims to support the establishment of centers and networks of excellence in areas in which innovation depends heavily on the articulation of various players from outside the company and different internal areas. This article presents the results of the analysis of the PCREX method, including its characterization and field research carried out in eight Centers and Networks of Excellence developed by Petrobras. The field research and subsequent analysis helped identify (i) the alignment between the PCREX method and the best innovation management practices and (ii) the difficulties faced by new management models based on resource and knowledge sharing, which highlights that organizational innovations need to be able to count on strong institutional support to succeed. <![CDATA[<strong>Innovation Processes in Small and Medium Enterprises Associated in Networks from the Supermarket Sector</strong>]]> This study evaluates the types of innovation that Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) associated in networks develop in order to enjoy competitive benefits offered by those networks. The present study developed qualitative multiple case study of two networks from the supermarket sector, one vertical network and one horizontal network, which operate in southern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results allowed concluding that organizational changes companies had to implement in order to enjoy the benefits they had considered competitive, enabled with their participation in the networks, can be considered organizational innovations. Data analysis revealed that innovations implemented by companies, resulted in other types of innovation, such as other organizational service innovations. It should also be mentioned that the innovation processes showed differences in their form in the two networks studied. In the vertical network, innovation occurred from the top-down. In the horizontal network, innovation occurred from the bottom-up. <![CDATA[Explorando Distintos Tipos de Innovación en Micro y Pequeñas Empresas Peruanas]]> This article explores the innovation phenomenon, from a multidimensional perspective, in two groups of micro and small enterprises of traditional sectors. The analysis considers demand-driven innovations such as product, marketing and market innovations as well as innovations intended to operational efficiency which include administrative and production process innovations. Data were collected from 50 businesses. In terms of demand-driven innovations, the results show that the group of furniture manufacturers mainly focuses on product innovations relegating marketing and market innovations. In contrast, the group of Pisco producers has greater diversification among these three types of innovation, and at the same time, higher concentration on each of them. Regarding efficiency-oriented innovations, both groups showed similar behavior with more introductions of production process innovations.<hr/>Este artículo explora el fenómeno de innovación, desde una perspectiva multidimensional, en dos grupos de Mypes de sectores tradicionales. Se analizan innovaciones orientadas a la demanda tales como innovaciones de producto, mercadotecnia y mercado, así como también innovaciones orientadas a la eficiencia operacional las cuales incluyen innovaciones de procesos administrativos y de producción. Los datos fueron recolectados de 50 empresas. En cuanto a las innovaciones orientadas a la demanda, los resultados muestran que el grupo de empresas de fabricantes de muebles se enfoca en innovaciones de producto dejando relegadas las innovaciones de mercadotecnia y mercado. En contraste, el grupo de empresas productoras de pisco presenta mayor diversificación entre esos tres tipos de innovación y, a la vez, mayor concentración en cada una de ellas. Respecto a las innovaciones orientadas a la eficiencia, ambos grupos muestran un comportamiento similar con mayor incidencia en la innovación de procesos de producción. <![CDATA[<strong>Gestión y Desarrollo de Empresas Innovadoras </strong>]]> Las Empresas Nacientes de Base Tecnológica (ENBTs) representan, por su flexibilidad y capacidad organizacional y empresarial, una fuente de innovación que permite aprovechar los potenciales de desarrollo local donde están insertas. Sin embargo, las dificultades que tales empresas encuentran para su inserción en un mercado competitivo pueden transformarse en barreras para su desarrollo. El éxito de ENBTs está influenciado fuertemente por el modelo de gestión implantado desde el inicio de las actividades, antes inclusive de constituirse legalmente la nueva empresa. Este artículo presenta un método de gestión y desarrollo de ENBTs con base en la metodología denominada CEC (Capital Emprendedor Colaborativo), desarrollada por un grupo de inversores ángeles que actuaban desde 2008 en Brasil. Con fines ilustrativos, se analiza el caso exitoso de una startup del área de Tecnología de la Información (TI), apoyada por dicho grupo, con foco en el segmento de mejora continua de procesos industriales.<hr/>The New Technology-Based Firms (NTBFs) represent, for its flexibility and organizational and business capacity, a source of innovation that leverages the local development potentials in which they are found. However, the difficulties such enterprises have to confront if they want to be inserted in a competitive market can become barriers to its development. The NTBFs success is strongly influenced by the management model in place since the start of its activities, even before the legal incorporation of the company. This paper presents a method of NTBFs management and development based on a methodology called CEC (Collaborative Venture Capital) developed by a group of angel investors acting since 2008 in Brazil. For illustrative purposes, we analyze the case of a successful startup, supported by that group. <![CDATA[<strong>Expectations of FINEP and São Paulo Anjos Agents Concerning the Use of Venture Capital in Technology-Based Small and Medium Enterprises</strong>]]> This work aims at providing a better understanding of the relations of venture capital agents with entrepreneurs of small- and medium-sized technology-based firms by studying their expectations. The study used qualitative, multiple-case research method, predominantly following the precepts of Eisenhardt (1989). Data collection was done through analysis of documents and semi-structured in-depth interviews with FINEP and São Paulo Angels (SPA) agents. Data analysis followed intra-and inter-case steps (Miles and Huberman, 1994). The results indicate that FINEP agents' expectations for entrepreneurs who benefit from venture capital are compliance with deadlines established, development of the items specified in the approved project (prototype, product, etc.), generation of innovations that benefit society, and development of business management knowledge and practice. SPA agents' expectations are that entrepreneurs have high motivation and passion in relation to the business, work ethically and according to the law, and maintain a very good relationship with SPA agents to achieve solid results. <![CDATA[<strong>Análisis Morfológico de Patentes para Desarrollar un Producto</strong> <strong>de Seguridad Vehicular</strong>]]> En este trabajo se proporcionan las bases de inteligencia tecnológica para un proyecto de seguridad vehicular, adoptando el modelo de innovación propuesto por Myers y Marquis, Se hizo un análisis morfológico de patentes basado en palabras clave para buscar las configuraciones ya utilizadas (protegidas) y se identifican las configuraciones aún no empleadas para identificar las oportunidades tecnológicas a desarrollar. Este análisis se presta para: 1) conocer el estado del arte y no comenzar de cero o inventar el hilo negro, 2) evitar invadir propiedad industrial de terceros, y 3) descubrir huecos de oportunidades tecnológicas.<hr/>This paper provides the basis for technological intelligence for a vehicle safety project, specifically to avoid rear-end collisions between cars. The framework adopts the general model of innovation proposed by Myers and Marquis. A morphological analysis of patents based on keywords was done to find the settings already used (protected) in the patents analyzed. By listing the occupied configurations of collected patents, the unoccupied territory of configurations are suggested as technology opportunities. This analysis provides: 1) the state of art and not to reinvent the wheel, 2) avoid infringement to industrial property, and 3) discover white spaces as technological opportunities. <![CDATA[<strong>User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry</strong>: <strong>The Relationship Between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree</strong>]]> The objective of this work is to analyze the importance of the user-producer interaction for the innovative process of the Brazilian oil industry from the 2000s. To do so, we selected two of the three providers installed in Brazil that produce the set of valves used in the oil wellhead to control its production, set which is called wet Christmas tree (WCT), the Norway's Aker Solutions and the American FMC Technologies. The results of this analysis indicate not only the development of the oil industry in Brazil is marked by a strategy of cooperative innovation, but they also reveal the importance of geographical proximity and direct cooperation, especially between the centers of engineering and research and development of companies. Furthermore, these partnerships are not limited to the adaptation of products to new needs, but they also include the development of new systems. <![CDATA[<strong>R,D and I in Electric Sector</strong>: <strong>a Management Model</strong>]]> This study was carried out with the support of the companies of Eletrobras (Chesf, Furnas, Eletronorte and Eletrosul) and seeks to develop an integrated management model that incorporates technology and innovation. The model should be concerned with the performance of companies, aligning R, D&I [Research, Development and Innovation] projects with business strategies. The project was undertaken by an in-depth bibliographical review of the subject and a series of guided interviews. These interviews were conducted in both national and international companies that were regarded as innovative in several different sectors, in an attempt to identify practices that could be employed by companies in the electric sector. The findings of this research allowed the development of an integrated R,D&I Management model which is formally set out here as the results of this study. <![CDATA[<strong>Technological Innovation in the Electro-Medical Equipment Sector</strong>: <strong>Analysis in Latin America</strong>]]> It is an exploratory study of technological innovation in the electro-medical equipment sector, encompassing an analysis of trends in Latin America. The methodological bases for the study are the procedures and indicators used in bibliometric studies and it uses as its body of analysis the invention patents available in the European Patent Office. The research study made it possible to perform qualitative analyses aimed at understanding the technological innovation behavior of institutions operating in the area. It also allowed us to show the relative position of each company, sector or country in relation to the potential competition. It is hoped that these results will be able to provide support for public policies which underpin innovation in this sector. <![CDATA[<b>Estudio de la Evolución Tecnológica en Empresas de Celulares a Partir de la</b> <b>Actividad de Patentamiento</b>]]> En el contexto actual a nivel mundial, las comunicaciones inalámbricas se han convertido en imprescindibles. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo es proporcionar una comprensión de la evolución tecnológica de la industria de celulares, a partir de tres estudios de caso de las empresas Nokia, Huawei y ZTE. Inicialmente, se expone cómo se ha venido desarrollando la tecnología de las comunicaciones inalámbricas. Asimismo, se destaca a la actividad de patentamiento como un indicador tangible de la actividad I+D, en particular de las empresas en estudio. La segunda parte del trabajo trata los estudios de caso basados en el estudio de la actividad de patentamiento de los últimos años. Finalmente, se presentan las semejanzas y diferencias entre los casos estudiados y las conclusiones sobre la actividad de patentamiento en la industria. <![CDATA[<b>Cloud Computing and Information Technology Strategy</b>]]> Cloud computing represents a new paradigm that enables the utility computing model in which computing resources are offered and consumed as a service on demand, pay as you go, in a model similar to that of electricity. The objective of this work is to identify threats and opportunities of the cloud computing model and its influence on the strategy of companies that consume Information Technology. To do so, a survey was conducted with leading IT executives from 64 medium and large companies in Brazil. We noticed the influence of cloud computing in migrating the focus of the corporate IT departments to the management of services and contracts, resulting into the demand for professionals with IT analyst integrated and business profiles. <![CDATA[<b>Choosing ICT Tools</b>: <b>Proposition of a Model to Deliver Value for Clients</b>]]> Several tools of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are being used nowadays to support customer relationship processes. Literature review shows that, in the selection and deployment of these tools, internal goals of productivity and efficiency predominate. In just a few situations, the objective is offering higher value to the client. Therefore, the objective of this research was to propose a process of selection and deployment of ICT tools geared towards offering higher value, in the business to business market. Primary data were collected in depth interviews with high-level executives responsible for ICT areas. For the content analysis, the ATLAS-ti software was used, searching for recurrent themes. A value oriented process for choosing and implementing ICT tools was then proposed. <![CDATA[<b>The Use of Information Systems in Health Care Facilities</b>: <b>A Brazilian Case</b>]]> Information technologies are increasingly incorporated into organizational functions. Also in the health sector, the incorporation of new medical technologies brings new challenges for IT managers to gather more and more information about patients. Thus, the aim of this paper is to assess the degree of maturity which healthcare institutions are and have with information technology, ie, how institutions use information systems, if computerized, and how they apply this system in the information management. Through closed questionnaire, 16 healthcare institutions in the north and northeast of the state of Santa Catarina were surveyed. Results show that there is a concern when using information strategically to decision making, even though the development does not follow a curvilinear shape ascending and Information Systems do not include features for analyzing complex data. <![CDATA[<b>Knowledge Management and Innovation</b>: <b>The Role of Virtual Social Networks</b> <b>in Innovative Consumer Behavior</b>]]> Online social networks made up of actors with different degrees of innovativeness may allow knowledge management to collect new ideas and measure their acceptance. This research investigates consumer innovativeness and relationships with the uses and participation in social networks. This research has a quantitative exploratory scope, and among the main findings, we can mention that the dimensions of the adopted scale were corroborated by using factor analysis. The findings cannot be generalized, but there are evidences that relationship between social networking and innovative consumer behavior exists. Although there are limitations, correlations were found between the social dimension of innovativeness and information search in the networks and also the use of social networking information for the decision to purchase new products.