Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 8 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>Offshoring and Outsourcing of R and D and Business Activities in</strong><strong> </strong><strong>Canadian Technology Firms</strong>]]> A substantial amount of empirical research has been conducted on the offshoring/outsourcing practices of U.S., European, South Korean, and Japanese technology firms. However, there is very little research evidence on the strategies of Canadian firms. This leaves a gap in the literature that we aim to fulfill by providing empirical evidence of the practice among Canadian manufacturing firms. The evidence presented is based on t he 2009Survey of Innovation and Business Strategy conducted by Statistics Canada. This survey provides the largest and most comprehensive data in Canada on this topic. The data suggest that only a very small proportion of Canadian manufacturing firms offshore/outsource their R&D and other business activities and only a select few countries. The primary motivations for Canadian firms to offshore/outsource their R&D and business activities are to reduce costs and to gain access to new markets. The managerial, policy, and research implications of the results are discussed. <![CDATA[<strong>Financing R and D Projects in Southern Italy</strong>: <strong>The "Technological Vouchers and</strong> <strong>Cooperative Research" Program</strong>]]> The paper deals with the evaluation and financing of research and innovation projects. The paper analyzes and discusses the "Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research" program in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy), as a program for financing R&D projects in a geographical area far behind in development. Three real cases of R&D projects are described. The program was effective as regards the stimulus to realizing R&D activities by Calabrian SMEs and furthermore in relation to the improvement of cooperation between SMEs, research centers, universities and technological laboratories. The weak points of the program mainly regard the evaluation phase that made it impossible to get a feedback useful for policy and for driving future agenda. <![CDATA[<strong>Customer Integration in Service Innovation</strong>: <strong>An Exploratory Study</strong>]]> Prominent industry projects, as well as an extensive literature suggest the importance of customer integration for companies' innovation success. This appears to be especially true for service firms, which inherently build on customer interaction. Despite this appreciation of the approach, there are comparably few empirical analyses of the positive and negative effects of customer integration. In this exploratory study, we build on established customer role concepts to study the status quo of customer integration in industry, as well as reservations against the roles and negative experiences from customer integration projects. The study reveals a gap between reservations and actual negative experiences in losing know-how, as well as a positive effect of experience in customer integration on perceived benefits for the company <![CDATA[<strong>Emerging Requirements for Technology Management</strong>: <strong>A Sector-based Scenario Planning Approach</strong>]]> Identifying the emerging requirements for technology management will help organisations to prepare for the future and remain competitive. Indeed technology management as a discipline needs to develop and respond to societal and industrial needs as well as the corresponding technology challenges. Therefore, following a review of technology forecasting methodologies, a sector-based scenario planning approach has been used to derive the emerging requirements for technology management. This structured framework provided an analytical lens to focus on the requirements for managing technology in the healthcare, energy and higher education sectors over the next 5-10 years. These requirements include the need for new business models to support the adoption of technologies; integration of new technologies with existing delivery channels; management of technology options including R&D project management; technology standards, validation and interoperability; and decision-making tools to support technology investment. <![CDATA[<strong>Innovation in Industrial Clusters</strong>: <strong>a Survey of Footwear Companies in Brazil</strong>]]> The aim of this study is to characterize the relationships in innovation and business clustering processes in the productive chain of small and medium enterprises (SME) of Brazil. The object of study are SMEs the local procuctive cluster of the shoes in Franca, State of São Paulo. The conceptual model developed is based on the following constructs: vertical integration, innovation and characteristics of the cluster, and it is focused on identifying the agents that act predominantly in product innovation processes in the cluster. A survey was conducted. It was found that there is cooperation between the companies in the productive arrangement studied, and that shoe manufacturers are those who, predominantly, stimulate innovation within the cluster. <![CDATA[<strong>Underlying Dimensions and Organizational Values in Organizational Learning</strong>: <strong>Strategy for Capacity Building in Developing Countries</strong>]]> The idea that organizational learning is closely linked to innovation became firmly established by the end of the nineties (Argyris and Schön, 1978; Watkins and Marsick, 1993; Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995), however, very little research in these topics is done in developing countries. Therefore, the objective of this article is to expose the underlying dimensions as well as the organizational values that should characterize an organizational learning process, as a strategy for technological capacities construction in small and medium size firms. Consequently, through analytical-synthetic methodology including a case study analysis, this article evidence those determinants characteristics of an organizational learning approach to promote the planning of technological learning processes for catching up in order for developing countries to get into the path of innovation. <![CDATA[<strong>The Incubation Process and the Strengthening of the Firm</strong>: <strong>a Study in</strong> <strong>Brazilian Companies</strong>]]> High mortality rate and an environment in constant change set up a context in which the search for innovation becomes essential to business' longevity. Incubation has been proposed as an alternative to start-up companies, giving support for their development. Seeking to explore which characteristics enable a firm's development through incubation, a multiple case studies were performed. Interviews were carried out with two Incubated, and three Graduated companies. Results indicate that the incubation process is important to strengthening of the firm. This was observed when innovative strategies employed by companies were analyzed. It was noted an evolution from Incubated to Graduated. During the incubation process, the companies showed a greater focus on strengthening their knowledge bases, seeking to establish qualification relationships and invest in an innovation strategy based on better human resources allocation while the Graduated ones attempt to achieve further innovation by structuring and coupling their own commercial and R&D departments. <![CDATA[<strong>Predicting Success in Product Development</strong>: <strong>The Application of Principal Component Analysis to Categorical Data and</strong> <strong>Binomial Logistic Regression</strong>]]> Critical success factors in new product development (NPD) in the Brazilian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are identified and analyzed. Critical success factors are best practices that can be used to improve NPD management and performance in a company. However, the traditional method for identifying these factors is survey methods. Subsequently, the collected data are reduced through traditional multivariate analysis. The objective of this work is to develop a logistic regression model for predicting the success or failure of the new product development. This model allows for an evaluation and prioritization of resource commitments. The results will be helpful for guiding management actions, as one way to improve NPD performance in those industries. <![CDATA[<strong>A Study on the Use of the Balanced Scorecard for Strategy Implementation in a Large Brazilian Mixed Economy Company</strong>]]> The research described in this paper has analyzed the use of the balanced scorecard (BSC) as part of a management control system for implementing strategies in a large mixed economy company. The shareholder structure of the company combines traditional shareholder interests with those of the government. Based on a case study in Brazil, the research innovates on analyzing BSC use and contributions to translate a company's strategy (which requires bringing together different views) into objectives and goals aligned to the four BSC perspectives: financial, learning and growth, improvement of internal processes and customer. The results point out that: (1) BSC, when used as part of a MCS, provides effective improvement of the strategy implementation process and its diffusion across the different organizational levels; (2) in the company under analysis, the performance evaluation integrated qualitative, financial and productive dimensions; (3) BSC appeared as an important tool in strategy conception and implementation; and (4) BSC enables to translate the company's strategy into objectives and goals aligned to the financial, learning and growth, improvement of internal processes and customer perspectives. <![CDATA[<strong>Emerging Technology</strong>: <strong>What is it</strong>]]> The term emerging technology (ET) has been frequently used by IT professionals and academics. However, little research has shed light on this term and specified its characteristics and what it means. Therefore, this paper aims to define and conceptualize the characteristics of ET. These characteristics are uncertainty, network effect, unseen social and ethical concerns, cost, limitation to particular countries, and a lack of investigation and research. Several examples of ETs are given to validate these characteristics. <![CDATA[<strong>Measuring Innovative Capacities of the Georgia Regions</strong>]]> European Union (EU) experience reveal that the composite indicators are probably the most useful instruments for measuring the innovative capacities at the regional (sub-national) level. However, some gap exists in the current literature with respect to the elaboration of composite indicators for regional innovation systems (RISs) of developing countries. This article introduces the composite indicators GRIS and GCLS for measuring the regional innovative capacities (for GNUTSI and GNUTS2 territorial classification levels, respectively). Georgia is a useful case-subject because its small-scale developing economy presents special challenges for elaborating the composite indicators for RISs. This article also includes a brief analysis using these composite indicators and indicates the significant heterogeneity among the innovative capacities of the Georgian regions. <![CDATA[<strong>Secreto Industrial y Cooperación Público-privada en I+D en el Sector</strong> <strong>Biofarmacéutico Argentino</strong>]]> El artículo presenta un estudio sobre el uso del secreto industrial en firmas biofarmacéuticas argentinas que innovan mediante la cooperación público-privada. Cuando la innovación se obtiene cooperando con fuentes externas y públicas de conocimiento, para la empresa aumenta el riesgo de que conocimientos críticos se filtren a potenciales competidores, debilitando la eficacia del secreto industrial. Para indagar sobre este aspecto, se han efectuado estudios de casos sobre firmas cuyos proyectos de innovación son realizados en cooperación con instituciones públicas de I+D. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las características específicas que asume la cooperación generan diferentes posibilidades a las firmas para enfrentar dichos riesgos, adaptar su estrategia de apropiación y proteger los conocimientos generados.<hr/>The article presents a study on the use of secrecy in Argentine biopharmaceutical firms that innovate through public-private cooperation. When innovation is achieved by cooperating with public and external sources of knowledge, the company is exposed to higher risks that critical knowledge leaks out to potential competitors, undermining the effectiveness of secrecy. To investigate this issue, study cases have been conducted on firms whose innovation projects are carried out by cooperating with public R&D institutions. The results suggest that the specific features of cooperation determine different possibilities for firms to face those risks, adapt its strategy of appropriation and protect the generated knowledge. <![CDATA[<strong>The Sources of Competitive Advantage in University Spin-Offs</strong>: <strong>a Case Study</strong>]]> University Spin-Offs are incorporated to exploit the knowledge and skills achieved within Universities. Often, their competitive advantage is represented by specific know-how that may be hardly imitated by competitors. In this article we present an analysis of the intellectual capital assets owned by a University Spin-Off using a framework recently introduced in literature. The framework resorts to a series of structured interviews to key figures within the organization. The interviews are synthesized through the Analytic Network Process and the results are compared using graphical and cost/ benefit analyses. The implementation of the framework creates a useful panel for the planning of investments in intellectual capital assets in order to create value. Moreover, it may emphasize possible discrepancies among interviewees about the importance of each intellectual capital asset. <![CDATA[<strong>University Spin-off Creation by Spanish Researchers in Agricultural</strong> <strong>Engineering</strong>]]> This paper describes how a team of university professors and graduate students created a technology-based company (spin-off) to as a means to deliver their research findings to the agricultural sector. The spin-off company was based on the use of new methodologies, equipment, instrumentation and sensors initially developed for various research projects. Successful field tests and positive feedback from farmers initially prompted the development of the spin-off. The spin-off progress has been observed and recorded from the idea phase through the company start-up until the second round of financing (October 2007 to January 2010). Since limited time scales are commonly found in agriculture, the spin-off company provided a way to deliver timely research results to the agricultural community. Although university research results may eventually end up in the agricultural sector, in many cases this process requires a lot of bureaucracy and time. Spin-off companies can be flexible tools to transfer this knowledge and technology to the agricultural sector, as well as providing direct career opportunities for graduate students and PhD students. <![CDATA[<strong>Information Technology as the Main Competence in the Design of the Strategic Planning of Logistics Platforms</strong> ]]> The creation of logistical support structures aims to help improve the performance of logistics along supply chains, a context where the Logistics Platforms have been gaining increasing prominence. A frequent difficulty in these ventures is to align strategic planning with the flow of cargo and the ability of the adjacent port areas. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of the importance of Information Technology in a Logistics Platform, this article systematize some of the operational core competencies of Logistics Platforms, inter-relating them with the strategic planning of these projects and showing their convergence to a solid information management structure. This study indicates the importance of this essential skill in the operation of a logistics enterprise and the preparation of its strategic plan, shown to be fundamental in the design of its operations, the adequacy of the enterprise to the region and to supply chains integrated into this environment. <![CDATA[<strong>Structuring of the Open Innovation Field</strong>]]> Open Innovation is considered a 'hot' concept in research as well as in industry practice. At the same time, at least two critiques have been raised against the notion: that it is based on old theories and that the term is vague and non-precise. Based on a bibliometrical analysis, this conceptual paper structures the emerging field of open innovation into two interrelated perspectives; the firm perspective and the ecosystem perspective. By that, it introduces an integrated framework for open innovation and shows how various concepts under the umbrella of open innovation are related to each other. A discussion is presented on how the two perspectives relate to earlier innovation management literature and how they are linked by 'new' interaction approaches, such as toolkits, innovation contests, crowdsourcing, and innovation intermediaries. <![CDATA[<strong>Managing Risks in SMEs</strong>: <strong>A Literature Review and Research Agenda</strong>]]> In times of crisis, companies need to carefully monitor current expenses and forecast potential costs, which could be caused by risky actions. Risk is inherent in all business functions and in every kind of activity. Knowing how to identify risks, attribute a value and a priority scale, design actions and mechanisms to minimize risks, and continuously monitor them, are essential to guarantee companies' survival and create sustainable value. This is especially true for small- and medium-sized businesses that are most exposed to the harmful effects of the risks, due to limited resources and structural features. The objective of this study is to analyze available literature on the subject of risk management for small- and medium-sized enterprises from 1999 to 2009. The analysis derives interesting characteristics from the scientific studies, highlighting gaps and guidelines for future research. <![CDATA[<strong>A Study on Alternative Approaches to Instill Environmental Concerns in the Domain of Production Management of Industrial Firms</strong>]]> This article presents a comparative analysis of alternative models of production with environmental concerns that may lead to higher effectiveness in initiatives undertaken by industrial firms towards the development of more sustainable operations. The objective is to organize the knowledge on the subject of such models and provide guidelines that may help managers in selecting the most fitting approach for their business, according to the strategy and conditions of the firm. Among the presented models, the Cleaner Production model stands out for promoting the approach of nurturing the concurrent strengthening of quality, productivity, and sustainability in the existing manufacturing processes by dealing more comprehensively with factors internal to the firm that may be directly controlled by the managers.