Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of technology management & innovation]]> vol. 12 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<strong>University industry links and product innovation</strong>: <strong>cooperate or contract?</strong>]]> The role of universities in product innovation has received considerable attention over the past decade. However, little is known about how the type of formal university-firm interaction predicts innovative performance and the degree of novelty of new products. This research differentiates two forms of firm high-relational interaction with universities: R&D contracting and cooperation. We exploit the panel structure of a dataset of 5,858 Spanish manufacturing firms with fixed-effects models. The empirical analysis finds that, although both contracting and cooperation predict product innovative performance, the two activities differ in the degree of novelty of new product outcomes. The implications are that the codified nature and asymmetric scope of R&D contracting is more suitable for exploitative innovation, resulting in product innovation that is incremental in nature. On the other hand, the possibility to exchange and create tacit knowledge and the explorative nature of R&D cooperation provide firms with the opportunity to better access the broad knowledge base of universities, leading to product innovations with a higher degree of novelty. <![CDATA[<strong>Disruptive change and the reconfiguration of innovation ecosystems</strong>]]> This conceptual paper extends the traditional view of disruptive change, which considers the effects of rivalry between an incumbent and new entrant firm, by examining the impact of disruption upon the ‘innovation ecosystem’ in its entirety - the group of organisations that collaborate in creating a holistic value proposition for the end-user. Following Adner’s “ecosystem-as-structure” perspective, we develop propositions that anticipate structural differences between incumbent and disruptive innovation ecosystems, and then review these propositions in the context of three historical, disruptive innovation cases; Bakelite (a synthetic plastic), microwave oven, and photocopier. Through these cases, we illustrate that the manner of innovation ecosystem reconfiguration is likely to depend on the design attributes of the product, as well as the type of disruption experienced. We conclude by reflecting upon contemporary cases of disruption enabled through digital technologies, and proposing a framework that can guide future research. <![CDATA[<strong>Value contributions of the venture capitalist in Mexico</strong>: <strong>building an exit for the investment</strong>]]> Venture capitalists provide money and non-monetary contributions to high-growth ventures to help them become great companies. Although it is known that these contributions have an impact on the growth of the firm, little is known in Mexico of their nature, how they get into the venture, and how they contribute to the development of the company. The present article reports a proposed substantive theory that explains how the venture capitalist work hand in hand with the entrepreneur to grow the company. This substantive theory emerged from data collected through interviews to nine venture capitalists and nine entrepreneurs, and analyzed as proposed by the grounded theory methodology. The substantive theory acknowledges that contributions of venture capitalists, often called value-added, are relative to building an exit for the investment. <![CDATA[<b>Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in Mexico</b>: <b>20 years of NAFTA</b>]]> This article analyses the development of technology capabilities in the manufacturing sector of Mexico during the last two decades. It has been argued that the inclusion of Mexico in the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 would be enough to catch up with Canada and the United States. In this regard, trade liberalisation and foreign direct investment (FDI) would have been two strategic tools to close the technology gap between Mexico and its commercial partners in North America. Yet, after twenty years of NAFTA, it has been demonstrated that many indigenous firms in Mexico must develop an absorptive capacity to benefit from FDI. This paper suggests that the debate on the Asian miracle in the 1990s could be an adequate theoretical framework to discuss technology development and industrialisation in the case of emerging economies. In fact, this debate reveals two alternative approaches to explain the development of technology capabilities: (i) the accumulation view of growth, and (ii) the assimilation view of growth. Therefore, the Asian miracle exemplifies how entrepreneurship, learning and a supporting innovation policy could be an adequate strategy to benefit from FDI and technology spillovers in the case of emerging economies. <![CDATA[<strong>Cooperation for innovation in developing countries and its effects</strong>: <strong>evidence from Ecuador</strong>]]> This paper evaluates the impact of the most common innovation linkages by type of innovation activity on firms’ innovation inputs and outputs. In order to estimate the casual effects, we employ Inverse Probability Weighting, while focusing on exclusive cooperative agreements to prevent our results from being affected by the presence of additional relationships in other activities or with other types of partners. Results class that cooperation in non-R&D innovation activities positively affects the introduction of new-to-the-firm product, marketing and organizational innovations, while cooperation in both R&D and non-R&D activities also affects R&D intensity and new-to-the-market product innovation. Furthermore, firms that cooperate exclusively in obtaining information, which is mainly carried out with suppliers and customers, are more likely to introduce new-to-the-firm product and organizational innovations. <![CDATA[<strong>Semantic test of a technology management model in family business</strong>]]> This paper assembles family business conceptions from the innovation and technology management perspective, and tests them in the case of a Mexican sugarcane producer. Literature indicates that non-financial objectives, risk aversion and strong controls negatively influence family firms&rsquo; innovation outcomes. Based on semantic network analysis, we collected transversal information on the firm&rsquo;s technology activities, innovation values and organizational flows, which allowed for the identification of an organizational management profile that shapes an innovation style. Although we acknowledge literature consistency in aspects such as family direct influence and control, or the importance of STI partnerships and external knowledge, our findings didn&rsquo;t identify any concerns about losing control in parts of the family business. This research contributes to the understanding of technology management and organizational elements in an emerging economy&rsquo;s family firm from a relational perspective. Implications for theory endorsement and characterization of family business innovation and technology management in developing countries are discussed. <![CDATA[<strong>La cooperación tecnológica universidad-empresa: el rol de la comunicación</strong>]]> El trabajo aborda la cooperación tecnológica entre universidad y empresa bajo el enfoque de redes, discutiendo la importancia del comportamiento de comunicación. Se analiza cómo la comunicación se relaciona con el éxito de la transferencia de conocimiento y si existen diferencias en la relación entre ambas variables en función de la modalidad bajo la que se desarrolla la cooperación. La aplicación empírica en España evidencia que una comunicación adecuada, oportuna, completa y creíble entre los miembros de la empresa y del equipo de investigación universitario se asocia positivamente con el éxito de la transferencia de conocimiento. Además, cuando el acuerdo se desarrolla bajo la forma de investigación cooperativa, se observa una mayor asociación entre el comportamiento de comunicación y el éxito de la transferencia de conocimiento. Así, se deriva la necesidad de que directivos e investigadores participantes en acuerdos de cooperación presten especial atención a la comunicación interorganizativa e intraorganizativa.<hr/>This paper examines university-industry technology cooperation, using the network approach and discussing the importance of communication behavior. We analyze the relationship between communication behavior and the success of knowledge transfer, and the differences that exist depending on the mode of cooperation. In Spain results show that an adequate, timely, complete, and credible communication in the university-industry relationship is positively related to the success of knowledge transfer. Results also evidence a higher correlation between communication behavior and successful knowledge transfer in the mode of cooperative research. Consequently, managers and researchers in cooperation agreements should pay special attention to interand intra-organizational communication. <![CDATA[<strong>Impacto de los obstáculos al conocimiento en la innovación de las empresas chilenas</strong>]]> La literatura sobre obstáculos a la innovación se ha centrado principalmente en las restricciones financieras. En esta investigación, utilizando la 8° Encuesta de Innovación en Empresas, analizamos el impacto de los obstáculos de conocimiento en la probabilidad de innovar. N uestros resultados muestran que, al corregir por la endogeneidad de los obstáculos, éstos reducen la probabilidad de innovar en las firmas chilenas. Además, el impacto es negativo tanto para innovaciones tecnológicas como no tecnológicas. Nuestros resultados tienen importantes implicancias de política, sugiriendo que las políticas no solo se deben centrar en las restricciones financieras, sino que también en obstáculos de conocimiento como la disponibilidad de recursos humanos y la información sobre mercados y nuevas tecnologías.<hr/>Most of previous literature about innovation obstacles has focused on the impact financial constraints. In this paper, using the 8th Chilean I nnovation Survey, we analyze the impact of knowledge obstacles on the probability of introducing innovations. Our results show that, dealing with endogeneity of the obstacles, these reduce the innovation probability in the Chilean firms. Th is impact is ne gative for both te chnological and non-technological innovations. Our findings have relevant policy implications, suggesting that policies not only have to be focused on financial constraints, but also on knowledge barriers such as availability of human resource and information about markets and new technologies <![CDATA[<strong>Apoyo público e innovación a nivel de firmas</strong>]]> Este artículo pretende aportar a la literatura que analiza los efectos de las políticas públicas sobre la innovación a nivel de firmas, a partir del caso de una pequeña economía en desarrollo, Uruguay. Analiza la relación entre apoyo público y probabilidad de innovar para el mercado, e introduce un rezago entre el apoyo otorgado y la innovación realizada, de manera de valorar rezago en el impacto. El análisis econométrico utiliza Probit binomiales con corrección de Heckman, para corregir sesgos de selección. Se concluye que los apoyos públicos importan a los efectos de innovar para el mercado, ya sea porque estimulan la innovación o porque la facilitan en empresas que ya innovan. Asimismo, las actividades de innovación de empresas asociadas a apoyos públicos, en Uruguay, no parecen requerir de largo tiempo de maduración. Finalmente, se sugiere profundizar el estudio de la relación entre internacionalización de las empresas y probabilidad de innovar.<hr/>This article intends to contribute to the analyses of the effects of public policies on innovation at the firm level, based on the case of a small developing economy (Uruguay). It studies the relation between public support and the probability of innovating at the market level, introducing a lag between support and innovation. The econometric analysis uses binomial Probit models with Heckman sampling bias correction. The article concludes that public support matters for innovation at the market level, whether by stimulating innovation or by facilitating it in already innovative firms. Moreover, the innovation activities of Uruguayan firms receiving public support do not seem to require a long time to develop. Finally, it is suggested that the relation between firm internationalization and the probability of innovating be further studied. <![CDATA[<strong>Innovación en gestión de recursos humanos</strong>: <strong>la relevancia de las redes inter-organizativas de intercambio de conocimiento</strong>]]> El presente artículo utiliza metodología de redes sociales para analizar empíricamente el posible impacto positivo de la participación en redes de intercambio de conocimiento para la implementación de innovaciones en gestión de GRH. Los resultados indican que aquellas empresas que participan activamente en el establecimiento de relaciones de intercambio de conocimiento de GRH con otras empresas, tanto a través de acuerdos formales-contractuales como mediante relaciones informales-colaborativas, tienen una propensión mayor a realizar innovaciones en esta área. Como resultado, las empresas más expuestas a nuevos conocimientos son en mayor medida más innovadoras en sus sistemas de gestión de GRH. Se concluye que el establecimiento de relaciones inter-organizativas tiene efectos positivos en la introducción de prácticas innovadoras de gestión de GRH.<hr/>This work draws on social network analysis to empirically assess the relationship between firm participation in inter-firm knowledge networks and innovation in human resource management (HRM). Results suggest that participation in the establishment of inter-firm knowledge exchanges, both through formal and informal networks and relationships, has a positive relationship with the implementation of HRM innovations. Findings suggest that firms that actively participate in inter-firm knowledge networks obtain knowledge resources and tend to be more innovative in the HRM system and practices. <![CDATA[<strong>Mapping impacts of open innovation practices in a firm competitiveness</strong>]]> This manuscript aims to understand how it is possible to improve the competitiveness of a company using open innovation practices and presents evidences that open innovation can be practice, especially regarding technologies adoption and actions involving partnerships and collaboration. The paper concludes, base in a case study of a ICT firm, that even with a partial degree of openness and an intermediate level of maturity, open innovation put into practice have contributed to technological development and increase company competitiveness in its activity sector. It also pointed out challenges in execution capacity, internal process improvements and partnership relations, but mainly challenge is breaking cultural barriers in open innovation implementation. Finally, a set of recommendations were proposed to expand actions based on open innovation management, upgrade innovation maturity level and increase competitive potential of the companies.