Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Idesia (Arica)]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-342920110002&lang=es vol. 29 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[<b>¿POR QUÉ ES NECESARIO UNA REFORMA DE LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR CHILENA?</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMO O efeito do manejo orgânico pode influenciar positivamente nas frações da matéria orgânica do solo. Este estudo objetivou avaliar as frações orgânicas do solo e o índice de manejo do carbono em áreas submetidas a manejo orgânico sob diferentes sistemas de uso do solo. As áreas selecionadas apresentavam os seguintes sistemas de uso do solo: preparo convencional (PC) com cultivo de milho, plantio direto (PD) com cultivo de berinjela, preparo reduzido (PR) com cultivo de figo, consórcio maracujá - Desmodium sp e um sistema agroflorestal (SAF). Uma área de floresta secundária foi tomada como referência da condição original do solo. As amostras de terra foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0-5 e 5-10 cm. Foi quantificado o carbono orgânico total (COT), o carbono orgânico particulado (COp) e o carbono orgânico associado aos minerais (COam). Em seguida calcularam-se os respectivos estoques (EstCOT, EstCOp e EstCOam) e o índice de manejo de carbono (IMC). Na profundidade de 0-5 cm observaram-se maiores teores de COT na área de figo (PR) seguido de berinjela (PD), sendo na profundidade de 5-10 cm verificado maiores diferenças entre as áreas avaliadas para este atributo. O EstCOp foi maior na área sob plantio direto (0- 5 cm), sendo observado diferenças entre todas as áreas nesta profundidade. Esta área também apresentou o maior IMC. Os maiores valores de EstCOam foram observados na área de figo (PR), nas duas profundidades, sendo constatadas diferenças entre as demais áreas. Os resultados encontrados indicam que o COT foi mais eficiente para identificar mudanças provenientes do manejo adotado na profundidade de 5-10 cm, sendo este comportamento observado para o EstCOp em superfície (0- 5 cm). O IMC encontrado na área de berinjela sob PD, manejado organicamente e com uso de leguminosas na forma de adubação verde, demonstra a maior sustentabilidade do sistema em relação às demais áreas avaliadas.<hr/>ABSTRACT The effect of organic management may have a positive influence on the fractions of soil organic matter. This study aimed to evaluate the fractions of soil organic content and carbon management in areas subject to organic management under different systems of soil use. The areas selected presented the following systems of soil use: conventional tillage (CT) with corn cultivation, no tillage (NT) with eggplant cultivation, reduced tillage (RT) with fig cultivation, passion fruit and Desmodium sp combination and an agroforest system (AFS). An area of secondary forest was taken as reference for the original condition of the soil. The soil samples were taken at depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm. We quantified the total organic carbon (TOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and organic carbon associated with minerals (OCam). These measures were used to estimate the stock (StTOC, StPOC and StOCam) and carbon management (CMI) indexes. In the 0-5 cm depth there were higher levels of TOC in the fig (RT) followed by eggplant (NT), and the depth of 5-10 cm found major differences between the areas evaluated for this attribute. The StPOC was greater in the area under direct sowing (0-5 cm), and was different between all areas in depth. This area also had the highest CMI. The best StOCam were observed in the fig (RT) in both depths; these were different than the other areas. The results indicate that the TOC was more effective in identifying changes due to the management adopted at a depth of 5-10 cm, while StPOC was the best measure for surface soil (0-5 cm). The CMI found in the eggplant under NT, managed organically and with the use of legumes as green manure, demonstrated the greatest sustainability of the system in relation to other areas. <![CDATA[<b>Producción y calidad de pepino (<i>Cucumis</i><i> sativus</i> L.) bajo condiciones de invernadero usando dos sistemas de poda</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN En México, la producción de hortalizas bajo invernadero se ha incrementado significativamente durante los últimos años, siendo importante la producción de pepino (Cucumis sativus L.) ocupando el 10% de la superficie invernada. Para evaluar el efecto del sistema de poda en la producción y calidad de pepino partenocárpico se realizó un estudio en un invernadero localizado en el Campo Agrícola Experimental de la Universidad de Sonora, durante el período comprendido de septiembre de 2009 a enero de 2010. Los tratamientos fueron tres híbridos de pepino (Camán, Esparón y Modán) y dos sistemas de poda (Descuelgue a un tallo, sin eliminar el punto apical del tallo principal y Descuelgue a dos tallos, eliminando al inicio del descuelgue el punto apical del tallo principal pero dejando dos brazos laterales). El diseño del experimento fue de bloques completos al azar en arreglo factorial, con cuatro repeticiones. Se evaluaron los días a floración, e inicio de cosecha, la producción (número de frutos por planta, peso del fruto y rendimiento), al igual que la calidad de la producción (longitud, diámetro y firmeza del fruto). En el ciclo agrícola de otoño-invierno, el manejo agronómico del cultivo de pepino en invernaderos sin calefacción se puede realizar con el descuelgue del cultivo a un tallo, debido al retraso en el crecimiento de los nuevos brotes al eliminar el punto apical del tallo principal, al igual que las bajas temperaturas retardan el crecimiento de los brotes secundarios; además de que dicha técnica requiere de menor mano de obra. No se observó precocidad por parte de alguno de los híbridos, al igual que por el sistema de poda, iniciando la floración a los 33 días después de la siembra y la cosecha a los 69 días. El número de frutos por planta en el híbrido Esparón, con descuelgue a un tallo, fue mayor respecto de Camán y Modán, con 17,7 frutos planta-1, recomendándose su implementación por presentar también bajo porcentaje de flores masculinas y menor cuateo. El peso del fruto, al igual que los parámetros de calidad, estuvo dentro de los estándares establecidos para pepino tipo americano, con un peso promedio de 330 g en la categoría Fancy, longitud de 23,2 cm, diámetro de 5,0 cm y firmeza de 4,8 kg.<hr/>ABSTRACT In Mexico, vegetable production under greenhouse conditions has increased significantly in recent years; cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) production is important, representing 10% of greenhouse crops. To evaluate the effect of pruning system on yield and quality of parthenocarpic cucumbers, a study was carried out in a greenhouse at the Agricultural Experimental Station of the Sonora University, during the period September 2009 to January 2010. The treatments were three cucumber hybrids (Caman, Esparon, and Modan), and two pruning systems (without removing the growing point of the main stem, and the growing point of the main stem removed and two lateral branches near the top of the plant allowed to grow, resulting in two branches growing downward). The experimental design was a completely randomized block design with factorial arrangement, with four replications. Days to flowering and to the beginning of harvest, commercial production (fruit number per plant, fruit weight and yield), as well as production quality (fruit length, diameter and firmness) were evaluated. During autumn-winter production, the agronomic management of cucumber in unheated greenhouses should be done without removing the growing point of the main stem, since the growth of new branches is delayed when the apical point of the main stem is removed and low temperatures retard the growth of secondary branches; this technique also requires less labor. Precocity was not observed in any of the hybrids, or due to pruning system; flowering began at 33 days after sowing and harvest at 69 days. The fruit number per plant in Esparon was greater with respect to Caman and Modan when the growing point of the main stem was not removed, with 17.7 fruit plant-1; its implementation is recommended, since it also presented a low percentage of male flowers and fewer double fruit. Fruit weight and quality parameters were within the standards established for American type cucumbers, with an average weight of 330 g in Fancy category, 23.2 cm length, 5.0 cm diameter and 4.8 kg firmness. <![CDATA[<b>Comportamiento de cinco especies de leguminosas como cobertura viva en palma aceitera en el estado Monagas, Venezuela</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN Tradicionalmente para plantaciones de palma aceitera se ha utilizado la leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides como cobertura viva, a fin de favorecer la fijación biológica del nitrógeno, controlar malezas, aportar materia orgánica y reducir la erosión. Cuando esta leguminosa se desarrolla compite con el cultivo y la cobertura pierde su efectividad. Este estudio se realizó en el Campo Experimental del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas Monagas, en un lote sembrado con palma aceitera de seis meses de edad, del material genético Deli x Mobai. Se evaluaron cinco especies de leguminosas promisorias como coberturas vivas: Stylosanthes capitata CIAT 10280, Centrosema rotundifolium CIAT 5260, Arachis pintoi CIAT 18748, Desmodium ovalifolium CIAT 23665 y Pueraria phaseoloides, en un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se cuantificó la población por metro cuadrado, altura de la leguminosa, producción de materia seca a los 180 días después de la siembra y el índice de cobertura específico. Los resultados indicaron que el índice de cobertura fue favorecido por la mejora en las condiciones de humedad del suelo. P. phaseoloides presentó el más rápido establecimiento y compitió eficientemente con el complejo de malezas; de manera similar, A. pintoi mostró mejor crecimiento bajo condiciones de buena humedad del suelo y tendencia a mayor desarrollo en lugares con baja incidencia solar. S. capitata y C. rotundifolium presentaron baja capacidad competitiva contra las malezas. D. ovalifolium mostró un índice de cobertura elevado y estable aun bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico y una producción adecuada de biomasa aérea y representa la mejor alternativa de cobertura viva en palma aceitera bajo las condiciones locales.<hr/>ABSTRACT For palm oil plantations, traditionally the legume Pueraria phaseoloides has been used as cover crop, to promote the biological fixation of nitrogen, to control weeds, to supply organic matter and to reduce the erosion. When this legume develops, it competes with the crop and the efficiency of cover is lost. This study was carried out in the Experimental Field of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas Monagas, on a palm oil plantation of the genetic material Deli x Mobai aged six months. Four species of promissory legumes were evaluated as cover crop: Stylosanthes capitata CIAT 10280, Centrosema rotundifolium CIAT 5260, Arachis pintoi CIAT 18748, Desmodium ovalifolium CIAT 23665 were compared with Pueraria phaseoloides, in a design of random blocks with four repetitions. Per square meter, the height of the legume, dry matter production at 180 days after sowing and a cover index of soil were quantified. The results indicate that the cover index was improved by soil humidity. P. phaseoloides presented the fastest establishment and competed efficiently with the complex of weeds. A. pintoi showed better growth under conditions of good soil humidity and tended to develop better in places with low solar incidence. S. capitata and C. rotundifolium presented low competitive capacity against the weeds. D. ovalifolium showed a high and stable cover index still under conditions of water stress and represents the best alternative of cover crop in oil palm under the local conditions. <![CDATA[<b><i>Treatments to break dormancy in </i></b><b>Sesbania virgata<i> (Cav.) Pers seeds</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMO Sementes de espécies florestais que possuem tegumentos rígidos freqüentemente apresentam consideráveis problemas para a produção de mudas, por quanto que seus tegumentos duros e impermeáveis à água dificultam e retardam a germinação. Nesse sentido, esse trabalho objetivou determinar a metodologia mais eficiente para superação da dormência em sementes de Sesbania virgata (cav.) Pers., uma espécie com potencial para recomposição de áreas degradadas. Os tratamentos pré-germinativos utilizados foram imersão em ácido sulfúrico por 5, 10, 20 ou 30 minutos, escarificação mecânica ou choque térmico. Após a escarificação, as sementes de todos os tratamentos foram submetidas aos testes germinativos em câmaras de germinação a 25 ºC e fotoperíodo de 14 h. O tratamento com escarificação mecânica demonstrou o maior percentual germinativo (98%), seguida da escarificação química por 30 minutos (57%). O tratamento térmico apesar de obter um maior percentual germinativo do que o controle apresentou desenvolvimento anormal de plântulas, não sendo, pois, recomendado para sementes de S. virgata. Diante dos parâmetros utilizados neste estudo, recomenda-se o uso da técnica de escarificação mecânica para a superação da dormência de sementes de S. virgata.<hr/>ABSTRACT Forest species with hard seeds often pose considerable problems to nursery managers because their hard and impermeable seed coats hinder and delay germination. Therefore, this work aimed to determine the most efficient, practical and low cost methodology to overcome dormancy in Sesbania virgata (Cav.) Pers. Seed, a specie with potential for recovery of degraded areas. The seeds were submitted to chemical scarification by immersion in sulphuric acid during a period of 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes, mechanical scarification and heat treatment. After the scarification the seeds were submitted to germ test in germination chambers at 25 ºC and photoperiod of 14 h. Treatment with mechanical scarification showed the highest germination percentage (98%), followed by chemical scarification for 30 minutes (57%). The heat treatment in spite of obtaining a higher germination percentage than the controls had abnormal development of seedlings and is not therefore recommended for seeds of S. virgata. From the parameters utilized in this study, we recommend the use of the mechanical scarification to overcome dormancy of S. virgata seeds. <![CDATA[<b><i>Spatial variability of the granulometric fractions and the production of banana cultivar 'Prata Anã'</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMO O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a variabilidade espacial das frações granulométricas e a produção de uma parcela experimental cultivada com bananeira 'Prata Anã', por meio de técnicas de análises exploratórias e geoestatística. As amostras de solo foram coletadas na região de projeção da copa da cultura na profundidade de 0 - 0,2 m, utilizando uma malha regular, totalizando 100 pontos amostrais, espaçados 6 x 4 m. Em cada amostra foram determinadas as frações de areia grossa (AG), areia fina (AF), areia total (AT), silte (Sil) e argila (AR) e a produção de cada planta. A massa do cacho (MC) não apresentou correlação significativa com nenhuma das frações granulométricas.<hr/>ABSTRACT The objective was to study the spatial variability of the particle size fraction and the production of an experimental parcel cultivated with banana cultivar 'Prata Anã', through techniques of exploratory analysis and geostatistics. The data were collected in the area under the crown projection of the plants at a depth of 0 - 0.2 m, using a regular grid of 6 x 4 m, with a total of 100 sampling points. In each sample were determined the fractions fine sand (AF), thick sand (AG), total sand (AT), silte (Sil), clay (AR) and the production of each plant. The mass of the fruit cluster (MC) did not present significant correlation with any of the particle size fractions. <![CDATA[<b>Efecto del magnesio en el rendimiento y contenido de gluten en trigo (<i>Triticum</i><i> aestivum</i> L.</b>)<b>  </b><b>en</b><b> un suelo andisol</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN Se evaluó el efecto de las aplicaciones de magnesio en el rendimiento, contenido de gluten del trigo y su disponibilidad en un suelo volcánico de la IX región, durante tres temporadas. No se produjeron diferencias significativas de rendimiento por efecto de las distintas dosis de magnesio en ninguno de los sitios evaluados. No se mostraron diferencias en el contenido de gluten en los años 2005 y 2007, mientras que en 2006 se registró un incremento moderado respecto al testigo. Al aplicar 1 kg MgO/ha en el suelo, se produjo un aumento promedio de 0,0032 cmol/kg de Mg a 0 - 20 cm.<hr/>ABSTRACT The effect of the applications of magnesium on yield, content of gluten in wheat and its availability in a volcanic soil of the region IX, for three seasons was evaluated. There were no significant differences in yield, by effect of different doses of magnesium in any of the sites evaluated. Showed no differences in the gluten content in years 2005 and 2007, whereas in 2006 there was a moderate increase, respect the cero dose. In applying 1 kg MgO/ha in soil, there was an average increase of 0,0032 cmol/kg the Mg at 0 - 20 cm. <![CDATA[<b><i>Liquid bovine manure in luvissol sodic</i></b>: <b><i>Biometric and productive response of yellow passion fruit plants</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMO Objetivou-se com o presente estudo, avaliar o efeito do biofertilizante bovino líquido na biometria e produção de matéria seca das mudas de maracujazeiro amarelo cultivado em Luvissolo sódico. O experimento foi desenvolvido no departamento de Solos e Engenharia Rural do CCA, UFPB, no período entre agosto e outubro de 2008, distribuído em blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas, estando nas parcelas níveis de biofertilizante bovino líquido de 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% em volume correspondente a 10% (250 mL) do volume do substrato e nas subparcelas cinco períodos de avaliações das plantas (45, 60, 75, 90 e 105 dias após a semeadura) em quadruplicata. A aplicação do biofertilizante foi feita 30 dias antes da semeadura, a seguir aplicou-se uma lavagem do solo (dois dias após do fornecimento) e, uma segunda aplicação do biofertilizante, 48 horas antes da semeadura, seguida de uma lavagem semelhantemente à da primeira aplicação. Utilizou-se na irrigação água não salina, adicionando-se a cada 24 horas, o volume evapotranspirado nesse período, baseado no processo de pesagem do vaso. O aumento do nível do insumo orgânico proporcionou maior altura das plantas, diâmetro caulinar, número de folhas, área foliar e matéria seca total, superando a testemunha em 134,78; 114,72; 127,35, 416,54 e 107,97%, respectivamente.<hr/>ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of liquid bovine biofertilizer on the biometry and the dry matter production of yellow passion fruit seedlings grown on sodic Luvissol. The experiment was performed in the Department of Soil and Rural Agricultural Engineering of the Center of Agricultural Sciences (CCA), Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), from August to October 2008. The experimental design was that of randomized blocks in split plots, where the plots were the levels of liquid biofertilizer at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% by volume of 10% of the total substratum volume (250 mL), the subplots were the five plant evaluation periods (45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 days after the sowing); the experiment was performed in quadruplicate. The application of biofertilizer was made 30 days before sowing, followed by a washing of the soil (two days after of biofertilizer application); a second application of the biofertilizer was made 48 hours before sowing, followed by a soil washing similar to that of the first application. Non-saline water was used for irrigation, adding the water equivalent to the evapotranspiration rate per 24 hours, based on weighing the pots. The increased level of organic matter input provided greater plant height and stem diameter, as well as greater leaf number, foliar area and total dry matter, surpassing the control by 134.78; 114.72; 127.35; 416.54 and 107.97%, respectively. <![CDATA[<b><i>Dynamics of cations in the root and leaves of eggplant grown on increasing doses of potassium from two sources</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMO O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Produção Vegetal, setor de Horticultura, da UNESP - Campus de Botucatu, SP com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica de nutrientes catiônicos na raiz e folha e efeitos na produção de matéria seca da raiz e parte aérea em berinjela cultivada sobre condições de doses crescentes de potássio oriundas de duas fontes distintas (KCl e K2SO4). O experimento foi disposto em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (duas fontes de potássio: KCl e K2SO4 e quatro doses de cada fonte equivalente a, 250, 500, 750 e 1000 kg ha-1 de K2O) perfazendo oito tratamentos com três repetições. Para a condução do experimento, utilizou-se Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média (615 g de areia, 45 g de silte e 340 g de argila por quilograma de solo). As características avaliadas foram: condutividade elétrica do solo, massa de matéria parte aérea e raízes, teor e relação de K+, Ca2+ e Mg2+ nas raízes e folhas de berinjela. Conclui-se que fontes e doses excessivas de K2O afetaram a produção de massa de matéria seca da raiz e parte aérea assim como a condutividade elétrica. O acúmulo e a relação de Ca2+/K+, Mg2+/K+ foram afetados pelo aumento da concentração de K+ e o fertilizante que foi menos prejudicial foi o K2SO4.<hr/>ABSTRACT This study was conducted at the Department of Plant Production, Sector Horticulture, UNESP - Botucatu, SP, Brazil, in order to assess the dynamics of cationic nutrients in roots and leaves and effects on dry matter production of roots and shoots in eggplant grown on conditions of increasing doses of potassium from two distinct sources (KCl and K2SO4). The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks in factorial 2 x 4 (two sources of potassium, KCl and K2SO4 and four doses of each source equivalent, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 kg ha-1 K2O) comprising eight treatments with three replicates. For the experiment we used Oxisol medium texture (615 g of sand, silt 45 g and 340 g clay per kg soil). The characteristics evaluated were: soil electrical conductivity, mass of shoot and root material, content and ratio of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in roots and leaves of eggplant. We conclude that excessive doses of sources of K2O affected the production of dry matter of roots and shoots, as well as electrical conductivity. The accumulation and the relationship of Ca2+/K+, Mg2+/K+ were affected by increased K+ concentration; K2SO4 was the fertilizer that was less damaging. <![CDATA[<b><i>Electrical conductivity test for physic nut </i></b><b>(Jatropha curcas <i>L.</i>)</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMO Para uma análise mais completa da qualidade de sementes, faz-se necessário complementar as informações fornecidas pelo teste de germinação com testes de vigor, possibilitando, assim, selecionar os melhores lotes para comercialização e semeadura. Dentre esses testes, destaca-se o de condutividade elétrica. Para sementes de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.), não há informações referentes à metodologia do teste de condutividade elétrica na literatura. Objetivou-se neste trabalho estabelecer metodologia para o teste de condutividade elétrica em sementes de pinhão-manso, variando-se o número de sementes, a quantidade de água e o período de embebição. Para tanto, foram utilizados oito lotes de sementes de pinhão-manso, e o teste de condutividade elétrica foi realizado com as seguintes variações: 15, 25 ou 35 sementes, embebidas em 75 ou 100 mL de água destilada à 25 °C, sendo as leituras realizadas após 3, 6, 9, 12, e 24 horas de embebição. Para efeito de comparação, foram determinadas a porcentagem de germinação e a porcentagem e índice de velocidade de emergência. Com base nos resultados obtidos e pelos coeficientes de correlação calculados entre os resultados de condutividade elétrica e porcentagem de emergência, verificou-se que as metodologias mais eficientes foram com 15 sementes e 75 mL de água, com leituras após 6 horas, 9 horas e 12 horas e 25 sementes e 75 mL de água, com leituras, também, após 6 horas, 9 horas e 12 horas. Concluiu-se que o teste de condutividade elétrica foi eficiente para diferenciar lotes de pinhão-manso quanto à qualidade fisiológica das sementes. A metodologia mais adequada para a realização do teste de condutividade elétrica para sementes de pinhão-manso é a conduzida com o uso de 15 sementes e 75 mL de água, com leitura após 6 horas de embebição.<hr/>ABSTRACT In order to have more accurate information of seed quality among different seed lots, it is necessary to supplement the data supplied by the germination test with other tests, making possible the selection of best lots for marketing and seeding establishment and among those tests the electrical conductivity test fits well to that purpose. For physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), no information about electrical conductivity test methods is available in the literature. Thus, the aim of this research was to establish a standard method for testing the electrical conductivity of physic nut seeds leaking, testing different number of seeds, amount of water and soaking period. So, we used eight lots of physic nut seeds proceeding the electrical conductivity test with the following variations: 15, 25 or 35 seeds, soaked in 75 or 100 mL of distilled water at 25 °C, and the readings performed after 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours of soaking. As a matter of fact, were determined the germination percentage and the seedling emergence rate. Based on the results and on the correlation coefficients calculated between the results of electrical conductivity test and emergence percentage, the most efficient methods were with 15 seeds under soaking in 75 mL of water, with readings after 6, 9 and 12 hours; 25 seeds under soaking in 75 mL of water, with readings at the same time mentioned before, but the most appropriate method to to distinguish physic nut seed lots with different physiological quality is the use of 15 seeds in 75 mL of water, with reading after six hours of its starting. <![CDATA[<i>Litterfal</i> in the Caatinga of the semi-arid region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMO O processo de produção de serapilheira e a conseqüente liberação de nutrientes é considerado como um dos mais importantes processos de transferência de energia dentro do ecossistema, e seu conhecimento é necessidade básica para o manejo e conservação de ecossistemas terrestres. Pesquisas com ciclagem de nutrientes na Caatinga são escassas, assim, este trabalho objetivou estudar a dinâmica da deposição de serapilheira pela vegetação da Caatinga da Estação Ecológica do Seridó-RN. O material decíduo foi coletado mensalmente em 30 bandejas durante um ano, sendo seco e separado em folhas, galhos e cascas, material reprodutivo e miscelânea. A Caatinga depositou 2.068,55 kg ha-1 de material, sendo 79,90% de folhas; 9,27% de galhos e cascas; 7,91% de miscelânea e 2,92% de material reprodutivo. O pico de deposição da fração material reprodutivo ocorreu em março, enquanto para as demais frações ocorreu em maio, que coincidiu com o início da estação seca durante o período estudado, reduzindo durante o período de menor precipitação (julho-dezembro) e voltando a crescer após as chuvas de janeiro, mostrando marcante sazonalidade.<hr/>ABSTRACT The production of litter and the consequent liberation of nutrients is considered as one of the most important processes of energy transfer in ecosystems, and its knowledge is basic for the management and conservation of natural and artificial forests. Nutrient cycling research in the Caatinga is scarce; this study analyzes the dynamics of the litterfall in Caatinga shrub-trees at Seridó Ecological Station-RN. The deciduous material was collected monthly in 30 wooden litter traps for one year, oven-dried, separated into leaves, bark and branches, reproductive structures and miscellany, and then weighed. After twelve months the Caatinga deposited 2068.55 kg ha-1 of deciduous material; 79.90% was leaves, 9.27% was branches and bark, 7.91% was miscellany and 2.92% was reproductive structures. The deposition peak of reproductive material occurred in March, while for the other fractions it happened in May, which coincided with the beginning of the dry season during the studied period. Deposition was reduced during the time of low precipitation (July-December) and increased after the rains of January, showing a marked seasonal pattern. <![CDATA[<b>Reaction of common bean genotypes to <i>Meloidogyne incognita </i>Race 1</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ABSTRACT The objective was to determine the reaction of 33 Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes to parasitism by Meloidogyne incognita race 1. The genotypes used in this study six included commercially exploited ("IAPAR­- 81", "EL- 22", "Carioca", "Serrano", "BATT- 477" and "Uirapuru") varieties, one susceptible ("Rico- 23") and two resistant ("Aporé" and "Pérola") varieties; the others were provided by farmers of the South of Espírito Santo State. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with 7 replicates. The plants were inoculated with 4,000 eggs + second-stage juveniles (J2) of nematodes. After 50 days, the final population of nematodes (FP), reproduction factor (RF) and percentage reproduction rate (%RR) were evaluated. The resistance selection was based on the %RR, i.e., 0-25% = highly susceptible (HS); 26-50% = susceptible (SU); 51-75% = little resistant (LR); 76-95% = moderately resistant (MR); 96-99% = resistant (RE); 100% = highly resistant (HR) or immune (IM). Only the genotype "Preto Meia Lua" was highly resistant. The genotypes "Terrinha- 2" and "Mulatinho" were classified as resistant, "EL- 22", "BATT- 477", "Vermelho", "Bate Estrada" and "Paina" as (susceptible) and genotypes "Rico 23" and "Morgado" as highly susceptible.<hr/>RESUMO Objetivou-se com esse trabalho estudar a reação de 33 genótipos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. ao parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em casa de vegetação. Desses genótipos seis são cultivados comercialmente ("IAPAR­- 81" , "EL- 22" , "Carioca", "Serrano", "BATT- 477" e "Uirapuru"), um é suscetível ("Rico- 23" ), dois são resistentes ("Aporé" e "Pérola") e os demais foram resgatados em propriedades localizadas no Sul do Espírito Santo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com 7 repetições. As plantas foram inoculadas com 4.000 ovos + juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) do nematóide. Após 50 dias da inoculação, foram avaliados a população final de nematóides (PF), fator de reprodução (FR) e o percentual de redução do fator de reprodução (% RFR). Os genótipos foram classificados como altamente susceptível (AS), susceptível (SU), pouco resistente (PR), moderadamente resistente (MR), resistente (RE), altamente resistente (AR) ou imune (IM). Apenas o genótipo "Preto Meia Lua" comportou-se como AR. Os genótipos "Terrinha- 2" e "Mulatinho" foram classificados como RE, os genótipos "EL- 22", "BATT- 477", "Vermelho", "Bate Estrada" e "Paina" como SU e os genótipos "Rico- 23" e "Morgado" como AS. <![CDATA[<b>Nuevos registros de insectos fitófagos asociados a canelo (<i>Drimys</i><i> winteri</i> Forst.) en La Araucanía</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN En este trabajo se planteó determinar las especies de insectos asociados a Drimys winteri Forst. (canelo) en dos lugares de La Araucanía. Uno correspondiente a un sector rural (Sector Villa Comuy) y otro urbano (Comuna de Temuco). En cada sector se eligieron tres árboles para recolectar las muestras. El diseño experimental utilizado en la presente investigación correspondió a parcelas completamente al azar, eligiendo tres unidades muestrales con un total de ocho muestreos en la temporada 2006. Los resultados de los muestreos permitieron determinar como nuevos registros para La Araucanía las siguientes especies: Trialeurodes unadutus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae); Haeliothrips haemorhoidalis (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) y Hemiberlesia rapax (Hemiptera, Diaspididae). Además, se observó un lepidóptero enrollador de hojas, pero no fue posible su determinación dado que solamente se registró el daño causado en la hoja. En ambas áreas se encontraron las mismas especies pero con diferencias en los promedios y la abundancia relativa.<hr/>ABSTRACT In this work it was necessary to determine the species of insects associated with Drimys winteri Forst. (canelo) at two locations of La Araucania. One corresponds to a rural sector (Sector Comuy), and another city (Temuco). In each sector were elected three trees to collect samples. The experimental design used in this research plots corresponded to completely at random, choosing three units show with a total of eight different dates in the 2006 season. The results of the sampling helped identify as new records for La Araucania the following species: Trialeurodes unadutus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae); Haeliothrips haemorhoidalis (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and Hemiberlesia rapax (Hemiptera, Diaspididae). In addition, there was a winder lepidopterous leaves, but his determination was not possible because there was only damage caused in the leaf. Both areas were the same species but with differences in the averages and the relative abundance. <![CDATA[<b><i>Effect of triadimenol on the development of bean (</i></b><b>Phaseolus</b><b> vulgaris <i>L</i>.<i>) and soil microbial activity</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMO O triadimenol é um fungicida sistêmico, pertencente ao grupo dos triazóis, aplicado principalmente via solo no controle de diversas doenças de plantas. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do triadimenol na cultura do feijoeiro e atividade microbiológica do solo submetido a diferentes concentrações de triadimenol. Os estudos foram realizados no laboratório de química e na casa de vegetação, instalados no CCA/Alegre/ES. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 6 tratamentos, com 4 repetições utilizando 2 vasos por repetição. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1= 0,527 g de baysiston®. (170 Kg/ha); T2= 0,124 g de baysiston® (40 Kg/ha) T3=testemunha; T4= 0,155 g de baysiston® (50 Kg/ha); T5= 0,217 g de baysiston (70 Kg/ha); T6= 0,186 g de baysiston® (60 Kg/ha). Para maioria das características avaliadas o tratamento T3 foi estatisticamente superior aos demais tratamentos. Para a atividade microbiológica do solo, a hidrólise de FDA ocorreu em todos os tratamentos com média 244,926 µg FDA hidrolisada hora-1 g-1 de solo, mas não houve diferença significativa entre nenhum dos tratamentos.<hr/>ABSTRACT Triadimenol is a systemic fungicide which belongs to the group of triazoles, used mainly for the control of several diseases of plants. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of triadimenol in the culture of beans. The experimental design was completely randomized; using 6 treatments with 4 replicates and 2 pots per replicate. The treatments were: T1= 0.527g of baysiston®. (170 Kg/ha); T2= 0.124g of baysiston® (40 Kg/ha) T3= control; T4= 0.155g of baysiston® (50 Kg/ha); T5= 0.217g of baysiston (70 Kg/ha) and T6= 0.186 g of baysiston® (60 Kg/ha). For most of the characteristics evaluated the control T3 was statistically superior to other treatments. For soil microbial activity, the average hydrolysis of FDA in all treatments was 244.926 µg of FDA hydrolyzed hour-1 g-1 of soil. Although the test has been shown to be effective, no significant difference was observed between treatments. <![CDATA[<b><i>Inductor action on the resistance of tomato plant to </i></b><b>Fusarium oxysporum f<i>. sp. Lycopersici, causal agent of fusariosis, and effect on mycelial growth of the fungi</i></b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMO Os indutores de resistência são compostos que provocam na planta a síntese de PR-proteinas, como também outras respostas de defesa. Visando a obtenção de uma alternativa de controle para murcha de fusário do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum) foram avaliados os produtos Acibenzolar-S-Metil (ASM) (5,0 m g i.a/L de água), Ecolife r (Quinabra) (5 ml/L de água), Biopirol r (Biocarbo) (2 ml/L de água) e Óleo de nim (15 ml/L de água), em diferentes épocas de aplicação. Para isso foram utilizadas plantas das cultivares Caline IPA-6, altamente suscetível e IPA-6, suscetível a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Os produtos foram aplicados via foliar aos 5, 10 e 15 dias antes da inoculação das plantas. Aos 30 dias após a semeadura as plantas foram inoculadas com 20 ml da suspensão de 1 x 10(6) conídios/ml-1 do isolado. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 2 x 3 x 4. Realizou-se a avaliação 21 dias após a inoculação através da escala de notas variando de 1 a 5. De acordo com os resultados, observou-se diferença significativa entre os produtos e a testemunha, nas duas cultivares testadas, destacando-se na cultivar Ipa 6 os indutores ASM e Biopirol aplicados aos 5, 10 e 15 dias antes da inoculação que apresentaram 72,23% de controle da fusariose e na cultivar Caline Ipa 6 destacaram-se o indutor ASM e o Óleo de nim 5 dias antes da inoculação e o Biopirol aos 5 e 10 dias antes da inoculação, apresentando os três indutores 75% de controle da fusariose do tomateiro. O ASM, o Biopirol e o Óleo de nim, não inibiram o crescimento micelial do fungo, não havendo diferença significativa entre os citados tratamentos e a testemunha. O Ecolife40 inibiu significativamente o crescimento micelial "in vitro", sendo este considerado o melhor tratamento.<hr/>ABSTRACT The inductors of resistance are compounds that induce the synthesis of PR - Proteins, as well as other defense responses of a plant. Searching for an alternative for control of fusarium wilt on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum), we evaluated the inductors Acibenzolar-S-Metil (ASM) (5.0g i.a/L of water), Ecolife (5ml/L of water), Biopirol (2ml/L of water) and Nim oil ( 15ml/L of water); applied in different seasons. We used plants of cultivars Caline IPA-6, highly susceptible and IPA-6, susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The inductors of resistance were applied to the leaves 5, 10 and 15 days before the inoculation of plants. Thirty days after the seeding the plants were inoculated with 20 ml of suspension of 1 x 10 conidium/ml of the fungus. The evaluation was performed 21 days after the inoculation using a scale of scores of 1 to 5. A significant difference was observed between the inductors and the control on the two tested cultivars. For cultivar IPA 6 the inductors ASM and Biopirol applied 5, 10 and 15 days before the inoculation presented 72.23% of the control of fusariosis; for cultivar Caline IPA6 the inductors ASM and oil of Nim 5 days before the inoculation and the inductor Biopirol 5 and 10 days before the inoculation gave 75% of the control tomato plant fusariosis. ASM, the Biopirol and neem oil did not inhibit mycelial growth; no significant difference between these treatments and the control were found. Ecolife40 significantly inhibited mycelial growth ''in vitro''; this was considered to be the best treatment. <![CDATA[<b>Crecimiento económico en el sector agropecuario-silvícola a nivel nacional y regional en el período 1996 - 2008</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN El sector agropecuario-silvícola ha demostrado un dinamismo positivo en las últimas décadas tanto en volumen, producción como en la diversificación de exportaciones y en el producto interno bruto (PIB). Existen, a pesar de los resultados globales nacionales, otras opiniones que estiman necesario darle atención a la desagregación del sector agropecuario silvícola a niveles regionales y subsectoriales en su característica de producción primaria. Se plantea la afirmación de que la participación subsectorial y regional es decreciente en agricultura y que el crecimiento del sector aumenta su concentración y participación en algunas regiones del centro del país. En el estudio se concluye que actualmente los subsectores agricultura (cultivos), silvicultura, ganadería y fruticultura participan en un 16%, 18%, 24,8% y 40,7 % respectivamente en el valor agregado del sector. Esto revela una disminución de la participación del subsector agricultura sobre la base de este parámetro. Respecto de las regiones, las que crecen a mayor velocidad en la participación son la Quinta, la Sexta y la Séptima y Región Metropolitana. Las regiones Primera, Segunda, Undécima y Duodécima son las que experimentan un estancamiento.<hr/>ABSTRACT The agricultural-forestry sector has shown a positive momentum in recent decades, both in volume production and in export diversification and gross internal product (GIP). In spite of the overall results, there are those who suggest that it is necessary to disaggregate the national economic agricultural - forestry sector into regional and sub-sector scales in terms of primary production. This includes the claim that in some regions crop agriculture is decreasing and the growth of the sector is concentrated in few regions of central Chile. The study concludes that currently the agricultural subsector (crops), forestry, livestock and fruit growing account for 15.9 %, 18.5%, 24.8% and 40.7%, respectively, of the gross internal product (GIP) of the sector. This reveals a declining share of the agriculture subsector on the basis of the GIP parameter. The Regions with faster increase in their GIP participation include the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Metropolitan Region. First, Second, Eleventh and Twelfth Regions remain without improvement. <![CDATA[<b>Variedades de carozos  (Chile y Cuyo 1700-1850)</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN El estudio hace visibles las variedades tradicionales de carozos (durazneros, ciruelos, damascos, guindos y cerezos), cultivados en Chile y Cuyo entre 1700 y 1850. A partir del corpus documental de fondos notariales y judiciales de los archivos de Chile, San Juan y Mendoza se identificaron nueve variedades de duraznos, nueve de ciruelos, cuatro de damascos y dos de guindos. Asimismo, se han encontrado vinculaciones respecto a la apreciación de la cultura de la fruta entre la tradición musulmana de al-Andalus y la tradición iberoamericana.<hr/>ABSTRACT The present study investigated the traditional stone (peach, plum, apricot, sour cherry and sweet cherry) fruit varieties grown in Chile and Cuyo (1700-1850). The documentation of the study was made from notary and judicial archives from Chile, San Juan and Mendoza. Nine varieties of peach, seven varieties of plum, four of apricot and two of sour cherry were identified. Also, important links were found concerning the appreciation of fruit culture between the Muslim traditions of al-Andalus in Spain and Latin-American traditions. <![CDATA[Estudio comparativo de la producción de polen y miel en un sistema de doble reina versus una por colmena en La Araucanía, Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la cosecha del polen sobre la producción de miel, en sistemas de producción con una y dos reinas por colmena, se realizó un ensayo en la localidad de Pillanlelbún, comuna de Lautaro, Región de La Araucanía. Los tratamientos correspondieron a seis colmenas simples (una reina) con y sin trampa de polen modelo Apefiori versus seis colmenas doble reina con y sin trampa de polen. Las abejas utilizadas en el ensayo se obtuvieron a partir de núcleos formados con igual cantidad de cría y alimento, además de tener incorporadas reinas fecundadas en la temporada. Los resultados no presentaron diferencias significativas en la producción de miel para el sistema de una sola reina con y sin trampa de polen con 25 kg de promedio de miel en el sistema sin trampa de polen y 21 kg para el sistema con trampa de polen. Lo mismo ocurrió en los sistemas de doble reina con y sin trampa (51 kg sin trampa y 48 kg promedio con trampa de polen). Sin embargo, la producción de miel entre ambos sistemas (una y dos reinas por colmenas) presentó diferencias estadísticas significativas. Respecto a la producción de polen, esta fue estadísticamente significativa con 1,263 kg de polen para el sistema simple versus 2,247 kg en el sistema doble reina. Finalmente la cosecha del polen no afectó la producción de miel.<hr/>ABSTRACT A test was done in the village of Pillanlelbún, Lautaro District, La Araucanía Region of Chile, in order to evaluate the effect on honey production of the pollen harvest, in production systems with one and two queens per hive. The treatments corresponded to six single queen hives with and without an Apefiori pollen trap versus six hives with double queen, with and without pollen trap. The bees used in the test were obtained from nuclei formed with the same quantity of breeding and food cells, as well as having fertilised queens introduced in the season. The results showed no significant differences in honey production for the system with a single queen with and without pollen trap, with an average of 25 kg of honey in the system without pollen traps and 21 kg for the system with pollen trap. The same occurred in the systems with double queens with and without pollen trap (51 kg without pollen trap and 48 kg average with trap). However there were significant differences in honey production between the two types of system (one and two queens per hive). The difference in pollen production was statistically significant with 1.263 kg of pollen in the single queen system versus 2l247 kg in the double queen system. Finally, the pollen harvest did not affect honey production. <![CDATA[Evaluación de dos frecuencias de colecta de apitoxina extraída de colmenas de <i>Apis mellifera</i> L. durante la época estival en la Región de La Araucanía]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN El experimento se llevó a cabo desde el 7 de enero al 9 de marzo del 2006, en el Apiario del Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún de la Universidad Católica de Temuco, ubicado a 15 km al norte de Temuco, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. En este lugar se evaluó la producción de apitoxina extraída de colmenas Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera:Apidae). Para la realización del experimento se contó con extractores de apitoxina del tipo canadiense, los que funcionan a través de electroestimulación. Se utilizaron tres colmenas para cada tratamiento y se evaluaron dos frecuencias de extracción diferentes, cada 20 días (T1) y cada 30 días (T2). Las variables analizadas fueron: efecto en el peso de las colonias, mortalidad de abejas y cantidad de apitoxina extraída. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las variables estudiadas (peso colonias p = 0,127; mortalidad de abejas p = 0,827; y cantidad de apitoxina p = 0,507), por lo cual se concluye que es recomendable realizar extracciones cada 30 días en comparación a las extracciones cada 20 días, pues es preferible realizar esta operación más distanciada en el tiempo a fin de disminuir costos de operación y molestias a las abejas.<hr/>ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out from 7 January to 9 March 2006 in the Apiary of the Pillanlelbún Experimental Centre of the Catholic University of Temuco, located 15 km north of Temuco, Araucania Region, Chile. Here the production of apitoxin extracted from the hives of bees (Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was evaluated. The experiment was carried out using apitoxin extractors of a Canadian type which function by electro-stimulation. Three hives were used for each treatment and different extraction frequencies were evaluated: every 20 days (T1) and every 30 days (T2). The variables analysed were: effect on the weight of the colonies, bee mortality and quantity of apitoxin extracted. No significant differences were found between the variables studied (weight colonies p = 0.127, bee mortality p = 0.827, and amount of bee venom p = 0.507) and it was therefore concluded that its is recommended to carry out extractions every 30 days rather than every 20 days, since it is preferable to do this operation at longer time intervals in order to reduce operation costs and disturbance of the bees. <![CDATA[<b>La Remolacha y Napoleón</b>]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN Esta historia va dirigida a conocer el desarrollo de la producción del azúcar de remolacha y de su antecesora, la de caña, con las consecuencias generadas: sociales, históricas, culturales, económicas y geopolíticas. Durante siglos la caña de azúcar fue la fuente de obtención del endulzante más conocido de la historia. La pérdida de Haití en 1803, su principal colonia abastecedora de este producto, lleva a Napoleón a ofrecer un gran premio para quien proporcionase una solución al grave problema: suministro de azúcar a la Europa ocupada y a sus tropas conquistadoras. Quien propuso la mejor solución fue el empresario Benjamin Delessert, que desarrolló la producción del azúcar de remolacha, se le concedió la Legión de Honor y posteriormente Bonaparte le nombró barón del Imperio. Las consecuencias económicas pronto aparecieron: Alemania y otros países siguieron el ejemplo, la dependencia de los productores tropicales fue menor, porque los cultivos de remolacha, siendo de gran rendimiento, además son posibles en climas templados. Los negocios internacionales del azúcar estuvieron ligados con la Revolución Industrial. Se generaron conflictos, guerras e invasiones por el dominio del mercado. Actualmente la remolacha y otras plantas son una esperanza en la fabricación de biocombustibles para un mundo que los necesita.<hr/>ABSTRACT This story is intended to meet the development of beet sugar production and its predecessor, the cane sugar, with the consequences generated: historical, social, cultural, economic and geo-political. For centuries, sugar of cane was the source of production of the sweetener best known of the history. The loss of Haiti in 1803, its main colony supplier of this product, obliges Napoleon to offer a great prize for those who provide a solution to the serious problem: sugar supply of occupied Europe and his conquering troops. Who proposed the best solution was the businessman Benjamin Delessert, who developed the sugar beet production, was awarded the Legion of Honor and later Bonaparte appointed him Baron of the Empire. The economic consequences were soon appeared: Germany and other countries followed suit, dependence was lower from tropical producers because beet crops is of great performance, also are possible in temperate climates. International sugar business was linked with the Industrial Revolution. There were generated conflicts, wars and invasions for market dominance. Currently the beet and other plants, are a hope in the manufacture of bio-fuels for a world that needs them. <![CDATA[Campesinos andinos y políticas agrarias durante la Junta de Adelanto de Arica (Azapa, Lluta y la precordillera, 1959-1976)]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN El presente artículo pretende desde una perspectiva histórica evidenciar por medio del análisis de los programas agropecuarios implementados por un organismo gubernamental de nivel local denominado Junta de Adelanto la participación e interacción que algunos segmentos indígenas del Departamento de Arica tuvieron con la estructura estatal y mercado regional entre 1959-1976. Para esto se procedió a la revisión de las políticas agrarias impulsadas por dicha institución.<hr/>ABSTRACT The present article tries from a historical perspective to demonstrate by means of the analysis of the agricultural programs implemented by a governmental organism of local level named Meeting of Advancement, the participation and interaction that some indigenous segments of Arica's Department, they had with the State structure and regional market between 1959-1976. For this one proceeded to the review of the agrarian policies stimulated by the above mentioned institution. <![CDATA[Mirando sobre y bajo el agua]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN El agua es un compuesto que gracias a sus propiedades ha posibilitado la vida, ha conformado el paisaje y ha moldeado las civilizaciones en la faz de la tierra. No todas las regiones poseen la misma disponibilidad y su escasez relativa; junto con el cambio climático está generando conflictos entre pueblos y actividades económicas y medioambientales, pero siendo un conflicto global, se debe enfrentar en la esfera local, para lo cual se deben fortalecer las capacidades locales en todos aquellos ámbitos en que el agua participa.<hr/>ABSTRACT Thanks to the properties of water life is possible; it has shaped the landscape and molded the civilizations on the face of the earth. Not all regions have adequate availability of water; its relative scarcity together with climate change is generating conflicts between nations and between economic activity and environmental concerns. Although this is a global conflict, it must be faced in local spheres, thus it is necessary to strengthen local capacities in all areas in which water is a factor. <![CDATA[Comparación de la cámara de presión tipo Scholander modelo Pump-up respecto a la cámara de presión  tradicional en vides de mesa]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292011000200023&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue relacionar las mediciones de potencial hídrico xilemático (ψxm) obtenidas a través de la cámara de presión tipo Scholander modelo Pump-up (PMS Instrument Company, Oregon, USA) respecto a las de la cámara de presión tradicional modelo 3005 (Soil moisture, Corp. Santa Bárbara, CA, USA). El ensayo se realizó en plantas de vid variedad Thompson Seedless, de dos años de edad, en las cuales se generaron tres condiciones de estado hídrico; "plantas hidratadas" (C1), "plantas bajo estrés hídrico" (C2) y "plantas con una condición hídrica intermedia" (C3), de manera de obtener un amplio rango de ψxm. El ψxm de cada planta se evaluó a mediodía solar con cámara de presión modelo Pump-up y modelo tradicional. La relación existente entre las mediciones de ambas cámaras de presión se ajustó a una función lineal positiva con una pendiente cercana a 1 y con un alto coeficiente de determinación (R² = 0,999; p < 0,001). Esto indica que no existe diferencia entre las mediciones de ambas cámaras de presión.<hr/>ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to relate the stem water potential (ψxm) measurements obtained with the Scholander type pressure chamber Pump-up model (PMS Instrument Company, Oregon, USA) to those obtained with the traditional pressure chamber model 3005 (Soil moisture, Corp. Santa Barbara, CA, USA). The trial was conducted in two year old grapevines cultivar Thompson Seedless, in which three conditions of water status were generated; hydrated plants (C1), plants under drought stress (C2) and plants with an intermediate water status (C3), in order to obtain a wide range of ψxm. For each plant ψxm was assessed at solar noon with the Pump-up and the traditional pressure chamber models. The relationship between measurements of the pressure chambers fit a positive linear function with a slope close to 1 and with a high determination coefficient (R2 = 0.999, p-value < 0.001). This indicates no difference between the pressure chamber measurements.