Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Psicoperspectivas]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-692420190002&lang=en vol. 18 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif https://scielo.conicyt.cl <![CDATA[Subjects and communities facing contemporary problems]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242019000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Teacher subjective theories about the implementation of cross-curricular objectives in a complex context]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242019000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Se presenta un estudio cualitativo sobre teorías subjetivas (TS) de docentes respecto a la implementación de los Objetivos Transversales (OT) en una comuna del norte de Chile. Las entrevistas se llevaron a cabo a través del modelo de entrevista episódica con 13 docentes. El resultado se analizó mediante la teoría fundamentada. La codificación permitió crear categorías y subcategorías, de las que se dedujeron teorías subjetivas, que luego fueron analizadas con el objetivo de re-construir sus patrones explicativos. Se encontró que los profesores comprenden las prácticas de contextualización como eje articulador de diferentes prácticas educativas transversales. Finalmente, se analizó el fundamento de las teorías subjetivas de los profesores teniendo en cuenta investigaciones previas.<hr/>Abstract This article presents a descriptive interpretative study about the teachers’ subjective theories in terms of the implementation of cross-curricular objectives in schools of north of Chile. The interviews were conducted through the episode interview model with 13 teachers. The result was analyzed using the grounded theory. The codification allowed the creation of categories and subcategories, from which subjective theories were deduced; afterwards they were analyzed with the purpose of creating patterns. Practices of contextualization were noticed as the central focus of different transversal educational practices. Finally, the basis of the transversal practices was discussed considering previous researches. <![CDATA[Managing contingency rather than coexistence: The role of school coexistence managers in Chile]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242019000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El objetivo de este estudio es profundizar con evidencia empírica respecto al cargo del Encargado de Convivencia Escolar (ECE) en establecimientos municipales de Chile. Este estudio mixto, de carácter exploratorio, reporta las principales tareas y obstáculos que enfrentan los ECE, así como las capacidades requeridas para abordarlas. Los resultados indican que realizan múltiples tareas emergentes y reactivas, principalmente, atención de casos, supervisión y control de la disciplina y rendición de cuentas. Los principales obstáculos reportados son: cargos con fuerte énfasis en la rendición de cuentas internas y externas y que enfrentan dificultades para comprometer a profesionales y/o asistentes de la educación en un trabajo mancomunado. Para un óptimo ejercicio de su rol, los ECE señalan la necesidad de desarrollar capacidades de liderazgo para movilizar a otros, gestionar conflictos y fomentar reflexiones en sus equipos. Los hallazgos plantean la necesidad de transitar más allá de un rol centrado en la contingencia a uno en gestionar la convivencia escolar, si lo que se busca es un rol cuyo propósito sea gestionar la co-construcción de una comunidad escolar que mejora de manera participativa, democrática e inclusiva.<hr/>Abstract This mixed methods exploratory study, reports the main tasks and capacities and obstacles that ECEs face, as well as the skills to address them. The purpose of this study is to deepen with empirical evidence in the role of the Coordinator of School Convivence (ECE) in Chilean public schools. Results indicate that the ECEs perform multiple and diverse emergent and reactive tasks. Mainly supervision and control of the discipline, case solving, and accountability. The main obstacles reported are: highly demanding external and internal accountability, and difficulties to engage staff in collaborative work. ECEs report that for effective role performance it is necessary to develop leadership capacities to bring together and mobilize others, conflict management, encourage reflections in their teams, and strengthen their leadership. Findings suggest the need to move from a role centered in contingency management to one focus on convivence development, to be able to co-construct school communities that improve in a participatory, democratic and inclusive way. <![CDATA[Good mentor and good mentoring according to the actors of induction programs for Chilean novice principals]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242019000200033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Si bien la política educativa chilena ha innovado en la formación de directores escolares principiantes introduciendo la mentoría, aún es escaso el conocimiento sobre este enfoque en el campo del liderazgo educativo a nivel nacional. Es por ello que este artículo busca repensar y resignificar la evidencia internacional sobre mentoría, con el fin de contribuir a la producción de conocimiento contextualizado. Se realizó un estudio de caso múltiple, guiado por el siguiente objetivo de investigación: conceptualizar una ‘buena mentoría’ y un ‘buen mentor’ a partir de las voces de los actores involucrados en programas de inducción para directores novatos desarrollados en Chile en 2017. Se condujo 21 entrevistas a directores, mentores y coordinadores de programa; y se realizó un análisis temático por caso y transversal. Los resultados permiten delimitar características comunes de una ‘buena mentoría’ y un ‘buen mentor’ entre los entrevistados y derivar orientaciones para contextualizar adecuadamente la mentoría en los programas de inducción a directores escolares novatos.<hr/>Abstract Although the Chilean educational policy has introduced the mentoring approach as an innovation in the training of beginner school principals, there is still little knowledge about this approach in the field of educational leadership at a national level. That is why this article seeks to rethink and resignify the international evidence on mentoring in order to contribute to the production of contextualized knowledge. A multiple case study was conducted, guided by the following research objective: Conceptualize a ‘good mentoring’ and a ‘good mentor’ considering the voices of the actors involved in Chilean induction programs for novice principals executed in 2017. 21 interviews were conducted with principals, mentors and program coordinators; and then a thematic analysis by case and across the cases was carried out. The results allow defining common characteristics of a 'good mentoring' and a 'good mentor' among the interviewees and deriving guidelines to adequately contextualize mentoring in the induction programs for novice school principals. <![CDATA[The ethos of volunteers of non-formal education collectives originated from civil society]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242019000200047&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Reportamos los resultados de la reconstrucción del ethos de voluntarias y voluntarios que trabajan en Chile en proyectos educativos comunitarios generados desde la sociedad civil. Mayoritariamente son estudiantes universitarios de carreras de las ciencias sociales. Presumimos que la participación en un proyecto educativo y político, que exige dedicación sostenida en el tiempo, se caracterizará por un sentido ético particular, alineado con sus fines y mediando en las prácticas del voluntariado. Se recabó información mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, analizadas cualitativamente con el empleo del método de las comparaciones constantes, realizadas en 2014, después que el país había vivido una inflexión en su trayectoria política con la elección presidencial que dio término a 20 años de gobiernos ininterrumpidos de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia. En 2019 volvió a entrevistarse a algunos de los mismos voluntarios. Los resultados muestran un ethos con elementos nucleares y otros que diferencian entre dos grupos, uno de voluntarios temporales y otro que integra el voluntariado en su proyecto de vida. La contingencia política no parece ejercer influencia en la conformación del ethos.<hr/>Abstract We report the results of the reconstruction of the ethos of volunteers who work in Chile in community educational projects generated from civil society. They are mainly university students from Social Sciences careers. We presume that the participation in an educative and political project, that demands a sustained devotion in time, would be characterized by a particular ethics sense, aligned with its ends and mediated in volunteering practices. Information was sought employing semi-structured interviews, analyzed qualitatively by means of the constant comparison method. The field work was done on 2014, after the country had experienced an inflection in its political history with the presidential elections that lead to the end of twenty years of governments of the coalition Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia. On 2019 some of the same volunteers were interviewed again. The results show an ethos with nuclear elements and other that differentiate between two groups, one of temporally volunteers and another of volunteers that integrate volunteering in its life project. Political contingency doesn’t seem to influence ethos conformation. <![CDATA[Mental health care for persons with a severe psychiatric diagnosis and their recovery]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242019000200059&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Aspectos de la atención a personas con diagnóstico de trastorno mental grave (TMG), particularmente el buen trato y la estigmatización, influirían en su recuperación. La investigación, un estudio cualitativo descriptivo y transversal, buscó analizar la percepción sobre la atención en salud mental de personas con TMG y las posibilidades de recuperación que ésta les brinda. Se tomó una muestra por conveniencia de 16 personas diagnosticadas con esquizofrenia o trastorno bipolar que participan en agrupaciones de usuarios/as y/o familiares de los Servicios de Salud Concepción y Talcahuano (Región del Biobío, Chile), quienes fueron contactadas en reuniones generales de estas organizaciones. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a quienes consintieron participar y se utilizó análisis temático y de contenido para analizarlas. Los resultados indican que la recuperación se ve facilitada por un trato que legitima al otro, en el que priman aspectos afectivos, éticos y de competencia técnica profesional. El estigma se presenta en interacciones que menoscaban y restringen posibilidades de participación y derechos, obstaculizando la recuperación. Se concluye que los modelos biomédico y de salud mental comunitaria coexisten y condicionan el tipo de atención.<hr/>Abstract This research was aimed to analyze the perception of mental health care of people with a severe psychiatric diagnosis and the possibilities of recovery that they are offered. A cross-sectional descriptive qualitative method was used. It was taken a convenience sample which consisted of 16 people over 18 years diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who participated in groups of users and/or families. It was carried out a content and thematic analysis of the interviews. People present experiences of good treatment related to personal characteristics and technical competence of professionals. On the other hand, stigma is linked to both disrespectful forms of relationship and to little participation of the user in decision making. Additionally, structural aspects of the care were also considered. These experiences facilitate or hinder the recovery process of the subjects. The findings show how the biomedical model coexists with the mental health community model, which is expressed in health care. These visions generate a little empathic treatment or a relationship based on respect to one another. <![CDATA[Community Mental Health: Psychosocial teams and public policies in the intervention of people with addictions]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242019000200070&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen En Chile, el Plan Nacional de Salud Mental y Psiquiatría del año 2001 configura las políticas públicas en el área. Las evaluaciones realizadas mostraron escaso impacto en la disminución del consumo de alcohol y drogas. El presente estudio cuestiona por qué la evidencia obtenida no logra retroalimentar la política pública, modificando resultados. El propósito es recoger la perspectiva de los profesionales en su rol de implementadores de políticas públicas en salud mental. Se realizó evaluación participativa con tres equipos profesionales psicosociales, aplicando la Matriz de Necesidades y Satisfactores y entrevistas en profundidad a informantes claves. Desde un posicionamiento epistémico cualitativo, interpretativo y situado, con el Desarrollo a Escala Humana y la Teoría Fundamentada como referentes teóricos y metodológicos, emergen los resultados que apuntan a la falta de una teoría social que explique el fenómeno, las precarias condiciones laborales y sociales, además de las contradicciones epistémicas en el trabajo diario.<hr/>Abstract In Chile, the National Plan of Mental Health and Psychiatry from 2001, shapes the public policy in its area. So far, the impact that this Plan has had on decreasing alcohol and drug abuse has been scarce. Here we argue why the evidence obtained fail to feedback public policy to modify the lean results. This document stresses the hierarchical and linear traditional evaluation methods for public policy that only quantify and minimize the problem. We performed a participative evaluation with three psychosocial work teams in Mental Health, applying the Needs and Satisfactors Matrix and interviewing key informants. From a qualitative epistemic perspective, that is interpretationist and situated, using the Human Scale Development and Grounded Theory as theoretical and methodological frames of reference, we conclude that there is a lack of a social theory that explain the phenomenon, the precarious working and social conditions and the epistemic contradiction in the everyday work. <![CDATA[Living in foster or residential care: The subjective well-being of adolescents in Portugal]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242019000200086&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo O conceito de bem-estar subjetivo é complexo e multifacetado e relaciona-se com aquilo que cada pessoa pensa, avalia e sente sobre a sua própria vida, de acordo com a suas circunstâncias individuais e sociais. O objetivo deste estudo é comparar os níveis de bem-estar subjetivo das crianças em acolhimento familiar e em acolhimento residencial, relativamente às crianças na população geral, e compreender a influência no bem-estar subjetivo das crianças de fatores como a escola ou a relação que desenvolvem com pares e adultos. A amostra é composta por três grupos: 238 crianças que vivem na população geral, 145 em acolhimento residencial e 39 em acolhimento familiar. Os dados foram obtidos através da aplicação do questionário International Survey of Children's Wells Os resultados indicam que as crianças em acolhimento residencial têm um menor bem-estar subjetivo em comparação com os grupos de crianças em acolhimento familiar e na população geral. É essencial e urgente desenvolver programas de acolhimento familiar que proporcionem a um número crescente de crianças a possibilidade de crescerem num ambiente familiar, e requalificar as casas de acolhimento residencial em Portugal.<hr/>Abstract The concept of subjective well-being is complex and multifaceted and relates to what each person thinks, values and feels about their own life, according to their individual and social circumstances. The objective of this study is to compare the levels of subjective well-being of the children in residential and foster care, in relation to the children in the general population, and to understand the influence on the subjective well-being of the children of factors such as the school or the relationship with peers and adults. The sample is composed of three groups: 238 children living in the general population, 145 in residential care and 39 in foster care. The data were obtained through the application of the International Survey of Children's Wells questionnaire. The results indicate that the children in residential care have a lower subjective well-being compared to the groups of children in the family and in the general population. It is essential and urgent to develop foster care programs that enable an increasing number of children to grow up in a family environment, and to upgrade residential units in Portugal. <![CDATA[Post career: An experience of retirees in bridge employment]]> https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242019000200109&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue explorar el proceso de postcarrera en la relación adulto mayor jubilado y trabajo. Se entrevistaron 12 jubilados trabajadores sobre las concepciones de jubilación y postcarrera; el proceso de transición, planeación y preparación para la postcarrera y el empleo puente como elección. En los resultados, se observó que la jubilación puede ser comprendida como un fin o una posibilidad; la familia y amigos como referentes importantes en la decisión de seguir trabajando; y el empleo como una de las modalidades de trabajo. Se concluye que el jubilado es el autor de su proyecto de vida personal, laboral y social y que el empleo puente tiene papel central en la postcarrera. En este sentido, se propuso transitar de la noción empleo puente a trabajo puente, para permitir una lectura más amplia en términos de las diversas modalidades de trabajo e incluyente en cuanto a los adultos mayores trabajadores no jubilados.<hr/>Abstract The increase of the elderly population and its permanence in the labour markets, has generated a protagonism in this population, being one of the current challenges. The aim of this study is to explore the post career, considering the relationship between older retired adults and work. Interviews were conducted with 12 retirees in bridge jobs. In the results, it was observed that post-career is a process of adaptation and transition in which the retiree is the author of his personal, work and social life project, where work continues to play the central role in people's lives.Amongst the conclusions, as being the post-career and bridge employment related to retirement, they become notions for an exclusive population. Additionally, it was proposed to change the term bridge employment for bridge work, since it is considered more appropriate with the different work modalities in which retirees are inserted and with the current realities of the world of work.