Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Latin american journal of economics]]> vol. 48 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>FIGHTING INFORMALITY</b> <b>IN SEGMENTED LABOR MARKETS</b>: <b>A general equilibrium analysis applied to Uruguay</b>]]> As in other Latin American countries, labor informality in Uruguay mainly affects less educated workers, who are also more vulnerable to poverty. We analyze the impact of some policies against informality in Uruguay, applying a general equilibrium model with a segmented labor market specification. We simulate two sets of policies: payroll tax cuts and increased enforcement in the informal sector. Both sets of policies are effective in reducing informality, but the effect on poverty is not straightforward. Poverty falls as informality is reduced; however, as enforcement policies increase hiring costs for informal firms, wages of low-skilled workers decline and poverty increases. <![CDATA[<b>ON THE PROPERTIES OF GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH DEFAULT</b> <b>IN ECONOMIES WITH INCOMPLETE MARKETS</b>]]> In this paper we study the properties of general equilibrium with default in economies with incomplete markets. It is noted that, in equilibrium, an agent makes two types of comparisons when deciding whether to participate in the credit market: as a lender and as a borrower. As a consequence, the equilibrium can be linked to levels of punishment, perception of default and promised returns. An analysis of equilibrium in the case of economies with two homogeneous types of agents is also presented, from which it can be deduced that in equilibrium under partial default the personal valuations of default for the buyer and the seller are equal. <![CDATA[<b>THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS TAXES ON MONEY DEMAND IN COLOMBIA</b>]]> Some countries in Latin America have introduced a tax on bank withdrawals in order to increase revenue. The debit tax has usually been levied in periods of economic turbulence. This paper analyzes the effects of such a tax on real cash holdings and on balances of different types of bank accounts in Colombia. The paper analyzes data for the period 1994 to 2007 and then verifies the robustness of the model using only the data from 2000 to 2007, thereby eliminating the economic crisis of the late 1990s. The results show that even though the tax caused a decrease in checking account balances, the changes produced in total balances of real cash after 2001 cannot be attributed to the debit tax. However, an increase in the rate of growth of savings account balances can be attributed to it, suggesting a substitution from checking toward savings accounts. <![CDATA[<b>REVENUE ELASTICITY OF THE MAIN FEDERAL TAXES IN MEXICO</b>]]> An inelastic tax system increases the uncertainty associated with tax revenue collection. This results in continuous short-term adjustments to maintain the stability of tax collection. In this paper, we estimate the revenue elasticity of the principal taxes in Mexico, finding a much greater elasticity than that found in previous studies. A cointegration model between the revenue and taxes is used which satisfies strong exogeneity, providing a basis for congruent and reliable projections. Using this model, the tax revenue projected for 2011 is much lower than the estimates prepared by Mexico's federal government.