Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Austral journal of veterinary sciences]]> vol. 51 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[In need of publishing a paper to find a job or grant? Co-authorship without contributing: The rise of an ethical problem]]> <![CDATA[Relationship between biochemical analytes and milk fat/protein in Holstein cows]]> Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between biochemical analytes and milk fat/protein in high-yield (DIM: 42 ± 10 d postpartum) and low-yield (DIM: 91 ± 11 d postpartum) Holstein cows. Stepwise regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationships of biochemical analytes with the fat and protein content of the milk from 126 Holstein cows belonging to nine intensive housed dairy farms. The comparison between the two groups showed differences (P&lt;0.05) in the milk yield, milk fat and milk fat/protein ratio, with the higher values in high-yield cows. The correlations between milk fat, milk protein, milk fat/protein ratio and biochemical analytes concentrations, were assessed within each group. Milk fat level was positively correlated to cholesterol, triglycerides, p-hydroxybutyrate and albumin in high-yield cows. Milk protein level was positively correlated to urea, and negatively correlated to sodium ion, potassium ion and chlorine ion in high-yield cows. A virtually linear dependence has also been found between milk fat and triglycerides, between milk protein and urea, and between milk fat/protein ratio and cholesterol, and triglycerides in low-yield cows. The metabolic profiles provide a practical tool, to present an insight into the underlying physiological mechanisms of lactation, and the identification of relationships between key analytes and components of milk, such as protein and fat content. <![CDATA[Site and extent of digestion of nitrogen compounds and organic matter in steers fed a finishing diet with dried distillers grains plus solubles supplemented with urea]]> Abstract: Four Holstein steers (266 ± 13 kg) with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were used to evaluate the effect of inclusion of different levels of urea (0%, 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2%) in a steam-flaked, corn-based finishing diet containing dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) on the site and extent of N compounds and organic matter (OM) digestion, and on the ruminal N-NH3 and blood concentrations of urea nitrogen. Increasing the urea levels linearly decreased the OM flow to the duodenum (P&lt;0.04) and increased the total N and non-ammoniacal N flow to the duodenum (P&lt;0.01), which resulted from linear increases in the flow of microbial N and NH3-N (P&lt;0.01) without affecting the feed residual N flow (P&gt;0.47). Increasing the urea levels linearly increased ruminal digestion of OM and dietary N (P&lt;0.03), and decreased protein efficiency (P&lt;0.01) without affecting microbial efficiency. The urea supplementation did not affect post-ruminal digestion. Urea supplementation linearly increased (P&lt;0.01) total tract digestion of N compounds without affecting total tract digestion of OM. Ruminal pH averaged 6.09 ± 0.03 and was not affected (P&gt;0.97) by the inclusion of urea. Ruminal NHg-N concentration increased with urea supplementation (linear component, P&lt;0.01). The same effect was observed for blood urea concentrations and plasma urea (P&lt;0.01). On the basis of the results observed here, urea can be incorporated in finishing corn-based diets that include DDGS. However, this must done carefully to avoid exceeding the RDP concentration in the diets in order to optimise ruminal fermentation and reduce the risk of high N excretion in the faeces. This is relevant when higher levels of DDGS are included in the diets (i.e. 30%). <![CDATA[Differentiation and multipotential characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue of an endangered wild cat (Leopardus guigna)]]> Abstract: Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) had been isolated and used for cell therapy in domestic cats. For wild cats, the isolation of AMSCs has only been reported in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes). AMSCs obtained from wild cats may be useful to treat injuries of endangered cat species that remain in captivity or arrive at wildlife rehabilitation centers. Additionally, AMSCs might allow improvement of cloning techniques or assist in derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Endangered wild cats such as the guigna (Leopardus guigna), an endemic and endangered species from Chile and Argentina, might benefit greatly from the development of novel treatments or techniques that can be applied for its conservation. The objective of this study was to characterise putative AMSCs from guigna in terms of their main biological attributes, particularly, growth kinetics, differentiation ability and surface marker expression. Results obtained from this characterisation were compared with AMSCs isolated from domestic cats. AMSCs were isolated from peritoneal adipose tissue of female cats and subcutaneous tissue from a female guigna. Migration potential, colony-forming unit assay, mesodermal differentiation and surface marker expression (CD45, CD44, CD90, MHCI and MHCII) were evaluated. Domestic cat and guigna AMSCs displayed similar growth properties in culture. Both AMSC types showed mesodermal differentiation potential, in vitro homing potential and similar surface marker expression. These results indicate that AMSCs from subcutaneous tissue of guigna could have potential use as regenerative treatment for this species and might be considered for use in other biotechnological applications. <![CDATA[Report of 2018 equine influenza outbreak in Chile]]> Abstract: The present study reports an outbreak of equine influenza (EI) occurred in Chile in January 2018, with cases spread along the country, from the Atacama to the Magallanes Region. The virus identified corresponded to the H3N8 subtype, affecting equines, donkeys, and mules. Clinical signs ranged from mild to severe, with a higher mortality rate in donkeys. <![CDATA[Energy balance of pregnant vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) in the Chilean High Andes]]> Abstract: Energy unbalance may be the cause of low fertility rates found in vicuñas. The objective of this study was to estimate the temporal variation of the nutritional status in pregnant vicuñas from a herd kept under captivity in the Chilean High Andes. The hypothesis under study is that animals are able to maintain the energy balance during the dry season. Six pregnant vicuñas were examined in August, October and January (year 2015-2016). Reproductive status was estimated by ultrasonography and plasma progesterone concentration. Live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS: 1-5 scale) were measured for each animal. A blood sample was taken to estimate the plasma concentrations of total protein (Biuret method), cholesterol (CHODPAP method), triglycerides (GPO-PAP method), p-hydroxybutyrate (enzymatic method) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA; enzymatic colorimetric method). Vicuña groups had similar LW, BCS, plus similar plasma concentrations of metabolites, total protein and progesterone. Females did not increase their LW during gestation and their BCS in January (2.9) was below the recommendations for late pregnancy in camelids (BCS 3.5). NEFA and p-hydroxybutyrate values were higher than those expected under nutritional energy balance signalling a lipolytic and ketogenic metabolic response, respectively. The absence of weight gain and the values of NEFA and p-hydroxybutyrate show that pregnant vicuñas suffer a negative energy balance during the dry season in the Chilean High Andes. This can cause abortion and contribute to low fertility rates of the herds. It is suggested to provide pregnant vicuñas with food supplements up to birthing, in years of severe drought. <![CDATA[Prevalence, risk factors, and identification of <em>Salmonella</em> spp. in stray dogs of northwest Mexico]]> Abstract: Salmonellosis has a worldwide relevance in aspects associated with public health, as only in 2009 were reported 93.8 million cases in humans. The objective of the study was to establish the prevalence, risk factors and bacteriological and molecular identification of Salmonella spp in stray dogs in urban, rural and coastal areas of Mexicali, a city in northwest Mexico. From May 2014 to February 2015, 385 dogs were tested. Sampling was performed by rectal swab and conventional bacteriological techniques were applied, for later implementation of the API 20E system and molecular identification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The data were analysed statistically by means of descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression modelling. A prevalence of 6.27% was obtained in the dogs examined, the samples obtained were characterised to subspecies (Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica and Salmonella enterica subspecie arizonae). The geographical region with the highest prevalence in the study was the coast (10%), followed by the rural area (8.57%) and the urban area (5.8%), however, no significant statistical differences were detected. There was significant difference in the prevalence by age of dogs under one year (P&lt;0.05). The identification of Salmonella in dogs from northwest Mexico could correspond to serovars of zoonotic importance indicating a potential risk for the population. <![CDATA[Avian pox in a turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) from northern Chile]]> Abstract: A debilitated turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), showing prominent nodular masses in its head, was found in Antofagasta, Chile. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of epidermal hyperplasia and hypertrophy with typical eosinophilic intracytoplasmatic inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Accordingly, a diagnosis of avian pox was established, corresponding to the first known occurrence of the disease in the southern hemisphere.