Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Austral journal of veterinary sciences]]> vol. 51 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[The magic number]]> <![CDATA[Electrochemotherapy in the treatment of neoplasms in dogs and cats]]> Abstract: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a technique that combines chemotherapy with local application of specific electric pulses with the aim of increasing the permeability of the plasma membrane in a reversible way, improving the influx of chemotherapeutic drugs into the cytoplasm and potentiating their cytotoxic effects. This technique has broadened the range of possible treatments for oncological patients, either on its own or as adjuvant to surgical procedures. It is especially useful in tumors located in regions with only a small surgical safety margin, such as the limb extremities, skull, oral cavity, neck and perianal region, among others. ECT makes it feasible to perform procedures more conservatively, or even to perform otherwise infeasible procedures, by expanding the margins without removing healthy tissues. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief bibliographic review of the principles, applications and future possibilities of electrochemotherapy, helping to disseminate pertinent information about this relatively new technique for the treatment of cancer. <![CDATA[Evaluation of reduced amino acids diets added with protected protease on productive performance in 25-100 kg barrows]]> Abstract: The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of adding protected protease to low-amino acids (AA) diets on the growth performance of barrows. Three decreasing levels of AA (protein levels), with or without the addition of protease were fed to 48 hybrid barrows (27.42±3.48 kg initial body weight). The experimental design was a completely randomised with a factorial arrangement of treatments. An analysis of variance was performed with GLM of SAS and the means comparison was performed with Tukey test (P&lt;0.05). The productive performance was not affected by addition of proteases in the diet at the three stages (P&gt;0.05). Only in growing barrows, the interaction of standard protein diet and protease reduced backfat thickness (P&lt;0.05). Protein level in finishing I barrows did not affect (P&gt;0.05) growth performance variables. Low-protein diets increased (P&lt;0.05) average daily gain, final body weight and fat-free lean gain in growing and finishing II barrows. Concentration of urea in plasma decreased with the reduction of CP and increased with the addition of protease (P&lt;0.05) at the three stages. In conclusion, low protein diets improved or maintained growth performance variables and reduced the plasma urea nitrogen, whereas supplementation with protease did not show any effect on productive performance. <![CDATA[Comparison of yield characteristics of Damascus and Kilis goats in dry climatic conditions]]> Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive traits, lactation milk yield, and body measurements of the Damascus (Shami) and Kilis goats raised as dairy goats in the dry climatic conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The study was perfomed using 596 Damascus goats and 82 Kilis goats between 3-5 years old. It was observed that the lactation milk yield, lactation period, withers height, and leg circumference of the Damascus goats (175.86 kg, 227.48 days, 72.67 cm, and 74.10 cm, respectively) were significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) than those of the Kilis goats (107.48 kg, 170.39 days, 69.70 cm and 71.83 cm, respectively). This analysis indicated that the Damascus goat may be a good breed for dry climatic conditions. It is suggested that focusing on growing Damascus goats could increase productivity in the Southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey. <![CDATA[The effect of ginger on testis of Broiler breeders]]> Abstract: The rhizome of ginger is a fresh or dried organ of the plant Zingiber officinale, which has been used as a medicine since ancient times. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of ginger on testicular histomorphometry in roosters of broiler chicken flocks. Eighty single-day rooster of broiler chickens belonging to 308 Ross breed was used in the present study. The chickens were divided into two groups with 40 broiler roosters (experimental and control groups). Initially, the rhizome of ginger was powdered; 1 g/kg of ginger powder was added to the ration of the group treated with ginger from the beginning of the breeding season. The blood samples were taken from each chick at 20 weeks of age. The samples were stained with H&amp;E. Data was expressed as mean ± SD. T-test was used to analyse and compare the difference between the control is also an experimental groups using SPSS 9.0 software. The testosterone level, weight of the testicle, thickness of seminal tube and number of spermatids in the experimental group compared to the control group increased significantly P&lt;0.05. The most important difference between the control and the intervention group treated with ginger was the number and density of spermatids and spermatozoids cells in the lumen area of the seminal tubes. The present study obtained positive results for the efficacy of using ginger in roosters of broiler chick flocks. <![CDATA[The effect of non-traditional cooling on dog sperm cryosurvival and ability to perform the acrosome reaction]]> Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess cryosurvival, plasma membrane fluidity, and capability of cryopreserved dog (Canis lupus familiaris) spermatozoa, cooled to -5 °C before freezing, to perform the acrosome reaction under the effect of progesterone and calcium ionophore. In the first experiment, fresh spermatozoa diluted in Tyrode’s medium plus albumin, lactate, and pyruvate (TALP) were incubated at 38 °C in 5% CO2 in air, with progesterone or calcium ionophore added at 2, 4, and 6 h after incubation and sampled 30 min later to assess the acrosome reaction. In the second experiment, diluted sperm were packaged in plastic straws, cooled to either +5 °C or -5 °C and cryopreserved. Progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and fluidity, capacitation status and acrosome integrity were assessed before and after freeze-thawing. After thawing, sperm were assessed, resuspended in TALP and incubated to assess the acrosome reaction. Parameters for sperm cryosurvival were similar in sperm cooled to either +5 °C or -5 °C, except in the percentage of hyper-fluid membranes which was lower (P&lt;0.05) in sperm cooled to -5 °C. There were no differences in the percentages of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with acrosome reaction, induced by progesterone or calcium ionophore, between cooling treatments. In conclusion, cooling of dog spermatozoa to -5 °C did not improve sperm cryosurvival but had a positive effect on plasma membrane fluidity. <![CDATA[Faecal shedding of campylobacteria among domestic and wild animals from an urban coastal area]]> Abstract: Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the leading cause of food-related diarrhea worldwide. However, other campylobacteria such as other Campylobacter spp., Arcobacter spp. and Helicobacter spp. are also recognised as emerging pathogens, although they are not frequently isolated by traditional culturing methods. Moreover, Campylobacter spp. have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics due to antibiotic usage in animal and human medicine. It has been suggested that pet ownership increases the risk for campylobacteriosis. However, environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and poor sanitation conditions have also been associated with the highest rates of shedding among animals. This study assessed the faecal shedding of campylobacteria in an urban coastal area among 68 (66.0%) domestic animals, mainly dogs (n=61), and 35 (33.9%) wild animals belonging to 13 species and eight orders. None of them had symptoms of gastroenteritis and campylobacteria were detected by PCR in 21 samples (20.4%), while only six (5.8%) were detected by culturing, i.e. Campylobacter upsaliensis (n=4, dogs), C. jejuni (n=1, dog) and Arcobacter butzleri (n=1, chicken). None of the isolates was resistant to ciprofloxacin, but two were resistant to erythromycin, i.e. A. butzleri (MIC=8 pg/ml) and C. upsaliensis (MIC=128 pg/ml). Regarding the virulence factors, only one isolate of C. jejuni was positive for cdtC and cadF genes and one isolate of A. butzleri was positive for cadF and ciaB genes. This is the first study to assess the faecal shedding of campylobacteria in animals from the urban coastal area of Valparaíso, Chile. Although C. jejuni and other emerging campylobacteria were detected mainly from pet dogs and in a low rate, further investigations are needed to assess the potential transmission of these zoonotic bacteria or their antibiotic resistance between pets and owners. <![CDATA[Burnout syndrome prevalence in veterinarians working in Chile]]> Abstract: Burnout Syndrome is a psycho-emotional syndrome that affects workers in any activity or profession. In recent years, veterinarians have been described as one of the most affected professionals, which has motivated the development of this research. The primary objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in veterinarians working in Chile. We evaluated the possible correlation of Burnout Syndrome with socio-demographic variables. The Socio-Demographic Characterization Survey and the Maslach Burnout Syndrome Inventory-General Survey (MBI) were applied to 521 participants, who were contacted through the Veterinary Medical Association of Chile (COLMEVET) and social networks. Fisher and Chi-square statistical tests and correspondence analysis were used to determine the association among variables. The prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Chilean veterinarians was 24% (124/521). There was statistical significance between Burnout Syndrome and the variables ‘years in employment’ and ‘monthly salary’. There is a high prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in veterinarians working in Chile that was related to the variables ‘years in employment’ and ‘monthly salary’. Prevention using psychological therapy could reduce the incidence of symptoms linked to adaptive difficulties, cognitive discrepancies, psychological discomfort, and emotional regulation, promoting health improvement and resistance to Burnout Syndrome in Chilean veterinarians. This research corresponds to the first exploratory study related to the subject in Chile. <![CDATA[Hemicastration in Chilean rodeo stallions in competition]]> Abstract: The objectives of this study were: a) establish the frequency, age and reason for hemicastration, b) determine the most frequently removed testicle and c) compare the athletic performance between unilaterally castrated and intact Chilean rodeo stallions. Two hundred and sixteen Chilean Horse stallions participating in the 2016 Chilean rodeo qualifying rounds and National Championship (CRNC) were evaluated. Owners and/or riders were interrogated about age, hemicastration, age at hemicastration, removed testicle, reason and effects of hemicastration on athletic performance of stallions. The statistical analysis was descriptive and the results were expressed in means and percentages. Chi-square test was used to compare the performance between unilaterally castrated and intact stallions. Performance was qualified based on qualification to the CRNC and ultimately participation in the Champion series. Fifty-three percent of the stallions were unilaterally castrated (47% left testicle; 53% right testicle) (P&gt;0.05). Mean age of hemicastration was 6.97±2.24 years. Main reasons reported for hemicastration were: traumatic (76%), increased volume (13%) and preventive (11%), but not all of them with medical confirmation. Seven owners or riders were unaware of the reason of hemicastration. Forty-six percent of the qualified stallions to the CRNC (P&gt;0.05) and 29% of the qualified to the Champion series were unilaterally castrated (P=0.0122). It was concluded that half of the 2016 elite Chilean Horse stallions were unilaterally castrated, without preference for a testicle, after the age of initiation of sporting activity. A 43.5% of hemicastration in Chilean rodeo stallions are performed preventively or based on subjective assessments of owners and riders without veterinary diagnosis, however, it is unclear that hemicastration affected the athletic performance in these cases.