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Revista médica de Chile

versión impresa ISSN 0034-9887

Resumen

ALLIENDE, M. Angélica et al. Cytogenetic and molecular profile of genetic diseases in Puerto Montt main hospital. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2011, vol.139, n.3, pp.298-305. ISSN 0034-9887.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872011000300003.

Background: Chromosome aberrations (CA) are the main etiology of múltiple congenital malformations, recurrent abortions and intellectual disability (ID) specifically of modérate and severe degree. They accountfor 0.3 to 1% of newborns (NB) and 6 of 10,000 NB have chromosome imbalances with submicroscopic deletions or duplications smaller than 10 MB that are overlooked by conventional cytogenetic studies. Aim: To report the results of cytogenetic and molecular studies performed in patients with a congenital malformation disease or ID with or without dysmorphic features, attended in a regional hospital. Patients and Methods: One hundred and eighty patients, 27 with a clinical diagnosis ofDown syndrome, derivedfor the sus-picion of a genetic disease, were studied. A karyogram was performed in all ofthem and in 30 cases additional molecular studies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) orpolymerase chain reaction (PCR) were carried out. Results: Amongthe 153 patients without Down syndrome, 20 (13%) had a genetic abnormality responsible for the altered phenotype. Sixteen had a chromosome aberration (structural and numerical aberrations in 75 and 25% respectively) andfour had genetic molecular alterations. Additional studies were performed to confirm or better characterize the chromosome aberration in 13 ofthe 30 patients in whom these were requested. Conclusions: Chromosome and specific genetic molecular studies in selected cases help to characterize patients with genetic diseases. The collaboration between academic and health care facilities is crucial.

Palabras clave : Chromosome Abnormality disorders; Cytogenetic analysis; Molecular genetics.

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