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Revista médica de Chile

Print version ISSN 0034-9887

Abstract

CARRASCO, Ximena et al. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Aymara children. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2012, vol.140, n.11, pp.1409-1416. ISSN 0034-9887.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872012001100005.

Background: The assessment of Attentional Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among ethnic groups may reveal environmental or cultural variables that influence the appearance of this disorder. Aim: To assess the presence and characteristics of ADHD in two communities of the inland Arica valleys (Azapa and Lluta), where the Aymara population predominates. Material and Methods: Startingfrom a screening based on the Conner's test, we evaluated 79 children aged 8 to 13 years. Sixty children were of Aymara origin and 19 children were of non-Aymara origin. Twenty Aymara and 9 non-Aymara children had ADHD. They were compared with a group of patients from Santiago, Chile (110 children) that were previously assessed. Results: Patientsfrom Azapa/Lluta displayed similar characteristics to those from Santiago. However the former had significantly less psychiatric comorbidities than the latter. On the other hand, the non-Aymara subgroup of Azapa/ Lluta displayed an increased rate of comorbidities and was exclusively of the combined subtype, although their sample size is too small to draw strong conclusions. Conclusions: Although we cannot dismiss biological variables, the importance of family values and the respect to authorities may be protective factors for ADHD, associated to Aymara culture. Our findings suggest that the clinical characteristics of ADHD are not uniform among ethnic groups and cultures. The relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors in this variability remain to be determined.

Keywords : Attention deficit, disorder with hyperactivity; Child; Ethnic groups.

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