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Revista médica de Chile

versión impresa ISSN 0034-9887

Resumen

BALCELLS, María Elvira et al. Estrategia de pesquisa sistemática y seguimiento prolongado revela alto número de nuevas infecciones tuberculosas en contactos adultos en la Región Metropolitana, Chile. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2020, vol.148, n.2, pp.151-159. ISSN 0034-9887.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0034-98872020000200151.

Background:

Contact investigation is cardinal in the control of tuberculosis (TB) since it helps to stop its transmission. In Chile, the National TB Program strategy does not include latent TB infection testing, regular chemoprophylaxis or follow-up in adults. Active TB was found in only 1.2% of contacts at country-level during 2018.

Aim:

To evaluate the performance of a systematic screening of adult household contacts with targeted chemoprophylaxis and prolonged active follow-up.

Material and Methods:

Prospective cohort of household contacts in Santiago. Two face-to-face visits (at 0 and 12 weeks) that included QuantiFERON TB-Gold plus tests (QFT), chest radiography (CXR) at 0 and 24 weeks and, periodic text messaging or phone call follow-up for up to 48 weeks were implemented. Contacts with positive QFT were referred for TB chemoprophylaxis.

Results:

A total of 200 contacts were enrolled, 69% were migrants. At baseline evaluation, 45% had a positive QFT result and 1.6% had co-prevalent active TB. At follow-up, 13% contacts further converted to QFT (+), and 5.1% more were diagnosed with active TB (mean follow-up time 32 weeks). Of these 10 further active TB cases, 6 (60%) had a negative QFT and all (100%) had normal CXR at baseline; while three cases occurred in QFT converters.

Conclusions:

In this cohort of household contacts, 6.7 % were diagnosed with active TB (more than 2/3 at follow-up) and 13% had a late QFT (+) conversion. Active and prolonged contacts' follow-up are essential to detect new infections and tackle the TB epidemic in Chile.

Palabras clave : Latent Tuberculosis; Contact Tracing; Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis; Pulmonary.

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