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Revista chilena de pediatría

versión impresa ISSN 0370-4106

Resumen

ROCO, Ángela et al. Pharmacogenetics, tobacco, alcohol and its effect on the risk development cancer. Rev. chil. pediatr. [online]. 2018, vol.89, n.4, pp.432-440. ISSN 0370-4106.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0370-41062018005000709.

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world, causing 8.8 million deaths in 2015 according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Risk factors for cancer include smoking and alcohol con sumption. In Chile, 33.6% of the population and 21.2% of young people smokes. Alcohol consump tion in the Chilean population is 74.5% and 12.2% in young people. Among the physiological factors that influence the development of cancer, the genetic factor plays a relevant role. It has been shown that the presence of genetic polymorphisms that alter the ability of the body to eliminate contami nants increase the risk of developing cancer. The same applies to polymorphisms that prevent DNA repair due to damage caused by environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke. The objective of this review is to analyze the state of the art of the relationship between pharmacogenetics, smoking, and alcohol consumption as risk factors for the development of cancer. In conclusion, the results suggest that the presence of polymorphisms that alter the function of biotransformation enzymes phase I (CYP1A1, CYP1E1) and phase II (GST), as well as polymorphisms in DNA repair enzymes (ERCC1 / ERCC2), increase the risk of cancer induced by smoking and alcohol consumption. This association is important considering that smoking and drinking alcohol are highly prevalent among the Chilean population.

Palabras clave : pharmacogenetics; cancer; tobacco; alcohol.

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