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Revista chilena de pediatría

versión impresa ISSN 0370-4106

Resumen

TORRES, Diana; MUNOZ, Tomás; BANCALARI, Aldo  y  MANRIQUEZ, Camilo. Prolonged initial empirical antibiotic treatment and the risk of morbidity and mortality in very low birthweight infants. Rev. chil. pediatr. [online]. 2018, vol.89, n.5, pp.600-605. ISSN 0370-4106.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0370-41062018005000807.

Introduction:

The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the duration of ini tial empirical antibiotic treatment and the subsequent development of late-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.

Patients and Methods:

Quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical study of VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal ICU were included over a period of five years. Initial empirical antibiotic therapy was that which started im mediately after birth, without knowing the results of blood cultures. It was considered prolonged antibiotic therapy when the treatment duration was > 5 days. Perinatal variables, as well as the inci dence of late-onset sepsis, confirmed NEC and mortality were analyzed.

Results:

266 VLBW infants were studied, with an average gestational age and birth weight of 28.8 ± 2.5 weeks and 1.127 ± 264 g respectively. 213 infants received initial empiric antibiotic therapy (80.0%), which was prolonged in 67.6% of cases. All infants received two different antibiotics. 136 episodes of late-onset sepsis were described. The most common pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. Among the newborns with prolonged antibiotic therapy, there were 20 cases of confirmed NEC and 15 of the studied infants died (10.4%). When comparing the use of antibiotic therapy during > 5 days versus treatment less than 5 days duration, a statistically significant association was observed between prolonged antibiotic therapy and late-onset sepsis (p = 0.03) and confirmed NEC (p = 0.03), but not of mortality (p = 0.12).

Conclusion:

The use of empirical antibiotic therapy for five days or more was associated with an increased risk of late-onset sepsis and NEC, but not of mortality in VLBW infants.

Palabras clave : Prolonged initial empirical antibiotic; late-onset sepsis; necrotizing enterocolitis; mortality.

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